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Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion has a long history as a form of capital punishment. Many societies have employed it as an execution method for such crimes as treason, heresy, and witchcraft. The form of this type of execution in which the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake is usually called burning at the stake (or, in some cases, auto-da-fé).
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If the fire was large (for instance, when a number of prisoners were executed at the same time), death often came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames actually caused harm to the body. If the fire was small, however, the convict would burn for some time until death from heatstroke, shock, the loss of blood and/or simply the thermal decomposition of vital body parts.
When this method of execution was applied with skill, the condemned's body would burn progressively in the following sequence: calves, thighs and hands, torso and forearms, breasts, upper chest, face; and then finally death. On other occasions, people died from suffocation with only their calves on fire. Several records report individuals taking over two hours to die. In many burnings a rope was attached to the convict's neck passing through a ring on the stake to cause strangulation.
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar – the widow of his son, living in his household – to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving that Judah is himself the father of her child. The story takes for granted that in the society depicted, the head of a household could inflict such a punishment for such an act.
In Histories of Herodotus, Cyrus II of Persia orders the execution by burning of Kroisos of Lydia, after conclusively defeating his army in battle and conquering his kingdom. The execution is canceled mid-way, initially by Cyrus II's orders and then by a sudden rainfall. Burning was used as a means of execution in many ancient societies. According to ancient reports,[which?] Roman authorities executed many of the early Christian martyrs by burning, sometimes by means of the tunica molesta, a flammable tunic:
..the Christian, stripped naked, was forced to put on a garment called the tunica molesta, made of papyrus, smeared on both sides with wax, and was then fastened to a high pole, from the top of which they continued to pour down burning pitch and lard, a spike fastened under the chin preventing the excruciated victim from turning the head to either side, so as to escape the liquid fire, until the whole body, and every part of it, was literally clad and cased in flame. Such multitudes were destroyed by this one mode alone, that the whole area of the Vatican circus, round which they were impaled, was inundated knee-deep with the residuum of their bodies
Under the Byzantine Empire, burning was introduced as a punishment for disobedient Zoroastrians, because of the belief that they worshipped fire. The Byzantine Emperor Justinian (r. 527–565) ordered death by fire, intestacy, and confiscation of all possessions by the State as punishment for heresy against the Christian faith in his Codex Iustiniani (CJ 1.5.), ratifying the decrees of his predecessors, Arcadius and Flavius Augustus Honorius.
Civil authorities burned persons judged to be heretics under the medieval Inquisition, including Giordano Bruno. The historian Hernando del Pulgar, contemporary of Ferdinand and Isabella, estimated that the Spanish Inquisition had burned 2,000 people at the stake by 1490.
Burning was used by Christians during the witch-hunts of Europe. The penal code known as the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina (1532) decreed that sorcery throughout the Holy Roman Empire should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it purported to inflict injury upon any person the witch was to be burnt at the stake. In 1572, Augustus, Elector of Saxony imposed the penalty of burning for witchcraft of every kind, including simple fortunetelling. 
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (30 May 1431), Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682). Anglican martyrs John Rogers, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake in 1555. Thomas Cranmer followed the next year (1556).
In Denmark, after the 1536 reformation, Christian IV of Denmark encouraged the practice, which would result in hundreds burnt due to convictions for witchcraft. James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) shared the Danish king's interest in witch trials. This special interest of the king resulted in the North Berwick witch trials, which led more than seventy people to be accused of witchcraft in Scotland due to inclement weather. James sailed in 1590 to Denmark to meet his betrothed, Anne of Denmark, who, ironically, is believed by some to have secretly converted to Roman Catholicism herself from Lutheranism around 1598, although historians are divided on whether she ever was received into the Roman Catholic faith.
Edward Wightman, a Baptist from Burton on Trent, was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April 1612. The traditional punishment for women found guilty of treason was burning at the stake, where they did not need to be publicly displayed naked, whereas men were hanged, drawn and quartered. There were two types of treason, high treason for crimes against the Sovereign, and petty treason for the murder of one's lawful superior, including that of a husband by his wife.
