Demographics of Bangladesh

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Demographics of Bangladesh
Population166,280,712 [1]
Growth rate1.6% (July 2014 est.) [2]
Birth rate21.61 births/1,000
population(2014 est.)
Death rate5.64 deaths/1,000
population (2014 est.)
Life expectancy70.65 years (2014 est.)[2]
 • male68.75 years
 • female72.63 years
Fertility rate2.45 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate45.67 deaths/1,000 live births[3]
Age structure
0–14 years32.3% (male 27,268,560/female 26,468,883)
Sex ratio
At birth1.04 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Under 151.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.915 male(s)/female
65 and over0.96 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityBangladeshi
Major ethnicBengali
Minor ethnicSanthals, Chakma, Garos (Achiks), Oraons, Mundas, Mro, Kaibarta, Marma, Manipuri, Zomi, Bihari(Stranded Pakistani)
Language
OfficialBengali
SpokenBengali, English, Santali, Rajbanshi, Chakma, Tripuri, Khasi, Urdu, Mundari
 
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Demographics of Bangladesh
Population166,280,712 [1]
Growth rate1.6% (July 2014 est.) [2]
Birth rate21.61 births/1,000
population(2014 est.)
Death rate5.64 deaths/1,000
population (2014 est.)
Life expectancy70.65 years (2014 est.)[2]
 • male68.75 years
 • female72.63 years
Fertility rate2.45 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate45.67 deaths/1,000 live births[3]
Age structure
0–14 years32.3% (male 27,268,560/female 26,468,883)
Sex ratio
At birth1.04 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Under 151.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.915 male(s)/female
65 and over0.96 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityBangladeshi
Major ethnicBengali
Minor ethnicSanthals, Chakma, Garos (Achiks), Oraons, Mundas, Mro, Kaibarta, Marma, Manipuri, Zomi, Bihari(Stranded Pakistani)
Language
OfficialBengali
SpokenBengali, English, Santali, Rajbanshi, Chakma, Tripuri, Khasi, Urdu, Mundari

Bangladesh is largely ethnically homogeneous, and its name derives from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group which comprises 98% of the population. The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet, Mymensingh and North Bengal divisions are home to diverse indigenous peoples. There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. In 2013 the population was estimated at 160 million. About 89% of Bangladeshis are Muslims, followed by Hindus (8%), Buddhists (1%) and Christians (0.5%).

Bangladesh has the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city-states and small countries with populations under 10m, such as Malta and Hong Kong.

Most of the demographic statistics below are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

Age-sex pyramid for Bangladesh, 2005

The 2011 total population was 152,518,015 which ranks Bangladesh 8th in the world.

The baseline for population studies on Bangladesh is the official census which is conducted every 10 years, the last being in 2011.

Census[4][edit]

Demographic evolution of the territory of Bangladesh (1900-2010).
Population of Bangladesh
Census datecensus population
(thousands)
adjusted population
(thousands)
190128 928
191131 555
192133 255
193135 602
194141 997
195141 932
196150 840
197471 47976 398
198187 12089 912
1991106 313111 455
2001124 355130 523
15 Mar 2011142 319152 518

p=provisional figure

UN estimates[5][edit]

Total populationPopulation aged 0–14 (%)Population aged 15–64 (%)Population aged 65+ (%)
195037 89541.254.83.9
195543 44442.454.13.5
196050 10243.653.13.3
196557 79244.752.03.3
197066 88144.751.83.4
197570 58245.850.73.5
198080 62445.051.43.6
198592 28443.952.53.6
1990105 25642.553.83.7
1995117 48740.355.93.8
2000129 59237.358.74.0
2005140 58834.361.44.3
2010148 69231.364.14.6

Other sources[edit]

The following table lists various recent estimates of the population.

SourceYearPopulation (millions)
US State Dept[6]2005144
Population Reference Bureau[7]2005144
World Bank[8]2008160
CIA World FactBook[9]2010156
World Population Reference[10]2010164

According to the OECD/World Bank population in Bangladesh increased from 1990 to 2008 with 44 million and 38% growth in population compared to 34% growth in India and 54% growth in Pakistan. The annual population growth 2007-2008 was 1.4% compared to India 1.35%, Pakistan 2.2%, Dem. Rep. of Congo 2.9%, Tanzania 2.9%, Syria 3.5% or Yemen 4.0%. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics between 1990-2008 the world population growth was 27% and 1,423 million persons.[11]

Population growth rate[edit]

Panorama of Dhaka in 2012

Bangladesh had high rates of population growth in the 1960s and 1970s. Since then however it has seen a marked reduction in its total fertility rate. Over a period of three decades it dropped from almost 7 to 2.4 in 2005-2010.[5]

Gender ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Urban and rural[edit]

The sprawling mega-city of Dhaka has a huge population, but the majority of the people nonetheless still live in villages in rural areas.

Urban population: 27% of total population (2009 est.)
Rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-2010 est.)

