Declaration of independence

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A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, UN's International Court of Justice ruled in the an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis. Not all declarations of independence succeed in the formation of an independent state.

Such declarations are typically made without the consent of the associated state or union, and hence are sometimes called unilateral declarations of independence (UDIs), particularly by those who question the declarations' validity.[citation needed]

List of declarations of independence[edit]

RegionDeclarationDateYearAssociationSignatoriesFirst recognising state
AlbaniaAlbanian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 281912Ottoman EmpireAssembly of Vlorë
United Provinces of South America
(present day Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia)
Argentine Declaration of IndependenceJuly 91816SpainCongress of TucumánKingdom of Hawaii
ArmeniaDemocratic Republic of ArmeniaMay 281918Russian EmpireArmenian Congress of Eastern Armenians Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak)Russia
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan Democratic RepublicMay 281918Russian EmpireAzerbaijani National Council (Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov)Ottoman Empire
AzawadAzawadi declaration of independenceApril 62012MaliNational Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
BangladeshBangladeshi Declaration of IndependenceMarch 261971PakistanBhutan
BelarusDeclaration of IndependenceMarch 251918RussiaRada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
BelarusBelavezha AccordsDecember 81991Soviet UnionPresidents of Russia, Ukraine and BelarusTurkey
BelgiumBelgian Declaration of IndependenceOctober 41830NetherlandsProvisional Government of Belgium
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian Declaration of IndependenceMarch 11992YugoslaviaBulgaria
BrazilIndependence of BrazilSeptember 71822PortugalPedro I of BrazilUnited States
BulgariaBulgarian Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 221908Ottoman EmpireFerdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of BulgariaRussian Empire (5 February 1909)
Republic of Carpathian RutheniaCarpathian Ruthenia Declaration of IndependenceOctober 252008UkraineCongress of Carpathian Ruthenians
CataloniaDeclaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian FederationApril 141931SpainFrancesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
CataloniaDeclaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of SpainOctober 61934SpainLluis Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
Central AmericaAct of Independence of Central AmericaSeptember 151821Spain
ChileChilean Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 121818SpainNational CongressPortugal
ColombiaColombian Declaration of IndependenceJuly 201810Spain
Republic of CrimeaDeclaration of Independence of the Republic of CrimeaMarch 112014UkraineSupreme Council of CrimeaRussia
CroatiaIndependence of CroatiaJune 251991YugoslaviaIceland
Dominican RepublicDominican Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 271844HaitiUnited Kingdom
East TimorEast Timorese declaration of independenceNovember 281975PortugalMorocco
EgyptUnilateral Declaration of Egyptian IndependenceFebruary 281922United KingdomUnilateral grant of independence by the British governmentUnited Kingdom
EstoniaEstonian Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 241918RussiaSalvation CommitteeRussian SFSR
EstoniaEstonian Reconfirmation of IndependenceAugust 201991Soviet UnionCongress of EstoniaIceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
FinlandFinnish Declaration of IndependenceDecember 61917RussiaParliament of FinlandRussian SFSR
FloridaFlorida's Constitution of 1861January 101861United StatesFlorida State Legislature
GeorgiaDemocratic Republic of GeorgiaMay 261918Russian EmpireGermany
Georgia (U.S. state)Georgia's secession declarationJanuary 291861United States
GreeceGreek Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 1 OS1822Ottoman EmpireFirst National AssemblyHaiti (1822)
Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 241973Portugal
HaitiHaitian Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 11804FranceJean-Jacques Dessalines
HungaryHungarian Declaration of IndependenceApril 141849Austrian Empire
IcelandIcelandic Declaration of IndependenceJune 171944DenmarkUnited States
IraqIraq Declaration of IndependenceOctober 31932United KingdomUnited Kingdom
IndiaIndian Independence Act 1947August 151947United Kingdom
IndonesiaProclamation of Indonesian IndependenceAugust 171945NetherlandsSukarno & Mohammad HattaEgypt
IrelandProclamation of the Irish RepublicApril 241916United KingdomIrish Volunteers
Irish Citizen Army
Irish RepublicIrish Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 211919United KingdomDáil ÉireannRussian SFSR
IsraelIsraeli Declaration of IndependenceMay 141948United KingdomJewish People's CouncilUnited States
Autonomous Republic of Northern EpirusNorthern Epirote Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 281914Principality of AlbaniaProvisional Government of Northern Epirus
KatangaKatangan Declaration of Independence1960Congo (Léopoldville)
KoreaKorean Declaration of IndependenceMarch 11919Japan
Republic of KosovoKosovo declaration of independenceFebruary 172008SerbiaAssembly of KosovoAfghanistan
