Cummins B Series engine

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Cummins B Series
Overview
ManufacturerCummins
Also called4B/6B/6BT/6BTA
Production1984–1998
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationI4 and I6 diesel engines
Displacement
  • 3.3 liter
  • 3.9 liter
  • 5.9 liter
Cylinder block alloyIron
Cylinder head alloyIron
Valvetrain2 Valves per cylinder
Combustion
TurbochargerHolset Engineering
Fuel systemDirect injection
ManagementMechanical
Fuel typeDiesel
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Dimensions
Dry weight1100 lbs
 
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The Cummins B Series is a family of straight-four and straight-6 diesel truck and industrial piston engines manufactured by Cummins. The B Series is known for the popular 3.9 liters (238.0 cu in) straight-four and 5.9 liters (360.0 cu in) straight-six motors. A 3.3 liters (201.4 cu in) straight-four is also available. The B Series is widely used in many segments, including pickup trucks (the Dodge Ram), buses, military vehicles, construction equipment, and marine. Some of the construction and marine applications have actually featured two B series Cummins engines. The engine was originally designed by Cummins and Case Corporation for commercial truck applications, and gained much of its popularity after appearing in the Dodge Ram, in 1989.

6.7 Demo
6.7 Euro

General engine features[edit]

The B-series features engine bores machined directly into the block (rather than the wet liners used on earlier Cummins engines). It was also set apart by the use of a shallow one-piece head, requiring closer tolerances than in other Cummins products.[1] Manufacture first took place in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, with additional plants soon added in Mexico, Turkey, and Darlington, UK.[2]

Every Cummins powered Dodge Pickup (since initial production in 1989) has come equipped with a turbocharger. It uses a gear-drive camshaft for extra reliability. Also specified is a deep-skirt engine block and extremely strong connecting rods. A Holset turbocharger is used. The original B Series was updated with 24 valves and an electronic engine management system to become the ISB in 1998.

First generation[edit]

Cummins B Series
Overview
ManufacturerCummins
Also called4B/6B/6BT/6BTA
Production1984–1998
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationI4 and I6 diesel engines
Displacement
  • 3.3 liter
  • 3.9 liter
  • 5.9 liter
Cylinder block alloyIron
Cylinder head alloyIron
Valvetrain2 Valves per cylinder
Combustion
TurbochargerHolset Engineering
Fuel systemDirect injection
ManagementMechanical
Fuel typeDiesel
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Dimensions
Dry weight1100 lbs

3.9L/4BT[edit]

The 3.9L/4BT Cummins is an engine in the same family as the 5.9 liters (360.0 cu in) Cummins turbodiesels. The 3.9L/4B is an inline four-cylinder turbodiesel that was popular for many step van applications, including bread vans and other commercial vehicles. It has also gained popularity as an engine swap into smaller trucks. The lowest powered 4B produces 55 hp (41 kW).[1]

6BT[edit]

5.9 Cummins in 1991 Dodge Ram with the valve covers removed exposing the Valvetrain

The 5.9 liters (360.0 cu in) 6BT, aka the Cummins "12-valve" was the first member of the "B" engine family to be used in a light truck vehicle. The 6BT used Robert Bosch GmbH fuel systems, injector, and VE rotary pump and P7100 inline injection pumps. Some early 6BT's were supplied with CAV rotary pumps instead, before the Bosch system became the sole standard. This engine started life in 1984 designed as an agricultural engine, for use in Case agricultural equipment.[3][full citation needed] After 1989, the 6BT engine was adapted to be used in light duty, medium duty and select heavy duty trucks and buses.

