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Culinary art, where "culinary" means "related to cooking", is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals. People working in this field – especially in establishments such as restaurants – are commonly called "chefs" or "cooks", although, at its most general, the terms "culinary artist" and "culinarian" are also used. Table manners ("the table arts") are sometimes referred to as a culinary art.
Culinarians are required to have knowledge of food science, nutrition and diet and are responsible for preparing meals that are as pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate. After restaurants, their primary places of work include delicatessens and relatively large institutions such as hotels and hospitals.
Sales – Introduce chefs and business owners to new products and equipment relevant to food production and service.
Instructors – Teach aspects of culinary arts in high school, vocational schools, colleges, recreational programs, and for specialty businesses (for example, the professional and recreational courses in baking at King Arthur Flour).
As of 2013, with the catering industry having come through the Great Recession in better shape than most others, and rising interest in quality food, the job market for qualified chefs is robust, especially in London.
The occupation outlook for chefs, restaurant managers, dietitians, and nutritionists is fairly good, with "as fast as the average" growth. The culinary industry continues to be male-dominated, with the latest statistics showing only 19% of all 'chefs and head cooks' being female.