Cowboys Stadium

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Cowboys Stadium
Cowboys Stadium logo.svg
Cowboys stadium.JPG
Cowboys Stadium – July 2009
LocationOne Legends Way
Arlington, Texas 76011[1]
United States
Coordinates32°44′52″N 97°5′34″W / 32.74778°N 97.09278°W / 32.74778; -97.09278Coordinates: 32°44′52″N 97°5′34″W / 32.74778°N 97.09278°W / 32.74778; -97.09278
Broke groundSeptember 20, 2005
OpenedMay 27, 2009[2]
OwnerCity of Arlington[3]
OperatorDallas Cowboys
SurfaceMatrix artificial turf[4]
Construction cost$1.3 billion[5]
($1.39 billion in 2013 dollars[6])
ArchitectHKS, Inc.[7]
Project managerBlue Star Development/Jack Hill[8]
Structural engineerWalter P Moore Engineers and Consultants
Campbell & Associates Consulting Engineers, Inc.[9]
Services engineerM-E Engineers, Inc.[10]
General contractorManhattan/Rayco/3i[11]
CapacityFootball: 80,000 (expandable to 100,000 with standing room)[12][12]
Executive suites342[13]
Record attendance

Football: 105,121
September 21, 2009
Dallas Cowboys vs. New York Giants
Basketball: 108,713
February 14, 2010
2010 NBA All-Star Game

Boxing: 50,994
March 13, 2010
Manny Pacquiao vs. Joshua Clottey
Tenants
Dallas Cowboys (NFL) (2009 – present)
Cotton Bowl Classic (NCAA) (2009 – present)
Cowboys Classic (NCAA) (2009 - present)
NCAA Final Four (2014)
College Football Playoff Championship Game (2015)
 
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Cowboys Stadium
Cowboys Stadium logo.svg
Cowboys stadium.JPG
Cowboys Stadium – July 2009
LocationOne Legends Way
Arlington, Texas 76011[1]
United States
Coordinates32°44′52″N 97°5′34″W / 32.74778°N 97.09278°W / 32.74778; -97.09278Coordinates: 32°44′52″N 97°5′34″W / 32.74778°N 97.09278°W / 32.74778; -97.09278
Broke groundSeptember 20, 2005
OpenedMay 27, 2009[2]
OwnerCity of Arlington[3]
OperatorDallas Cowboys
SurfaceMatrix artificial turf[4]
Construction cost$1.3 billion[5]
($1.39 billion in 2013 dollars[6])
ArchitectHKS, Inc.[7]
Project managerBlue Star Development/Jack Hill[8]
Structural engineerWalter P Moore Engineers and Consultants
Campbell & Associates Consulting Engineers, Inc.[9]
Services engineerM-E Engineers, Inc.[10]
General contractorManhattan/Rayco/3i[11]
CapacityFootball: 80,000 (expandable to 100,000 with standing room)[12][12]
Executive suites342[13]
Record attendance

Football: 105,121
September 21, 2009
Dallas Cowboys vs. New York Giants
Basketball: 108,713
February 14, 2010
2010 NBA All-Star Game

Boxing: 50,994
March 13, 2010
Manny Pacquiao vs. Joshua Clottey
Tenants
Dallas Cowboys (NFL) (2009 – present)
Cotton Bowl Classic (NCAA) (2009 – present)
Cowboys Classic (NCAA) (2009 - present)
NCAA Final Four (2014)
College Football Playoff Championship Game (2015)

Cowboys Stadium is a stadium with a retractable roof in Arlington, Texas. It serves as the home of the National Football League's Dallas Cowboys. It replaced the partially covered Texas Stadium, which opened in 1971, and served as the Cowboys' home through the 2008 season. It was completed on May 27, 2009. The stadium seats 85,000, making it the third largest stadium in the NFL by seating capacity. The maximum capacity of the stadium, including standing room, is 105,000. The Party Pass (open areas) sections are behind seats in each end zone and on a series of six elevated platforms connected by stairways.[12][14]

It has the world's largest column-free interior and the fourth largest high definition video screen, which hangs from 20 yard line to 20 yard line.[15] The facility can also be used for a variety of other activities outside of its main purpose (professional football) such as concerts, basketball games, boxing matches, college football and high school football contests, soccer matches, and motocross races.