Republic of KosovaProclamation of the Republic of KosovaSeptember 221992SerbiaProvincial Assembly of KosovoAlbania
Republic of LakotahRepublic of Lakotah declaration of independenceDecember 192007United States of AmericaLakota Freedom Delegation
LatviaLatvian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 181918Germany, RussiaPeople's Council of LatviaRussian SFSR
LatviaOn the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of LatviaMay 41990Soviet UnionSupreme Soviet of the Latvian SSRIceland
LiberiaLiberian Declaration of IndependenceJuly 161847American Colonization SocietyLiberian Constitutional ConventionUnited Kingdom
LithuaniaAct of Independence of LithuaniaFebruary 161918Germany, RussiaCouncil of LithuaniaGermany
LithuaniaAct of the Re-Establishment of the State of LithuaniaMarch 111990Soviet UnionSupreme Council of LithuaniaIceland
Republic of MacedoniaIndependence of the Republic of MacedoniaSeptember 81991YugoslaviaBulgaria
Federation of Malaya
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957August 311957United KingdomTunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of MalaysiaUnited Kingdom[2]
MississippiA Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal UnionJanuary 91861United States
First Mexican Empire
(present day Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)
September 281821SpainSupreme Provisional Governmental BoardUnited Kingdom (January 4, 1825)[3]
MoldovaDeclaration of Independence of the Republic of MoldovaAugust 271991Soviet UnionParliament of the Republic of MoldovaRomania
MoroccoMoroccan Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 111944FranceIstiqlal Party
MontenegroMontenegro declaration of independenceJune 32006Serbia and MontenegroAssembly of the Republic of MontenegroIceland
MoskitiaMoskitia declaration of independenceAugust2009Nicaragua
NetherlandsAct of AbjurationJuly 261581Spanish EmpireUnion of Utrecht
New ZealandDeclaration of the Independence of New ZealandOctober 281835Māori chiefsUnited Kingdom[4]
Northern America
(present day Mexico)
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern AmericaNovember 61813SpainCongress of Anáhuac
Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusDeclaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusNovember 151983CyprusTurkey
NorwayConstitution of NorwayMay 171814Union according to Treaty of KielConstitutional assembly
PadaniaPadanian Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 151996Italy
PakistanIndian Independence Act 1947August 141947United Kingdom, British IndiaMuslim League (Pakistan)
PalestinePalestinian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 151988Palestinian territoriesPalestinian National CouncilArab League
PeruAct of the Declaration of Independence of PeruJuly 281821SpainJosé de San Martín
PhilippinesPhilippine Declaration of IndependenceJune 121898SpainEmilio Aguinaldo, Katipunannone
RhodesiaRhodesian Unilateral Declaration of IndependenceNovember 111965United KingdomIan Smith and the rest of the Cabinetnone
RomaniaRomanian Declaration of IndependenceMay 221877Ottoman EmpireKing Carol I
RussiaBelavezha Accords (de facto)
Officially never declared "independence", to become successor to the Soviet Union.
December 81991Soviet UnionPresidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicBir Lehlou declarationFebruary 271976Spanish SaharaPolisario FrontMadagascar
Kingdom of ScotlandDeclaration of ArbroathApril 61320Kingdom of EnglandScottish leaders
SerbiaThe Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније)February1809Ottoman EmpireKarađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
SingaporeProclamation of Singapore[5]August 91965Malaysia[6][7]Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of SingaporeUnited Kingdom (confirmed earlier recognition)[8]
SlovakiaSlovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak NationJuly 171992CzechoslovakiaSlovak National Council
SloveniaSlovenian Declaration of IndependenceJune 251991YugoslaviaCroatia
SomalilandSomaliland Declaration of IndependenceMay 181991Somalianone
South CarolinaDeclaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal UnionDecember 241860United StatesSouth Carolinians in Charleston
Southern CameroonsSouthern Cameroons Declaration of IndependenceDecember 311999Cameroonnone
Sri LankaDeclaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon")February 41948United Kingdomnone
Texas, Republic ofTexas Declaration of IndependenceMarch 21836MexicoFrance
TexasA Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal UnionFebruary 11861United StatesTexas Legislature
TibetTibet's Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 131913China13th Dalai Lamanone
TurkmenistanDeclaration of independence 1991Soviet UnionnoneTurkey
UkraineIV UniversalJanuary 221918RussiaCentral Council of Ukraine
UkraineDeclaration of Independence of UkraineAugust 241991Soviet UnionVerkhovna RadaPoland/Canada[9]
United StatesUnited States Declaration of IndependenceJuly 41776Great BritainSecond Continental CongressMorocco
UzbekistanDeclaration of IndependenceAugust 311991Soviet UnionSupreme Council of UzbekistanTurkey
VenezuelaVenezuelan Declaration of IndependenceJuly 51811Kingdom of SpainRepresentatives of the States of Venezuela
VietnamProclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of VietnamSeptember 21945FranceHồ Chí MinhSoviet Union
Lower CanadaDeclaration of Independence of Lower CanadaFebruary 221838Great BritainRobert Nelsonnone

See also[edit]

References[edit]