Appearing in the 1989–1998 Dodge Ram pickup truck, it quickly became a popular alternative to the large V8 gasoline engines normally used in full-size pickup trucks, while producing nearly double the torque at low engine speeds. The 6BT was also made popular for its fuel mileage over gasoline engine counterparts, roughly doubling fuel mileage in some applications. The Dodge Ram was the only diesel pickup, during the time, that featured Direct Injection and didn't rely on glowplugs for cold weather start up.[3]

The 1989–1993 Dodge Ram pickup engines were rated at 160 horsepower (119 kW; 162 PS) and 400 pound-feet (542 N·m). The fuel systems for these Dodge Rams featured Bosch injectors and Bosch VE mechanically controlled fuel injection pumps. Charged air coolers were added 1991. In 1994 when Dodge introduced the completely restyled Ram, changes were made to the 6BT as well.[citation needed]

ISB 5.9[edit]

Cummins B Series
Overview
ManufacturerCummins
Also calledISB
Production1998–2002
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationI4 and I6 diesel engines
Displacement5.9 Liters
Cylinder bore102.0 MM
Piston stroke120.0 MM
Cylinder block alloyIron
Cylinder head alloyIron
Valvetrain4 Valves per cylinder
Combustion
TurbochargerHolset Engineering
Fuel systemDirect injection
ManagementMechanical with electronic advance.
Fuel typeDiesel
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Dimensions
Dry weight1100 lbs
Chronology
Predecessor6BT

The 5.9 liters (360.0 cu in) ISB (Interact System B) is one of the largest straight-six engines ever produced for light truck vehicles, and the improved high output 600 version was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2004.

One unusual feature of the ISB is that it is a multi-valve pushrod engine design. The engine displaces 5,883 cubic centimetres (359.0 cu in), with a 102.0 millimetres (4.02 in) cylinder bore and 120.0 millimetres (4.72 in) piston stroke. A turbocharger is used to increase the output in the high-compression (17.2:1 in recent versions) diesel. It is an all-iron engine with forged steel connecting rods, an assembled camshaft, and a cast aluminum intake manifold. The engine is produced in Columbus, Indiana.

The ISB uses electronically controlled Robert Bosch GmbH fuel systems, unlike the 6BT which were mechanical. Early ISB engines utilize Bosch injectors and a Bosch VP44 high pressure pump. Later ISB designs have common rail fuel injection, and once again utilized Bosch injectors and a Bosch CP3 high pressure pump.[3]

QSB[edit]

The 5.9 liters (360.0 cu in) QSB (Quantum System B) is the off road, heavy duty version of the ISB. Typically used in marine, agricultural, and construction applications, these engines share many of the same parts as the ISB and utilize the same Bosch fuel system.

Dodge Ram ISB[edit]

Midway through model year 1998, the Dodge Ram switched from the 6BT to the ISB to meet updated emissions requirements. Like other ISB's, these engines started out using the Bosch VP44 rotary injection pump. The VP44 setup meant that timing and fuel could be precisely controlled, which led to cleaner emissions. However, VP44 failure rates were very high versus the older P7100 injection pump. The compression ratio in these engines was 16.3:1. The 1998–2000 ISB was rated at 215 horsepower (160 kW; 218 PS) and 420 pound-feet (569 N·m) when equipped with the 47RE automatic transmission. The 1998 ISB was rated at 235 horsepower (175 kW; 238 PS) and 420 pound-feet (569 N·m) when equipped with the manual transmission. The 1999–2000 ISB was rated at 235 horsepower (175 kW; 238 PS) and 460 pound-feet (624 N·m) when equipped with a manual transmission. For the 2001–2002 model years, a standard output and high output ISB Cummins engine was offered. The standard output, which was the same as the previous engines was rated to 235 horsepower (175 kW; 238 PS) and 460 pound-feet (624 N·m) when equipped with either a manual transmission or automatic. The high output ISB was rated at 245 horsepower (183 kW; 248 PS) and 505 pound-feet (685 N·m), and only a NV5600 six-speed manual transmission was offered behind it. The high output engine was different in a few ways from the standard output engine. The high output ISB had higher compression (17.1:1), powdered metal valve seat inserts and a larger flywheel. The Bosch fuel system was reworked as well to allow increase fuel delivery and a slight increase in timing. Also in 2001 a new cam gear was introduced thus eliminating the need for a crank position sensor on the later 01-02 models.

