Deaf history

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For medical-related history of the auditory organ, see Hearing impairment#History.

The history of deaf people and their culture make up deaf history. The deaf culture is an ethnocentric culture that is centered on sign language and relationships among one another. Unlike other cultures the Deaf culture is not associated with any native land as it is a global culture. Although by some, deafness maybe viewed as a disability, the Deaf-World sees itself as a language minority. Throughout the years many accomplishments have been achieved by deaf people. To name the most famous, Ludwig van Beethoven and Thomas Alva Edison were both deaf and contributed great works to culture.

Like most people in other language minorities, deaf people are born into it. Unlike other cultures, deaf culture is not associated with a native land. It is actually a culture based on relationships among people providing common ground. The deaf culture sees itself as a language minority instead of a disability group.[1]

Deaf people who know Sign Language are proud of their history. In the United States, they recount the story of Laurent Clerc, a Deaf educator, coming to the United States from France in 1816 to help found the first permanent school for deaf children in the country. In the late 1850s there was a debate about whether or not to create a separate deaf state in the west. The idea was based on the event when the American Congress, at that time, gave part of Alabama to the American Asylum. This deaf state would be a place where all deaf people could migrate, if chosen to, and prosper, however, this plan failed and the whole debate died.[2]

Another well-known event is the 1880 Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf in Milan, Italy, where hearing educators voted to embrace oral education and remove sign language from the classroom. This effort resulted in strong opposition within Deaf cultures today to the oralist method of teaching deaf children to speak and lip read with limited or no use of sign language in the classroom. The method is intended to make it easier for deaf children to integrate into hearing communities, but the benefits of learning in such an environment are disputed. The use of sign language is central to the Deaf peoples as a cultural identity and attempts to limit its use are viewed as an attack.[3]

Bond history of the deaf culture[edit]

Sign language is the most important instrument for communication between deaf people and the deaf culture. Using sign language deaf people can join social networks, local and globally, which join the deaf culture together. Sign language is actually the American Sign Language (ASL) and is what the culture is centered on. Another powerful bonding forced in the deaf culture is Athletics. Athletics open up a path to achievement where many others are shut out by prejudice due to the level playing field of certain sports. The American Athletic Association of the Deaf (AAAD) is huge help for deaf people by representing Deaf clubs and organizations throughout the entire American states.[1]

Political deaf history[edit]

The first ever political movement in deaf history happened in 1880 in Milan, Italy and was called the Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf. This first international conference consisted of deaf educators and is commonly known as "The Milan Conference". The conference held deliberations from September 6, 1880, to September 11, 1880, and declared that oral education was superior to manual education and decided to ban the use of sign language in school. Since the passage in 1880, schools in European countries and the United States have switched to using speech therapy without sign language as a method of education for the deaf.[3] The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) has 22,000 direct members and is a vigorous advocate for sign language and the rights of Deaf people. The NAD helped conduct the first census of the Deaf population, it supports a legal defense fund, sponsors annual camps, and helps fight for the rights of the Deaf community.[1]

Famous deaf people[edit]

Source:[4]

Source: [5]

Timeline[edit]

B, C, D. Engravings by Diego de Astor of Reducción de las letras y arte para enseñar a hablar a los mudos (Bonet, 1620)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bahan, Harlan Lane ; Robert Hofstadter ; Ben (1996). A journey into the deaf-world. San Diego, Calif.: DawnSignPress. ISBN 0-915035-63-4. 
  2. ^ Krentz, Christopher (2000). A Mighty Change: An Anthology of Deaf American Writing 1816-1864. Gallaudet University Press. ISBN 1-56368-101-3. 
  3. ^ a b Baynton, Douglas (1996). Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against Sign Language. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-03964-1. 
  4. ^ "Famous Deaf People". 
  5. ^ "Prominent Deaf People". 
  6. ^ ""Sound and Fury"". 2002-1-8. Public Broadcasting Service. WNET. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/culture/dhpop/popup1.html.
  7. ^ "Deaf and Dumb in Jewish Laws". Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  8. ^ Moore, Brooke Noel; Bruder, Kenneth (1999). "4". Philosophy: The Power of Ideas. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7674-0018-3. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  9. ^ Bauman, H-Dirksen L. (2008) [2002]. "7". Open your eyes (7th ed.). Deaf Studies Think Tank (Gallaudet University): University of Minnesota Press. pp. 135–137 [137]. ISBN 978-0-8166-4619-7. Archived from the original on 2011-03-16. 
  10. ^ Renate, Fischer; Harlan L. Lane (1993-01-01). "Looking back: a reader on the history of deaf communities and their sign languages". International studies on sign language and the communication of the deaf 20. ISBN 3927731323. Retrieved 2011-03-19. "Quintus Pedius, the deaf painter" 
  11. ^ Fischer, Renate; Lane, Harlan (1993-01-28). Renate Fischer and Harlan Lane, ed. Looking Back: A Reader on the Histories of Deaf Communities and Their Sign Languages. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. ISBN 978-3-927731-32-5. 
  12. ^ Borrelli, Antonio. "Sant' Audito (Ovidio) di Braga" (in Italian). Retrieved 2011-03-20. "Patron saint of ear" 
  13. ^ Markides, Andreas (1982). "Some unusual cures of deafness". The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 96 (06): 479–490. doi:10.1017/S0022215100092756. "Speech and hearing share the same source in the brain…" 
  14. ^ See Timothy Kearley, Justice Fred Blume and the Translation of the Justinian Code (2nd ed. 2008) 3, 21.
  15. ^ Justinian I (738). "Corpus Juris Civilis" (in Latin). Roman Empire. Archived from the original on 2011-03-20. Retrieved 2011-03-20. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Language Pathology, Juan Pablo Bonet 1579-1633". Judy Duchan's History of Speech. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  17. ^ W. Holder, "Of an experiment, concerning deafness", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 3 (1668), 665–8
  18. ^ a b c d e "Disability History Timeline". Rehabilitation Research & Training Center on Independent Living Management. Temple University. 2002. 
  19. ^ http://nad.org/nad-history#1970s
  20. ^ The History of Inclusion in the States
  21. ^ http://nad.org/nad-history#1970s
  22. ^ http://nad.org/nad-history#1970s
  23. ^ http://nad.org/nad-history#1970s
  24. ^ http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/excerpts/WADthree5.html
  25. ^ http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/topics/missdeafamericapageant.htm
  26. ^ "American Deaf Culture Historical Timeline". 
  27. ^ "Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act)". Seattle Community Network. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  28. ^ http://nad.org/nad-history#1970s
  29. ^ Fleischer, Doris (2001). The Disability Rights Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-812-6. 
  30. ^ "Deaf HistoryTimeline". 
  31. ^ "New FCC rules on closed captioning fall short, deaf say". Washington Times. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  32. ^ http://www.jwi.org/page.aspx?pid=3312#sthash.YCGDTeU8.dpuf
  33. ^ http://deafnetwork.com/wordpress/blog/2011/06/20/jdrc-salutes-conservative-judaisms-ruling-to-include-deaf-jews-as-equals/
  34. ^ Firstpost. "Deaf-mute can be credible witness: Apex court". Firstpost. Retrieved 2012-11-02. 
  35. ^ "Deaf-mute can be credible witness: SC - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02. 
  36. ^ a b "Netflix pledges to caption all content by 2014 - Business". Boston.com. Retrieved 2012-10-11.