Contents

Construction and design [edit]

Cowboys Stadium was designed by the Dallas architectural firm HKS, Inc.[16] Besides the Cowboys, the new stadium is used by college football teams and other organizations for other sporting and non-sporting events. The Cotton Bowl Classic was moved to the stadium beginning in 2010.[17]

Cowboys Stadium – Interior

Originally estimated to cost $650 million, the stadium's current construction cost was $1.15 billion,[18] making it one of the most expensive sports venues ever built. To aid Cowboys owner and general manager Jerry Jones in paying the construction costs of the new stadium, Arlington voters approved the increase of the city's sales tax by 0.5 percent, the hotel occupancy tax by 2 percent, and car rental tax by 5 percent. The City of Arlington provided over $325 million (including interest) in bonds as funding,[18][19] and Jones covered any cost overruns. Also, the NFL provided the Cowboys with an additional $150 million loan, following its policy for facilitating financing for the construction of new stadiums.[20]

A pair of nearly 300 ft (91 m)-tall arches spans the length of the stadium dome, anchored to the ground at each end. The new stadium also includes "more than 3,000 Sony LCD displays throughout the luxury suites, concourses, concession areas and more, offering fans viewing options that extend beyond the action on the field".[21] and a center-hung video display board that was the largest high-definition television screen in the world.[22] It has since been surpassed in size by the video board at Charlotte Motor Speedway. Glass doors, allowing each end zone to be opened, were designed and constructed by Dallas-based Haley-Greer glass systems.

The retractable roof was designed by structural engineering firm Walter P Moore and the systems were implemented by mechanization consultants Uni-Systems. The electrification of Cowboys Stadium's retractable roof was developed by VAHLE, Inc.[23] These Kinetic Architecture fundamentals will be employed in order to create quick conversions of the facility to accommodate a variety of events. When the design was officially unveiled on December 12, 2006, it showed that, from inside the stadium, the roof (membrane installed by K Post Company of Dallas)[24] will look very similar to the Texas Stadium roof, with its trademark hole. However, it can be covered by the retractable roof panel to protect against the elements.

A Dallas Cowboys Hall of Fame is planned for the Hall of Fame level. The drawings also include a site for a large sculpture northeast of the stadium, close to Randol Mill Road.

Criticism [edit]

Cowboys Stadium is the only NFL stadium that is completely inaccessible via public transportation, including bus, light rail, or people mover systems.[25] The only way to get to the stadium is via car or private shuttle. The stadium is situated in an area of Arlington that is predominantly residential. Thus, traffic congestion and infrastructure are not adequate to handle the crowds, leading to major delays during events. Many of the neighborhoods in the surrounding areas do not have sidewalks, leading to dangerous situations for pedestrians. The stadium is not near the major urban cores of Fort Worth or Dallas, leading to a diminished fan experience outside the stadium's walls. On September 1, 2012, thousands of fans were forced to wait hours after the Alabama vs Michigan football game for cab rides, due to lack of transportation infrastructure. This led to multiple hour long waits for thousands of event goers.[26]

Timeline [edit]

Armed Forces Color Guard at Super Bowl XLV

Opening [edit]

Naming [edit]

Although the stadium had yet to sell naming rights, many fans started referring to the project with various nicknames such as "Jerryworld",[33][42][43][44] the "Death Star",[45] "The Palace in Dallas" (for which announcer Bob Costas was criticized by the Arlington mayor[46]), "Cowboys Cathedral",[47] and others.[48] There was also a petition by some fans to have the stadium named after longtime Cowboys' coach Tom Landry.

On May 13, 2009, Jerry Jones announced the official name as Cowboys Stadium.[33]

Video Board [edit]

During the debut preseason game of Cowboys Stadium, a punt by Tennessee Titans punter A. J. Trapasso hit the 2,100 in. screen above the field. The punt deflected backwards and was ruled in-play until Titans coach Jeff Fisher informed the officials that the punt struck the scoreboard. By rule, the down was replayed. Cowboys owner Jerry Jones believes that Trapasso was trying to hit the scoreboard, saying "If you look at how you punt the football, unless you're trying to hit the scoreboard, you punt the ball to get downfield. You certainly want to get some hangtime, but you punt the ball to get downfield, and you sure don't punt the ball down the middle. You punt it off to the side."[49] Whether the screen would affect an opposing team's punting strategy has been debated. For teams with strategies centered on maximizing hang-time, physicist Christopher Moore of Longwood University has shown via computer simulation that well-kicked punts have the potential to hit the screen no matter the field position.[50] Trapasso disputed Jones' suggestion that he was intentionally trying to hit the board, and other NFL punters have suggested that the board may pose a problem for longer hang-time punts. The screen was moved up on one occasion to make room for U2's massive set during their 360° Tour, but was moved back down after the concert.