Population Density[edit]

Based on the CIA World Fact Book 2012 figures for population (161,083,804) and land area (130,168 km2), Bangladesh has the highest population density among large countries, 1,237.51 persons per square kilometer, and 12th overall, when small countries and city-states are included.[12]

Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths [5][edit]

PeriodLive births per yearDeaths per yearNatural change per yearCBR1CDR1NC1TFR1IMR1
1950-19551 963 000852 0001 111 00048.320.927.46.36165.0
1955-19602 252 000921 0001 332 00048.219.728.56.62156.5
1960-19652 560 000994 0001 566 00047.518.429.16.80151.2
1965-19702 950 0001 090 0001 860 00047.317.529.86.91144.4
1970-19753 193 0001 847 0001 346 00046.526.919.66.91175.6
1975-19803 381 0001 153 0002 229 00044.715.229.56.65138.3
1980-19853 670 0001 151 0002 519 00042.413.329.15.99122.5
1985-19903 767 0001 115 0002 652 00038.111.326.85.02104.4
1990-19953 709 0001 057 0002 653 00033.39.523.84.1090.6
1995-20003 598 000986 0002 612 00029.18.021.13.4173.8
2000-20053 432 000934 0002 498 00025.46.918.52.8759.3
2005-20103 107 000905 0002 202 00021.56.315.22.3849.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR):[13]

YearTFR (Total)TFR (Rural)TFR (Urban)
19825,245,264,19
19913,673,822,77
20042,632,782,25
20112,102,171,85

Birth and Death rate[edit]

YearBirth rate (per 1000)Death rate (per 1000)
199128.59.7
200420.86.1
201117.884.8

Health[edit]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 70.65 years (2014 est.)[2]
country comparison to the world: 150
Male: 68.48 years
Female: 72.31 years

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
county comparison to the world: 102
People living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
Deaths: fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8s

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
Water contact disease: leptospirosis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Ethnic groups[edit]

The vast majority (about 98.5%) of Bangladeshis are of the Bengali ethno-linguistic group. This group also spans the neighboring Indian province of West Bengal. Minority ethnic groups include Meitei, Khasi, Santhals, Chakma, Garo (tribe), Biharis, Oraons, Mundas and Rohingyas.

Biharis are Urdu-speaking, non-Bengalis who emigrated from the state of Bihar and other parts of northern India during the 1947 partition. They are concentrated in the Dhaka and Rangpur areas and number some 300,000.[14][15] In the 1971 independence war many of them sided with Pakistan, as they stood to lose their positions in the upper levels of society.[16] Hundreds of thousands went to Pakistan and those that remained were interned in refugee camps. Their population declined from about 1 million in 1971 to 600,000 in the late 1980s.[16] Refugees International has called them a "neglected and stateless" people as they are denied citizenship by the governments of Bangladesh and Pakistan.[17] As nearly 40 years has passed, two generations of Biharis have been born in these camps. Biharis were granted Bangladeshi citizenhip and voting rights in 2008.[18]

Bangladesh's tribal population was enumerated at 897,828 in the 1981 census.[16] These tribes are concentrated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and around Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. They are of Sino-Tibetan descent and differ markedly in their social customs, religion, language and level of development. They speak Tibeto-Burman languages and most are Buddhist or Hindu.[16] The four largest tribes are Chakmas, Marmas, Tipperas and Mros. Smaller groups include the Santals in Rajshahi and Dinajpur, and Khasis, Garos, and Khajons in Mymensingh and Sylhet regions.[16]

There are small communities of Meitei people in the Sylhet district, which is close to the Meitei homeland across the border in Manipur, India.

There is a small population of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar near the border in the southeast. There are 28,000 living in two UN refugee camps in Cox's Bazaar as well as some 200,000 "unregistered people of concern" living outside of the camps.[19] The refugee crisis originated in the early 1990s when the first wave numbering some 250,000 of the predominantly Muslim ethnic group fled persecution from their home in Rakhaine—Myanmar's western-most state. Bangladesh seeks to repatriate the refugees back to Myanmar.[20]

Language[edit]

Religion[edit]

See also: Islam in Bangladesh, Hinduism in Bangladesh, Buddhism in Bangladesh, Christianity in Bangladesh
Bangladesh religions.png

According to the 2001 census, the religious profile of the population is: Islam 89.7%, Hinduism 9.2%, Buddhism 0.7%, Christianity 0.3% and others (such as Animists and non-religious) 0.1%.[21] The majority of the Muslims are Sunni consisting of 95% of the Muslim population, and the remaining are Shi'a and other sects.[citation needed]

Genetics[edit]

Bangladesh has the world's highest frequency of the M form of mitochondrial DNA. This genetic variant spans many continents, and is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia.[22] In Bangladesh it represents about 83% of maternal lineages.[23]

Education[edit]

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 43.1%
Male: 53.9%
Female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Education expenditures

2.7% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 151

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population : Bangladesh: The World Factbook (July 2014 est.)". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2014-08-10. 
  2. ^ a b c "The World Factbook". CIA. July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  3. ^ | Data | Table
  4. ^ 2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results
  5. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  6. ^ "Background Note: Bangladesh". U.S. Department of State. August 2005. 
  7. ^ "Country Profiles: Bangladesh". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  8. ^ "World Development Indicators". World Bank. 
  9. ^ "CIA World Factbook 2010". CIA. 
  10. ^ "World Population Highlights: Key Findings From PRB's 2010 World Population Data Sheet". World Population Reference. 
  11. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57
  12. ^ "Population density – Persons per sq km 2012 Country Ranks". Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/BBS/Socio_Economic.pdf
  14. ^ "Socio-economic Problems of the Urdu Speaking Residents at Mohammadpur". Democracy Watch. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  15. ^ Persoob, Tasmia. "The Forgotten Community: Camp Based Urdu Speaking People in Bangladesh". Jahangirnagar University. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity, Bangladesh: A Country Study, Edited by James Heitzman and Robert Worden, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989.
  17. ^ Refugees of Nowhere: The Stateless Biharis of Bangladesh, Refugees International, 2006-02-15
  18. ^ "Citizenship for Bihari refugees". BBC News. 2008-05-19. 7407757. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  19. ^ 2010 Regional Operations Profile - South-East Asia, UNHCR, 2010.
  20. ^ Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh refuse repatriation, AFP, Dec 30, 2009.
  21. ^ [1] Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS)
  22. ^ Ghezzi et al. (2005), Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in Italians, European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 748–752.
  23. ^ Mait Metspalu et al., Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genetics, 2004