In England, only a few accused of witchcraft were burned; the majority were hanged. Sir Thomas Malory, in Le Morte d'Arthur (1485), depicts King Arthur as being reluctantly constrained to order the burning of Queen Guinevere, once her adultery with Lancelot was revealed, as a Queen's adultery would be construed as treason against her royal husband. In many areas in England the condemned woman (men were hanged, drawn, and quartered) was seated astride a small seat called the saddle which was fixed halfway up a permanently positioned iron stake. The stake was about 4 metres high and had chains hanging from it to hold the condemned woman still during her punishment. Having been taken to the place of execution in a cart with her hands firmly tied in front of her and wearing just a thin shift she was lifted over the executioner's shoulder and carried up a ladder against the stake to be sat astride the saddle. The chains were then fastened and sometimes she was painted with resin which was supposed to help the fire burn her more quickly. Following the introduction of gunpowder to England, executioners were occasionally bribed to hasten death by fixing gunpowder around the neck of the condemned. In later years in England some burnings took place posthumously, i.e. after the convict had already hanged for half an hour.
Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, first cousins and the second and fifth wives of Henry VIII were both condemned to die for adultery as the king's pleasure should be known; they were beheaded. Lady Jane Grey was condemned to burn as a traitress but the punishment was commuted to beheading by Mary I. However, Mary I did order hundreds of religious dissenters burnt at the stake during her reign (1553-58) in what would be known as the "Marian Persecutions".
Indigenous North Americans often used burning as a form of execution, against members of other tribes or white settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Roasting over a slow fire was a customary method. See Captives in American Indian Wars.
In Massachusetts, there are two known cases of burning at the stake. First, in 1681, a slave named Maria tried to kill her owner by setting his house on fire. She was convicted of arson and burned at the stake at Roxbury, Massachusetts. Concurrently, a slave named Jack, convicted in a separate arson case, was hanged at a nearby gallows, and after death his body was thrown into the fire with that of Maria. Second, in 1755, a group of slaves had conspired and killed their owner, with servants Mark and Phillis executed for his murder. Mark was hanged and his body gibbeted, and Phillis burned at the stake, at Cambridge.
In New York, several burnings at the stake are recorded, particularly following suspected slave revolt plots. In 1708, one woman was burnt and one man hanged. In the aftermath of the New York Slave Revolt of 1712, 20 people were burnt, and during the alleged slave conspiracy of 1741, no less than 13 slaves were burnt at the stake.
Bartolomé de las Casas, a 16th-century eyewitness to the brutal subjugation of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores has left a particularly harrowing description of how roasting alive was a favoured technique of repression:
They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: they made a grid of rods which they placed on forked sticks, then lashed the victims to the grid and lighted a smoldering fire underneath, so that little by little, as those captives screamed in despair and torment, their souls would leave them. I once saw this, when there were four or five nobles lashed on grids and burning; I seem even to recall that there were two or three pairs where others were burning, and because they uttered such loud screams that they disturbed the captain's sleep, he ordered them to be strangled. And the constable, who was worse than an executioner, did not want to obey that order (and I know the name of that constable and know his relatives in Seville), but instead put a stick over the victim's tongues, so they could not make a sound, and he stirred up the fire, but not too much, so that they roasted slowly, as he liked.
In 1790, Sir Benjamin Hammett introduced a bill into Parliament to end the practice. He explained that the year before, as Sheriff of London, he had been responsible for the burning of Catherine Murphy, found guilty of counterfeiting, but that he had allowed her to be hanged first. He pointed out that as the law stood, he himself could have been found guilty of a crime in not carrying out the lawful punishment and, as no woman had been burnt alive in the kingdom for more than half a century, so could all those still alive who had held an official position at all of the previous burnings. The Treason Act 1790 was duly passed by Parliament and given royal assent by King George III (30 George III. C. 48).
Just prior to my first arrival in Persia, the "Hissam-u-Sultaneh", another uncle of the king, had burned a priest to death for a horrible crime and murder; the priest was chained to a stake, and the matting from the mosques piled piled on him to a great height, the pile of mats was lighted and burnt freely, but when the mats were consumed the priest was found groaning, but still alive. The executioner went to Hissam-u-Sultaneh who ordered him to obtain more mats, pour naphta on them, and apply a light, which after some hours he did.
No modern state routinely conducts executions by burning. Like all capital punishment, it is forbidden to members of the Council of Europe by the European Convention on Human Rights. It was never routinely practiced in the United States, and the Supreme Court ruling on firing squads in Wilkerson v. Utah from 1879 incidentally determined that death by burning was cruel and unusual punishment. However, modern-day burnings, in different forms, occur.