Guinness World Records was on hand at the September 28, 2009 game against the Carolina Panthers to award certificates to the Chairman of Mitsubishi Electric and Dallas Cowboys owner Jerry Jones for the World's Largest High-Definition Video Display.[22] It has since been surpassed in size by the video board at Charlotte Motor Speedway.

For basketball events played in Cowboys Stadium, such as the 2010 NBA All-Star Game, the video board is actually larger than the court.

Major events [edit]

NBA All-Star Weekend [edit]

From February 14 to February 16, 2010, the stadium hosted the 2010 NBA All-Star Game. With an announced crowd of 108,713, the game became the highest-attended basketball game in history, setting a new Guinness World Record. The East squad prevailed with a 141–139 victory over the West.[51]

NFL [edit]

Cowboys playing at Cowboys Stadium

College football [edit]

Big 12 Championship Game [edit]

University of Texas marching band during the Big 12 Championship game

Cotton Bowl Classic [edit]

Cowboys Classic [edit]

Southwest Classic [edit]

The Arkansas Razorbacks vs. Texas A&M Aggies football rivalry, which dates back to 1903, was renewed in 2009 as the Southwest Classic which is played annually in Cowboys Stadium. In 2012, Texas A&M joined Arkansas Southeastern Conference, and the series will take a two-year break from Cowboys Stadium, moving to Kyle Field in College Station, Texas for 2012 and Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium in Fayetteville, Arkansas in 2013. The series is scheduled to return to Cowboys Stadium in 2014 and remain there through at least 2020.

Texas Farm Bureau Insurance Shootout [edit]

In 2009, the Big 12 Conference game between the Baylor Bears and Texas Tech Red Raiders was held at Cowboys Stadium, the first time in the series the match-up was held on a neutral site. The game was the highest attended in the series' history, with 71,964 in attendance.[64]

After the 2010 game was held at the Cotton Bowl in Fair Park, Dallas during the State Fair of Texas, the series will return to Cowboys Stadium for the 2011 and 2012 games. The series' neutral site contract at Cowboys Stadium could continue until 2014.[65]

Basketball [edit]

Cowboys Stadium being set up for Texas vs. North Carolina game

Other events [edit]

Concessions and merchandising [edit]

On October 20, 2008, Cowboys owner Jones and then New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner announced a joint business venture called Legends Hospitality Management LLC which would operate the concessions and merchandising sales at the new Cowboys stadium in Arlington, Texas, and at the new Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, New York, along with the stadiums of the Yankees' minor league affiliates. Former Pizza Hut President Michael Rawlings will run the company from its new headquarters in Newark, New Jersey. The company was also backed by Wall Street investment firm Goldman Sachs and Dallas private equity firm CIC Partners LP.[75][76][77]

Art Program at Dallas Cowboys Stadium [edit]

The Jones family commissioned 18 contemporary artists to create site-specific artworks for the stadium. The stadium features paintings, sculptures, and installations by Franz Ackerman, Doug Aitken, Ricci Albenda, Mel Bochner, Daniel Buren, Olafur Eliasson, Teresita Fernandez, Wayne Gonzales, Terry Haggerty, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Jacqueline Humphries, Jim Isermann, Annette Lawrence, Dave Muller, Gary Simmons, and Lawrence Weiner.[78]

Parking [edit]

The fees for premium parking at Dallas Cowboys games are estimated at $75 per game, based on season ticket holder parking charges.[79] The fees to park at major concerts and other sporting events will be nearly $40 per space at the new stadium.[80] A shuttle operates between the T&P Station and Cowboys Stadium for all Cowboys regular season and postseason games and selected college football games,[81] which averages approximately 900 riders per game.[81] For special events like Super Bowl XLV parking prices can increase to as much as $990.[82]

Notes [edit]

