Cyberterrorism

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Cyberterrorism is the use of Internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.

Cyberterrorism is a controversial term. Some authors choose a very narrow definition, relating to deployments, by known terrorist organizations, of disruption attacks against information systems for the primary purpose of creating alarm and panic. By this narrow definition, it is difficult to identify any instances of cyberterrorism.

Cyberterrorism can be also defined as the intentional use of computer, networks, and public internet to cause destruction and harm for personal objectives.[1] Objectives may be political or ideological since this is a form of terrorism[citation needed].

There is much concern from government and media sources about potential damages that could be caused by cyberterrorism, and this has prompted official responses from government agencies.

Several minor incidents of cyberterrorism have been documented.

Definition[edit]

There is debate over the basic definition of the scope of cyberterrorism. There is variation in qualification by motivation, targets, methods, and centrality of computer use in the act. Depending on context, cyberterrorism may overlap considerably with cybercrime, cyberwar or ordinary terrorism.[2] Eugene Kaspersky, founder of Kaspersky Lab, now feels that "cyberterrorism" is a more accurate term than "cyberwar." He states that "with today's attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they will strike again. It's not cyber-war, but cyberterrorism."[3] He also equates large-scale cyber weapons, such as the Flame Virus and NetTraveler Virus which his company discovered, to biological weapons, claiming that in an interconnected world, they have the potential to be equally destructive.[3][4]

Narrow definition[edit]

If cyberterrorism is treated similarly to traditional terrorism, then it only includes attacks that threaten property or lives, and can be defined as the leveraging of a target's computers and information, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.

There are some who say that cyberterrorism does not exist and is really a matter of hacking or information warfare.[5] They disagree with labelling it terrorism because of the unlikelihood of the creation of fear, significant physical harm, or death in a population using electronic means, considering current attack and protective technologies.

If a strict definition is assumed, then there have been no or almost no identifiable incidents of cyberterrorism, although there has been much public concern.

Broad definition[edit]

Cyberterrorism is defined by the Technolytics Institute as "The premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives. Or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives." [6] The term was coined by Barry C. Collin.[7]

The National Conference of State Legislatures, an organization of legislators created to help policymakers with issues such as economy and homeland security defines cyberterrorism as:

[T]he use of information technology by terrorist groups and individuals to further their agenda. This can include use of information technology to organize and execute attacks against networks, computer systems and telecommunications infrastructures, or for exchanging information or making threats electronically. Examples are hacking into computer systems, introducing viruses to vulnerable networks, web site defacing, Denial-of-service attacks, or terroristic threats made via electronic communication.[8]

For the use of the Internet by terrorist groups for organization, see Internet and terrorism.

Cyberterrorism can also include attacks on Internet business, but when this is done for economic motivations rather than ideological, it is typically regarded as cybercrime.

Cyberterrorism is limited to actions by individuals, independent groups, or organizations. Any form of cyber warfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law.[9]

As shown above, there are multiple definitions of cyber terrorism and most are overly broad. There is controversy concerning overuse of the term and hyperbole in the media and by security vendors trying to sell "solutions".[10]

Types of cyberterror capability[edit]

The following three levels of cyberterror capability is defined by Monterey group

Concerns[edit]

As the Internet becomes more pervasive in all areas of human endeavor, individuals or groups can use the anonymity afforded by cyberspace to threaten citizens, specific groups (i.e. with membership based on ethnicity or belief), communities and entire countries, without the inherent threat of capture, injury, or death to the attacker that being physically present would bring. Many groups such as Anonymous, use tools such as Denial-of-service attack to attack and censor groups who oppose them, creating many concerns for freedom and respect for differences of thought.

As the Internet continues to expand, and computer systems continue to be assigned more responsibility while becoming more and more complex and interdependent, sabotage or terrorism via cyberspace may become a more serious threat and is possibly one of the top 10 events to "end the human race".[12]

Dependence on the internet is rapidly increasing on a worldwide scale, creating a platform for international cyber terror plots to be formulated and executed as a direct threat to national security.[9] For terrorists, cyber-based attacks have distinct advantages over physical attacks. They can be conducted remotely, anonymously, and relatively cheaply, and they do not require significant investment in weapons, explosive and personnel. The effects can be widespread and profound. Incidents of cyberterrorism are likely to increase. They will be conducted through denial-of-service attacks that overload that servers, worms, viruses, unauthorized intrusion, Web site defacements, attacks on network infrastructures and other methods that are difficult to envision today.

In an article about cyber attacks by Iran and North Korea, the New York Times observes, "The appeal of digital weapons is similar to that of nuclear capability: it is a way for an outgunned, outfinanced nation to even the playing field. 'These countries are pursuing cyberweapons the same way they are pursuing nuclear weapons,' said James A. Lewis, a computer security expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. 'It’s primitive; it’s not top of the line, but it’s good enough and they are committed to getting it.'" [13]

History[edit]

Public interest in cyberterrorism began in the late 1980s.[citation needed] As 2000 approached, the fear and uncertainty about the millennium bug heightened an interest in potential cyberterrorist attacks also increased. Although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack. Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.

