Cushing, Oklahoma

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Cushing, Oklahoma
—  City  —
Pipeline Crossroads of the World monument, 2006
Nickname(s): "Pipeline Crossroads of the World"
Motto: "Personal Connections. Global Impact."
Location of Cushing, Oklahoma
Coordinates: 35°58′57″N 96°45′51″W / 35.98250°N 96.76417°W / 35.98250; -96.76417Coordinates: 35°58′57″N 96°45′51″W / 35.98250°N 96.76417°W / 35.98250; -96.76417
CountryUnited States
StateOklahoma
CountyPayne
Area
 • Total7.6 sq mi (19.8 km2)
 • Land7.6 sq mi (19.8 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation935 ft (285 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total7,826
 • Density1,096.1/sq mi (423.2/km2)
Time zoneCentral (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code74023
Area code(s)539/918
FIPS code40-18850[1]
GNIS feature ID1091897[2]
 
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Cushing, Oklahoma
—  City  —
Pipeline Crossroads of the World monument, 2006
Nickname(s): "Pipeline Crossroads of the World"
Motto: "Personal Connections. Global Impact."
Location of Cushing, Oklahoma
Coordinates: 35°58′57″N 96°45′51″W / 35.98250°N 96.76417°W / 35.98250; -96.76417Coordinates: 35°58′57″N 96°45′51″W / 35.98250°N 96.76417°W / 35.98250; -96.76417
CountryUnited States
StateOklahoma
CountyPayne
Area
 • Total7.6 sq mi (19.8 km2)
 • Land7.6 sq mi (19.8 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation935 ft (285 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total7,826
 • Density1,096.1/sq mi (423.2/km2)
Time zoneCentral (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code74023
Area code(s)539/918
FIPS code40-18850[1]
GNIS feature ID1091897[2]

Cushing (Pawnee: Túhkiicahihtuʾ [3]) is a city in Payne County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 7,826 at the 2010 census, a decline of 6.5 percent from 8,371 at the 2000 census.[4]

The city was established after the Land Run of 1891 by William "Billy Rae" Little.[5] It was named for Marshall Cushing, private secretary to U.S. Postmaster General John Wanamaker.[5] An oil boom that began in 1912 led to the city's development as a refining center.[5]

Today, Cushing is a major trading hub for crude oil and a famous price settlement point for West Texas Intermediate on the New York Mercantile Exchange.[6]

Contents

History

The area that would become Cushing was part of the Sac and Fox Reservation. With the Land Run of 1891, a former government trader for the tribe, Billy Rae Little, built a house, established his claim, and laid out town lots.[5] The town got a post office on November 10, 1891 and was named for Marshall Cushing, private secretary to U.S. Postmaster General John Wanamaker.[5]

In 1902, the Eastern Oklahoma Railway line to Cushing was built. The Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway added service on its own line built in 1903.[5]

Wildcatter Thomas B. Slick started an oil boom on March 17, 1912 when he brought in a gusher east of the town. Other wells were soon drilled nearby, and the oil field became known as the Cushing-Drumright Field.[5] Oil production became based in nearby Drumright, Oklahoma, and Cushing became a refining center, when Consumers Oil Company opened a refinery in 1913.[5]

The oil boom did not last long. Annual production peaked in 1915 with 8.3 million barrels of oil, but production declined by fifty percent in 1916. Refining operations continued in Cushing until the last two refineries, Kerr-McGee and Hudson, closed. Rail service ended in 1982. [5]

Geography

Cushing is located in Payne County, Oklahoma at the intersection of state highways 33 and 18. Its geographic coordinates are 35°58′57″N 96°45′51″W / 35.98250°N 96.76417°W / 35.98250; -96.76417 (35.982628, -96.764171)[7]. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles (20 km2), of which, 7.6 square miles (20 km2) is land and 0.13% is water.

Climate

Climate data for Cushing, Oklahoma
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)81
(27)
83
(28)
92
(33)
101
(38)
100
(38)
108
(42)
117
(47)
112
(44)
110
(43)
99
(37)
85
(29)
82
(28)
117
(47)
Average high °F (°C)48
(9)
54
(12)
61
(16)
73
(23)
80
(27)
89
(32)
94
(34)
95
(35)
88
(31)
76
(24)
62
(17)
52
(11)
73
(23)
Average low °F (°C)25
(−4)
30
(−1)
36
(2)
49
(9)
59
(15)
67
(19)
71
(22)
70
(21)
61
(16)
51
(11)
37
(3)
29
(−2)
49
(9)
Record low °F (°C)−11
(−24)
3
(−16)
−2
(−19)
23
(−5)
32
(0)
45
(7)
55
(13)
51
(11)
35
(2)
24
(−4)
10
(−12)
−1
(−18)
−11
(−24)
Precipitation inches (mm)1.3
(33)
1.6
(41)
2.1
(53)
3.5
(89)
5.8
(147)
5.1
(130)
4.3
(109)
2.7
(69)
3.7
(94)
3
(76)
1.6
(41)
1.3
(33)
35.8
(909)
Snowfall inches (cm)3.6
(9.1)
2.1
(5.3)
1.3
(3.3)
0.1
(0.3)
0.3
(0.8)
1.4
(3.6)
8.8
(22.4)
Avg. rainy days3.33.956.57.47.87.15.25.953.13.363.5
humidity70686362706966646363616665
Source #1: weather.com
Source #2: Weatherbase.com [8]



Demographics

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 8,371 people, 3,071 households, and 2,002 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,096.1 people per square mile (423.0/km²). There were 3,636 housing units at an average density of 476.1 per square mile (183.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.66% White, 7.02% African American, 7.97% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.90% from other races, and 4.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.70% of the population.