  1. ^ "Guest Info". Stadium.dallascowboys.com. Retrieved October 27, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Cowboys Stadium Holds Ribbon Cutting Ceremony". Dallascowboys.com. May 27, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009. 
  3. ^ "FAQ About Dallas Cowboys Project" (PDF). City of Irving. November 4, 2004. Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  4. ^ "New Dallas Cowboys Stadium selects SoftTop grass system from Hellas Construction" (PDF). Dallascowboysturf.com. Hellas Construction. Retrieved May 22, 2009. [dead link]
  5. ^ Mosley, Matt (September 15, 2008). "Jones building a legacy with $1.3 billion Cowboys stadium". Retrieved November 28, 2008. 
  6. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  7. ^ Cowboys Stadium
  8. ^ Inspiration: Team Owner Travels World for Design Ideas
  9. ^ Going Long - Modern Steel Construction
  10. ^ M-E Engineers, Inc. - Projects
  11. ^ "Cowboys Select Contractor For New Stadium". Dallascowboys.com. January 31, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c http://www.lmcc.com/project_gallery/dallas_cowboys_stadium.asp
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ "Dallas Cowboys Target NFL Record by Making Fans Stand for $29". Bloomberg.com. August 3, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Cowboys' new stadium to get over 20,000 square feet of video screen". Engadget. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Arlington Welcomes Dallas Cowboys Selections for New Stadium". City of Arlington. January 31, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  17. ^ "Cotton Bowl to move to new stadium in Arlington". ESPN.com. February 28, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Cowboys Stadium". Football.ballparks.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Local Government Services Database Search". Retrieved 2012-10-19. 
  20. ^ "Cowboys unveil plans for new stadium". ESPN.com. December 13, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Dallas Cowboys New Stadium Chock Full Of Sony HD". Sony Insider. April 20, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Chase, Chris (September 28, 2009). "Guinness World Records to Recognize Dallas Cowboys and Mitsubishi Electric Diamond Vision for World's Largest Video Display". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Stadium Systems & Technology : Vahle Electrification". Vahleinc.com. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Snapshot: Key contracts awarded for Dallas Cowboys stadium". Dallas Business Journal. March 6, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2009. 
  25. ^ Eskenazi, Joe (2010-10-29). "Arlington, Home of the Rangers, Largest City in U.S. Without Public Transit. Blame the Rangers. - San Francisco - News - The Snitch". Blogs.sfweekly.com. Retrieved 2012-10-19. 
  26. ^ by SHON GABLES Bio (2012-09-02). "Cab chaos follows Alabama-Michigan game | wfaa.com Dallas - Fort Worth". Wfaa.com. Retrieved 2012-10-19.  Text " Email " ignored (help)
  27. ^ "Demolition Started for Cowboys Stadium". Associated Construction Publications. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Alliance Announced". Associated Construction Publications. 
  29. ^ "All Up From Here". Associated Construction Publications. 
  30. ^ "Construction Worker Remains Hospitalized". The Dallas Morning News. 
  31. ^ "Heldenfels Awarded Contract". Associated Construction Publications. 
  32. ^ "Dallas Slideshows – Cowboys Unveil World’s Largest HDTV". Village Voice Media. 
  33. ^ a b c "New Dallas Cowboys stadium to be called Cowboys Stadium". ESPN. May 13, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  34. ^ "George Strait to Headline Debut of Cowboys Stadium". CBS 11 News/AP. February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2009. [dead link]
  35. ^ "CONCACAF Gold Cup Attendance Down Slightly From '07". SportsBusiness Daily. July 28, 2009. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  36. ^ Archer, Todd (August 20, 2009). "Dean Named PA Announcer for Cowboys Stadium". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Titans to Host Bucs, Packers in Preseason". The City Paper (Nashville). March 31, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  38. ^ "NFL releases full regular-season schedule". yahoo.com. April 14, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Football: NFL Sports News at wtvg". Abclocal.go.com. January 23, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  40. ^ "A Sign of Conquest, Eli Manning's Signature, Remains at Cowboys Stadium". The Dallas Morning News. October 25, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2012.  More than one of |work= and |newspaper= specified (help)
  41. ^ "Cowboys shut down Panthers", ESPN.com, September 28, 2009. Retrieved on September 28, 2009.
  42. ^ "Cowboys Hope New Home Brings NorCal Fans News10.net | Sacramento, California | Sports News". News10.net. June 21, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  43. ^ [2][dead link]