Dodge Ram ISB CR[edit]

5.9 Cummins Common rail fuel injection system

For the 2003 model year, the Cummins was introduced with Bosch high pressure common rail fuel injection, again increasing power output. On automatic equipped vehicles, the 47RE was upgraded internally to increase durability and torque capacity, now known as the 48RE. The 2003 rating for the Dodge truck was released at 305 horsepower (224 kW; 308 PS) and 555 foot-pounds (752 N·m). Midway through the 2004 model year, the Cummins 600 was introduced, producing 325 horsepower (242 kW; 330 PS) at 2,900 rpm and 600 pound-feet (813 N·m) at 1,600 rpm. This engine was noticeably quieter than the previous engines.[4][non-primary source needed]

ISB 6.7[edit]

Cummins B Series
Overview
ManufacturerCummins
Also calledISBe
Production2007–present
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationI4 and I6 diesel engines
Displacement6,690 cc
Cylinder bore107.0 mm
Piston stroke124.0 mm
Cylinder block alloyIron
Cylinder head alloyIron
Combustion
TurbochargerHolset Engineering
Fuel systemDirect injection(Common rail)
ManagementElectronic
Fuel typeDiesel
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Dimensions
Dry weight1100 lbs

The B6.7 is the latest version of the B Series. It is currently the largest straight-six engine produced for a light duty truck. It produces 350 horsepower (261 kW; 355 PS) and 650 pound-feet (881 N·m) in the 2007.5 and newer Dodge 2500/3500 pickup trucks with the Chrysler-built six-speed 68RFE automatic transmission built at the Kokomo Transmission plant in Kokomo, Indiana. Engine torque is slightly reduced with the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission at 350 horsepower (261 kW; 355 PS) and 610 pound-feet (827 N·m). The 2007 and newer 3500 Cab & Chassis trucks only get the 305 horsepower (227 kW; 309 PS) and 610 pound-feet (827 N·m) version of the B6.7, whether it has the Aisin AS68RC or the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission. As for the 2008 4500/5500 medium duty Chassis Cabs or the Sterling Bullet Trucks, they will also receive the 350 horsepower (261 kW; 355 PS) and 610 pound-feet (827 N·m) version of the B6.7, whether it has the Aisin AS68RC or the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission. Late model 2011 Ram trucks produce 350 horsepower (261 kW; 355 PS) and 800 pound-feet (1,085 N·m), with the exhaust brake rating boosted from 150 horsepower (112 kW; 152 PS) to 222 horsepower (166 kW; 225 PS).[5]

Changes over the 5.9[edit]

There are many changes over the previous B5.9 for the Dodge truck, the most obvious being the larger displacement. The B6.7 had an increase of cylinder bore and piston stroke to 4.21 inches (106.9 mm) and 4.88 inches (124.0 mm) stroke, respectively, thereby giving a displacement of 408 cubic inches (6,686 cc).[6][full citation needed]

Development[edit]

Cummins reduced development time and cost by 10%–15% using KIVA, a Computational Fluid Dynamics code developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to develop its 6.7L diesel engine, which met 2010 emission standards as early as 2007.[7] The 6.7L ISB engine was launched in the European EURO4 application and the Tier III off high-way application before being released in the Dodge Truck and US EPA medium duty automotive applications in January 2007.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kennett, Pat (June 1986). "The Cummins Beat". TRUCK (London, UK: FF Publishing Ltd): 54–55. 
  2. ^ Kennett, p. 57
  3. ^ a b c Cummins 5.9-liter and 6.7-liter inline six-cylinder diesel engines. Allpar.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-04.
  4. ^ "ISB web". Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  5. ^ 2011 Ram 2500 and 3500 – Capability – Powertrain. Ramtrucks.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-04.
  6. ^ Cummins Engines. Everytime.cummins.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-04.
  7. ^ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/adv_combustion_goals.pdf

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