The high profile terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 and the ensuing War on Terror by the US led to further media coverage of the potential threats of cyberterrorism in the years following. Mainstream media coverage often discusses the possibility of a large attack making use of computer networks to sabotage critical infrastructures with the aim of putting human lives in jeopardy or causing disruption on a national scale either directly or by disruption of the national economy.[14]

Authors such as Winn Schwartau and John Arquilla are reported to have had considerable financial success selling books which described what were purported to be plausible scenarios of mayhem caused by cyberterrorism. Many critics claim that these books were unrealistic in their assessments of whether the attacks described (such as nuclear meltdowns and chemical plant explosions) were possible. A common thread throughout what critics perceive as cyberterror-hype is that of non-falsifiability; that is, when the predicted disasters fail to occur, it only goes to show how lucky we've been so far, rather than impugning the theory.

International responses[edit]

The two following proactive responses are keys in fighting against cyber terrorism. First, it is important for us to equip ourselves with secure products. This means our programmers must build better secure products that are easier to manage. Secondly, the role of computer users is as important as vendors. We, the daily computer users must be aware of how to deploy such products in secure ways. Cyber security is best achieved when these two proactive responses are taken routinely.[15]

U.S. military[edit]

The US Department of Defense (DoD) charged the United States Strategic Command with the duty of combating cyberterrorism. This is accomplished through the Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations, which is the operational component supporting USSTRATCOM in defense of the DoD's Global Information Grid. This is done by integrating GNO capabilities into the operations of all DoD computers, networks, and systems used by DoD combatant commands, services and agencies.

On November 2, 2006, the Secretary of the Air Force announced the creation of the Air Force's newest MAJCOM, the Air Force Cyber Command, which would be tasked to monitor and defend American interest in cyberspace. The plan was however replaced by the creation of Twenty-Fourth Air Force which became active in August 2009 and would be a component of the planned United States Cyber Command.

On December 22, 2009, the White House named its head of Computer security as Howard Schmidt to coordinate U.S Government, military and intelligence efforts to repel hackers. He left the position in May, 2012.[16] Michael Daniel was appointed to the position of White House Coordinator of Cyber Security the same week [17] and continues in the position during the second term of the Obama administration.[18]

Estonia and NATO[edit]

The Baltic state of Estonia was target to a massive denial-of-service attack that ultimately rendered the country offline and shut out from services dependent on Internet connectivity for three weeks in the spring of 2007. The infrastructure of Estonia including everything from online banking and mobile phone networks to government services and access to health care information was disabled for a time. The tech-dependent state was in severe problem and there was a great deal of concern over the nature and intent of the attack.

The cyber attack corresponded to an Estonian-Russian dispute over the removal of a bronze statue depicting a World War II-era Soviet soldier from the center of the capital, Tallinn. In the midst of the armed conflict with Russia, Georgia likewise was subject to sustanined and coordinated attacks on its electronic infrastructure in August 2008. In both of these cases, circumstantial evidence point to coordinated Russian attacks, but attribution of the attacks is difficult; though both the countries point the finger at Moscow, proof establishing legal culpability is lacking.

Estonia joined NATO in 2004, therefore NATO carefully monitored its member state's response to the attack and worried both about escalation and the possibility of cascading effects beyond Estonia's border to other NATO members. In 2008, directly as a result of the attacks, NATO opened a new center of excellence on cyberdefense to conduct research and training on cyber warfare in Tallinn.[19]

China[edit]

The Chinese Defense Ministry confirmed the existence of an online defense unit in May 2011. Composed of about thirty elite internet specialists, the so-called "Cyber Blue Team," or "Blue Army," is officially claimed to be engaged in cyber-defense operations, though there are fears the unit has been used to penetrate secure online systems of foreign governments.[20][21]

Israel[edit]

May 2011 Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced the establishment of the National Internet Defense Taskforce, charged with developing tools to secure vital Israeli online infrastructure. "The main responsibility of the taskforce will be to expand the state's ability to defend vital infrastructure networks against cybernetic terrorist attacks perpetrated by foreign countries and terrorist elements,"said someone from somewhere

Examples[edit]

An operation can be done by anyone anywhere in the world, for it can be preformed thousands of miles away from a target. An attack can cause serious damage to a critical infrastructure which may result in casualties.[22] Attacking an infrastructure can be power grids, monetary systems, dams, media, and personal information.[1]

Some attacks are conducted in furtherance of political and social objectives, as the following examples illustrate:

Sabotage[edit]

Non-political acts of sabotage have caused financial and other damage, as in a case where a disgruntled employee, Vitek Boden (aka Peter Markan) caused the release of 800,000 litres of untreated sewage into waterways in Maroochy Shire, Australia.[27][28]

More recently, in May 2007 Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Tallinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's current Prime Minister Andrus Ansip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from Ansip for removing the memorial statue. Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no conclusive evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded," and neither NATO nor European Commission experts were able to find any conclusive proof of official Russian government participation.[29] In January 2008 a man from Estonia was convicted for launching the attacks against the Estonian Reform Party website and fined.[30][31]