There were 3,071 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 111.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,483, and the median income for a family was $32,284. Males had a median income of $26,710 versus $17,711 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,620. About 15.1% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

Oil industry

Enbridge tank farm, 2010

Currently

Cushing is a major hub in oil supply connecting the Gulf Coast suppliers with northern consumers. Cushing is famous as a price settlement point for West Texas Intermediate on the New York Mercantile Exchange[6] and has been cited[9] as the most significant trading hub for crude oil in North America. As of 2007, Cushing holds 5 to 10 percent of the total U.S. crude inventory. Signs made of a pipe and valve on the major highways near town proclaim Cushing to be the "Pipeline Crossroads of the World", and the town is surrounded by several tank farms. Most storage tanks are owned by four entities: oil giant BP, and energy-transport and logistics firms Enbridge Energy Partners, Plains All American Pipeline, and SemGroup Energy Partners. On July 13, 2010, BP announced it will sell its assets in Cushing to Magellan Midstream Partners.[10]

On April 13, 2007, the now-defunct Lehman Brothers released a study which claimed that West Texas Intermediate (WTI) Crude at Cushing is no longer an accurate gauge of world oil prices.[11] A large stockpile of oil at the facility (mainly due to a Valero refinery shutdown[12]) has caused prices to be artificially depressed at the Cushing pricing point. This gap relative to world markets increased in early 2009 to nearly $12 per barrel at times, causing Saudi Arabia, a leading oil exporter and OPEC member, to announce an end to benchmarking its own oil prices to WTI.[13]

Cushing is the southernmost hub of the proposed 2,148-mile (3,457 km) Keystone Pipeline that transports up to 435,000 barrels per day (69,200 m3/d) of crude oil from Hardisty, Alberta to a huge tank farm in Patoka, Illinois, onward to a refinery in Wood River, Illinois, as well as to the Cushing Hub.[14]

In 2006, with production increases from Canadian oil sands, one pipeline reversed direction, bringing crude into the Cushing Hub, rather than delivering crude from Cushing to oil refineries.[citation needed]

The Enbridge’s Spearhead line connects Chicago and Cushing with a 125,000 barrels per day (19,900 m3/d) pipeline.[15]

Historically

In the early 20th century, Cushing was a center for exploration of and production from nearby oil fields. At least two refineries operated in the town. As the oil fields started to run dry, starting in the 1940s, production and refining became less important. However, the maze of pipelines and tanks that had been built led to the NYMEX choosing Cushing as the official delivery point for its light sweet crude futures contract in 1983.

Education

The Cushing school district has seven schools that include a preschool, four elementary schools, a middle school, and a high school. The district serves approximately 1,800 students.[16]

List of schools

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ "AISRI Dictionary Database Search--prototype version. "River", Southband Pawnee". American Indian Studies Research Institute. http://zia.aisri.indiana.edu/~dictsearch/cgi-bin/testengltoxsrchNP.pl?host=zia&pass=&hasfont=0&srchlang=English&srchstring=okla&database=skiri&srchtype=AND&sortlang=English&sndformat=ra&maxhits=200&find=Run_Search. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
  4. ^ CensusViewer:Population of the City of Cushing, Oklahoma[1]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cushing, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma and History (accessed June 9, 2010).
  6. ^ a b "Light Sweet Crude Oil Futures". http://www.nymex.com/CL_spec.aspx.
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  8. ^ "Historical Weather for Cushing, Oklahoma, United States". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=937&refer=.
  9. ^ 2005 OK Refinery Report PDF Download
  10. ^ "Magellan snaps up BP midstream package". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2010-07-13. http://www.upstreamonline.com/live/article221489.ece. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
  11. ^ Margot Habiby (2007-04-13). "WTI Prices Don't Reflect International Oil Market, Study Says". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=apum7LTvljdc.
  12. ^ Mark Shenk (2007-04-13). "Crude Oil in New York Falls on Increasing Supplies in Oklahoma". http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a_T5lNxayQ14.
  13. ^ Javier Blas. "Saudi drops WTI oil contract". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2034dd70-c42c-11de-8de6-00144feab49a.html.
  14. ^ Ken Newton (June 09, 2010). "Oil Flows Through Keystone". St. Joseph, Missouri: St. Joseph News-Press. http://www.downstreamtoday.com/news/article.aspx?a_id=22938.
  15. ^ "Liquids Pipelines". Enbridge. http://www.enbridgeus.com/Delivering-Energy/Pipeline-Systems/Liquids-Pipelines/. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  16. ^ Cushing School District, Education.com (accessed June 9, 2010).
  17. ^ "Kelly Cook". databaseFootball.com. http://www.databasefootball.com/players/playerpage.htm?ilkid=COOKKEL01. Retrieved December 15, 2012.

External links