In South Africa, extrajudicial executions by burning were carried out via "necklacing", wherein rubber tires filled with kerosene (or gasoline) are placed around the neck of a live individual. The fuel is then ignited, the rubber melts, and the victim is burnt to death.
In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, burning people standing inside a pile of tires is a common form of murder used by drug dealers to punish those who have supposedly collaborated with the police. This form of burning is called micro-ondas (allusion to the microwave oven). Tropa de Elite (Elite Squad), a film, and Max Payne 3, a video game, contain(ed) scenes depicting this practice.
During the Guatemalan Civil War the Guatemalan Army and security forces carried out an unknown number of extrajudicial killings by burning. In one instance in March 1967, Guatemalan guerrilla and poet Otto René Castillo was captured by Guatemalan government forces and taken to Zacapa army barracks alongside one of his comrades, Nora Paíz Cárcamo. The two were interrogated, tortured for four days, and burned alive. Other reported instances of immolation by Guatemalan government forces occurred in the Guatemalan government's rural counterinsurgency operations in the Guatemalan Altiplano in the 1980s. In April 1982, 13 members of a Quanjobal Pentecostal congregation in Xalbal, Ixcan, were burnt alive in their church by the Guatemalan Army.
In Chile during public mass protests held against the military regime of General Augusto Pinochet on July 2, 1986, engineering student Carmen Gloria Quintana, 18, and Chilean-American photographer Rodrigo Rojas DeNegri, 19, were arrested by a Chilean Army patrol in the Los Nogales neighborhood of Santiago. The two were searched and beaten before being doused in benzene and burned alive by Chilean troops. Rojas was killed, while Quintana survived but with severe burns.
A former Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate officer writing under the alias Victor Suvorov (aka Viktor Suworow), described, in his book Aquarium, a Soviet traitor[clarification needed] being burned alive in a crematorium. There has been some speculation that the identity of this officer was Oleg Penkovsky. However, during a radio interview to Russia's "Echo of Moscow", Vladimir Rezun (aka Victor Suvorov or Viktor Suworow) denied this, saying "I never mentioned it was Penkovsky". No executed GRU traitors (Penkovsky aside) are known to match Rezun/Suvorov/Suworow's scant description in Aquarium
During the 1980 New Mexico State Penitentiary riot, a number of inmates were burnt to death by fellow inmates, who used blow torches. Modern burnings continued as a method of lynching in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the South. One of the most notorious extrajudicial burnings in modern history occurred in Waco, Texas on 15 May 1916. Jesse Washington, a mentally challenged African-American farmhand, after having been convicted of the murder of a white woman, was taken by a mob to a bonfire, castrated, doused in coal oil, and hanged by the neck from a chain over the bonfire, slowly burning to death. A postcard from the event still exists, showing a crowd standing next to Washington's charred corpse with the words on the back “This is the barbecue we had last night. My picture is to the left with a cross over it. Your son, Joe”. This attracted international condemnation and is remembered as the "Waco Horror".
In India, Dr Graham Stuart Staines (died 22 January 1999), an Australian Christian missionary, who, along with his two sons Philip (aged 10) and Timothy (aged 6), was burnt to death by a gang while the three slept in the family car (a station wagon), at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar District, Odisha, India on 22 January 1999. Four years later, in 2003, a Bajrang Dal activist, Dara Singh, was convicted of leading the gang that murdered Staines and his sons, and was sentenced to life in prison. Staines had worked in Odisha with the tribal poor and lepers since 1965. Some Hindu groups made allegations that Staines had forcibly converted or lured many Hindus into Christianity; Staines' widow denied these allegations.
In Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, there were some 400 instances of the burning of women[why?] in 2006. In Iraqi Kurdistan, at least 255 women had been killed in just the first six months of 2007, three-quarters of them by burning.
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Although sati, or the practice of a widow immolating on her husband's funeral pyre, was officially outlawed by the British Raj in 1829, the rite persists. The most high-profile sati incident was in Rajasthan in 1987, when 18-year-old Roop Kanwar was burned to death.
On 20 January 2011, a 28 year old woman, Ranjeeta Sharma, was found burning to death on a road in rural New Zealand. The police confirmed the woman was alive before being covered in an accelerant and set afire. Sharma's husband, Davesh Sharma, was charged with her murder.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Burning to Death.|