  44. ^ Kreindler, Eric, Hoops Heaven at JerryWorld: Crews prepare for Texas basketball game, December 16, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  45. ^ Drape, Joe (January 29, 2011). "For N.F.L., Lockout Would Be a Risky Strategy". The New York Times. 
  46. ^ "Costas reference to "the palace in Dallas" irks Arlington mayor". Cowboys Stadium Blog. Stadiumblog.dallasnews.com. September 22, 2009. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  47. ^ Popik, Barry (August 7, 2009). "The Big Apple: Cowboys Cathedral or Cathedral of Football (Dallas Cowboys Stadium in Arlington)". Barrypopik.com. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  48. ^ Mosley, Matt (May 22, 2007). "Indy, Arizona had no chance". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  49. ^ Chase, Chris (August 22, 2009). "Punt hits video screen at new Cowboys Stadium – Shutdown Corner – NFL – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 26, 2009. 
  50. ^ Archer, Todd (August 25, 2009). "The Cowboys Stadium digital board is a hot topic". The Dallas Morning News. 
  51. ^ "2010 All-Star Game recap". National Basketball Association. 2011-12-05. Retrieved 2012-11-03. 
  52. ^ "Dallas Cowboys Schedule at". Nfl.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  53. ^ Spagnola, Mickey (May 22, 2007). "At Long Last, Super Bowl Coming To North Texas". DallasCowboys.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  54. ^ Williams, Charean (January 29, 2012). "Super Bowl Bound to Return, But When?". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 
  55. ^ Sickles, Jason. Fans denied access to seats for Super Bowl. Yahoo! Sports, 2011-02-06.
  56. ^ "Super Bowl Seating Lawsuit: Why Jerry Jones Must Pay the Displaced Fans". February 9, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  57. ^ 8:00 PM ET, December 5, 2009Cowboy Stadium, ARLINGTON, TX (December 5, 2009). "Texas Longhorns vs. Nebraska Cornhuskers – Box Score – December 05, 2009 – ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Oklahoma State Official Athletic Site – Football". Okstate.com. January 2, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  59. ^ Apr 14, 10:22 pm EDT (April 26, 2009). "NFL releases full regular-season schedule – NFL – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved May 5, 2009. 
  60. ^ Oregon State vs TCU Stats
  61. ^ [3] ESPN.com, October 3, 2009. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  62. ^ [4] ESPN.com, October 9, 2010.
  63. ^ [5] ESPN.com, October 1, 2011
  64. ^ 6:00 PM ET, November 28, 2009Cowboy Stadium, ARLINGTON, TX (November 28, 2009). "Texas Tech Red Raiders vs. Baylor Bears – Box Score – November 28, 2009 – ESPN". Scores.espn.go.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Baylor, Texas Tech to play football in Cowboys Stadium in 2011 | Texas Tech Red Raiders News - Sports News for Dallas, Texas - SportsDayDFW". The Dallas Morning News. February 23, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  66. ^ "Official website of University of Texas Athletics – Texas Longhorns – Men's Basketball". TexasSports.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  67. ^ [6]
  68. ^ [7][dead link]
  69. ^ [8][dead link]
  70. ^ "PBR – Professional Bull Riders Invades the Brand-New Cowboys Stadium in 2010". Pbrnow.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Boxing: Home". HBO. January 29, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  72. ^ "Events". Stadium.dallascowboys.com. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Leanne Hulsenberg triumphs in the 2011 Bowling's U.S. Women's Open". Bowlingdigital.com. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Dallas Opera simulcast at Cowboy Stadium". Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  75. ^ Dallas Cowboys, New York Yankees form joint concessions venture (The Dallas Morning News)
  76. ^ Cowboys, Yankees form company for new stadiums (Associated Press)[dead link]
  77. ^ Yankees, Cowboys, Goldman Sachs Form Stadium Company (Bloomberg)
  78. ^ The Art Program At Cowboys Stadium
  79. ^ "Dallas Cowboys, Texas Rangers Reach Deal on Parking Spots". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. April 2, 2009. 
  80. ^ "KENNEDY: $40 for Cowboys Stadium Parking? Sure Would Be Nice to Have Mass Transit...". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. June 4, 2009. 
  81. ^ a b "Special Programs". The-t.com. January 7, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  82. ^ "$990 for a parking spot at the Super Bowl". USAToday.com. January 26, 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 

External links [edit]

Preceded by
Texas Stadium
Home of the
Dallas Cowboys

2009 – present
Succeeded by
current
Preceded by
Sun Life Stadium
Host of the Super Bowl
XLV 2011
Succeeded by
Lucas Oil Stadium
Preceded by
US Airways Center
Host of the
NBA All-Star Game

2010
Succeeded by
Staples Center
Preceded by
none
Host of the
College Football Playoff

Championship 2015
Succeeded by
incumbent