Website defacement and denial of service[edit]

The website of Air Botswana, defaced by a group calling themselves the "Pakistan Cyber Army"

Even more recently, in October 2007, the website of Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko was attacked by hackers. A radical Russian nationalist youth group, the Eurasian Youth Movement, claimed responsibility.[32] · [33]

In 1999 hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial of service (DoS). The hackers were protesting against the NATO bombings of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries.[34]

In fiction[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Matusitz, Jonathan (April 2005). "Cyberterrorism:". American Foreign Policy Interests 2: 137–147. 
  2. ^ What is cyberterrorism? Even experts can't agree. Harvard Law Record. Victoria Baranetsky. November 5, 2009.
  3. ^ a b "Latest viruses could mean ‘end of world as we know it,’ says man who discovered Flame", The Times of Israel, June 6, 2012
  4. ^ "Cyber espionage bug attacking Middle East, but Israel untouched — so far", The Times of Israel, June 4, 2013
  5. ^ Harper, Jim. "There’s no such thing as cyber terrorism". RT. Retrieved 5 November 2012. 
  6. ^ http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA439217
  7. ^ Afroz, Soobia (June 16, 2002). "Cyber terrorism — fact or fiction?". Dawn. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  8. ^ Cyberterrorism National Conference of State Legislatures.
  9. ^ a b Gable, Kelly A. "Cyber-Apocalypse Now: Securing the Internet against Cyberterrorism and Using Universal Jurisdiction as a Deterrent" Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 43, No. 1
  10. ^ Anderson, Kent (October 13, 2010). "Virtual Hostage: Cyber terrorism and politically motivated computer crime". The Prague Post. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  11. ^ a b http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/cyberterror.html
  12. ^ "Top 10 events that may end the human race". Yahoo News. Oct 27, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
  13. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/29/technology/corporate-cyberattackers-possibly-state-backed-now-seek-to-destroy-data.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&hp&pagewanted=all&
  14. ^ "White House shifts Y2K focus to states, CNN (Feb. 23, 1999)". CNN. 23 February 1999. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  15. ^ http://www.economist.com/node/2187754
  16. ^ Chabrow, Eric. Obama Cybersecurity Coordinator Resigns. GovInfoSecurity.com, May 17, 2012. Accessed: Feb. 11, 2014.
  17. ^ White House Names New Cybersecurity Chief. BreakingGov.com May 17, 2012. Accessed: Feb. 11, 2014.
  18. ^ McDonald, Ryan.White House Security Chief Warns. Baltimore Biz Journal. January 29, 2014. Access date: Feb. 11, 2014.
  19. ^ Maryann Cusimano Love.(2011). Beyond Sovereignty: Issues for a Global Agenda. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
  20. ^ Yu, Eileen (27 May 2011). "China dispatches online army". ZDNet Asia. Retrieved 3 June 2011. "Geng Yansheng, spokesperson for China's Defense Ministry, was quoted to say that the PLA set up the cyberwar unit, or 'cyber blue team', to support its military training and upgrade the army's Internet security defense." 
  21. ^ "China Confirms Existence of Elite Cyber-Warfare Outfit the 'Blue Army'". Fox News. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011. "China set up a specialized online 'Blue Army' unit that it claims will protect the People's Liberation Army from outside attacks, prompting fears that the crack team was being used to infiltrate foreign governments' systems." 
  22. ^ Ayers, Cynthia (September 2009). "The Worst is Yet To Come". Futurist: 49. 
  23. ^ Maryann Cusimano Love, Public Private Partnerships and Global Problems:Y2K aand Cybecrime. Paper Presented at the International Studies Association, Hong Kong, July 2001.
  24. ^ Calvin Sims, "Japan Software Suppliers Linked to Sect," The New York Times (March 2, 2000): A6.
  25. ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/new-york-times-twitter-hacked-by-syrian-group/
  26. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/29/technology/corporate-cyberattackers-possibly-state-backed-now-seek-to-destroy-data.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&hp&pagewanted=all&
  27. ^ http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SMA/fisma/ics/documents/Maroochy-Water-Services-Case-Study_report.pdf Malicious Control System Cyber Security Attack Case Study–Maroochy Water Services, Australia
  28. ^ Hacker jailed for reverse sewage. The Register. October 31, 2001.
  29. ^ Estonia has no evidence of Kremlin involvement in cyber attacks
  30. ^ "Estonia fines man for 'cyber war'". BBC. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  31. ^ Leyden, John (2008-01-24). "Estonia fines man for DDoS attacks". The Register. Retrieved 2008-02-22 
  32. ^ http://news.kievukraine.info/2007/10/russian-nationalists-claim.html
  33. ^ Russian nationalists claim responsibility for attack on Yushchenko's Web site International Herald Tribune
  34. ^ "Hackers attack U.S. government Web sites in protest of Chinese embassy bombing". CNN. Retrieved 2010-04-30.  (See also Chinese embassy bombing)

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