From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article
|This article possibly contains original research. (June 2014)|
|This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (June 2014)|
|Part of a series on|
|The Book of Mormon|
|Historical authenticity and criticism|
|Prophets and People|
|Book of Mormon portal|
Critics reject Smith's explanation of the origin of the Book of Mormon. Joseph Smith said that the Book of Mormon was originally an ancient native-American record written on golden plates, and that God gave him the power to translate it into English. Critics note that there is no physical proof of the existence of golden plates; Smith said that the angel Moroni reclaimed the plates once he had completed the translation. To provide support towards the existence of the plates, Smith included two statements in the Book of Mormon saying that the Book of Mormon witnesses had been shown the plates, and their testimony is typically published at the beginning of the Book of Mormon. While none of these men ever retracted their statement, critics nevertheless discount these testimonies for varying reasons, one of which is because most of these men were closely interrelated. In later years Martin Harris, one of the witnesses, confessed that none of the witnesses saw the plates with their natural eyes but only through a vision.
Critics deny that the Book of Mormon is of ancient origin. In 1834 a publication by Eber D. Howe claimed that Smith had plagiarized an unpublished manuscript written by Solomon Spalding, a theory that has been generally rejected in the 20th century. Critics today have varying theories about the true authorship of the Book of Mormon, but most conclude that Smith composed the book himself, possibly with the help of Oliver Cowdery, drawing from information and publications available in his time, including the King James Bible, The Wonders of Nature, and View of the Hebrews.
There are approximately 21 editions of the Book of Mormon in existence, 12 unique to the LDS tradition, 5 unique to the RLDS tradition, and 3 shared editions. Although there are numerous editions of the Book of Mormon, only the latest editions are held as authoritative by each tradition (1983 for LDS and 1953 for RLDS).
Critics challenge the changing nature of the text of the Book of Mormon.
Critics and supporters of the Book of Mormon disagree on how the Book of Mormon was translated. The only thing Joseph Smith ever said on the process was "through the medium of the urim and thummim I translated the record, by the gift and power of God." Martin Harris, Joseph's second scribe, and David Whitmer, a witness of Joseph translating the plates to Oliver Cowdery, both describe the process as an exact word-for-word translation.
Modern LDS scholars tend to fall into two schools: tight control and loose control. Those who believe in tight control interpretation believe Joseph had very little leeway in the words used in dictating the Book of Mormon (but without being restricted to exact word-for-word). Those who believed in loose control interpretation believe that "'ideas were revealed to Joseph Smith' and he put them 'into his own language.'"
The significance of the translation process is how errors in the text are defended.
Critics view the language patterns, phrases, and names in the Book of Mormon as evidence that it is not authentic.
Joseph Smith claimed to have translated the Book of Mormon from a language called Reformed Egyptian. It is said that archaeologists and Egyptologists have found no evidence that this language ever existed. However, Hugh Nibley, in a book entitled "Teachings of the Book of Mormon" (a transcription of lectures he gave on The Book of Mormon) on page 13 states "And at the very same time, the priests who used to be in the former royal court at Napata fled farther to Meroe. There they produced a new type of Egyptian at this time which was Meroitic (I've got a picture of it here). When you compare the Anthon transcripts with Meroitic, it's very impressive. In fact, Brother Bushman back at Brown University (which is one of the four universities in the country where Egyptian has always been a big thing), showed them the Anthon transcript, and Parker immediately recognized them as Meroitic. He said, "They're the closest thing you can get to Meroitic." ... This is the new Egyptian which was invented way up the Nile, way up in Meroe, which is even south of Napata. That's the Nubian kingdom. It's very interesting that so many Book of Mormon names come from way up there."
Furthermore, the Book of Mormon says that at least some ancestors of Native Americans came from the Jerusalem area; however, Native American linguistic specialists have not found, so far to date, any Native American language that appears to be related to languages of the ancient Near East.
Supporters point out the interesting elements of the creation drama that turn up in temple, tomb, or coffin texts from ancient Egypt that is described in detail in the Book of Mormon as the coronation of King Mosiah long before these ancient texts were understood by Egyptologists.
Supporters of the Book of Mormon note its repeated use of chiasmus—a figure of speech utilizing inverted parallelism—and claim it is evidence to support the book's ancient origin. Critics argue that while chiasmus appears in short form within ancient classical works of Rome, the complex stylization of these passages found in the Book of Mormon is more similar to that found in works of the Renaissance and into the 18th/19th centuries.
Critics claim that language patterns in the Book of Mormon indicate that it is merely a repetition of rhetorical patterns found in the Old Testament. They point out that the Book of Mormon contains many words and phrases that are not consistent with the time frame or location of the stories included in the book.
Some critics theorize that Smith derived the account of the golden plates from treasure-hunting stories of William Kidd. Critics base this theory on the similarity of the names from Smith's account—Moroni and Cumorah—to the location Moroni, Comoros, related to Kidd's hunt for treasure. Apologists argue that it was unlikely that Smith had access to this material since at the time of the writing and publishing of the Book of Mormon his family were living in backwoods America, were very poor and there was no public library available to read such a book.[not in citation given]
The Book of Mormon contains extensive quotation of the King James Bible, especially Isaiah. Furthermore, the language of the Book of Mormon mimics the KJV because it was written with Elizabethan English. The Book of Mormon has serious discrepancies in its grammar, however, as it switches between Elizabethan English and 19th century English. Indeed, many grammatical errors are directly related to Elizabethan renderings of words compared to their 19th century counterparts.
The Book of Mormon quotes 25,000 words from the KJV Old Testament and over 2,000 words from the KJV New Testament.
The names in the Book of Mormon can be interpreted as problamatic. Many are either biblical, formed from a rhyming pattern, changed by a prefix or suffix, or are Greek. Furthermore, Jaredites and Nephites shared names despite the Jaradites being of a different time, place, and language than the Nephites. Lastly, some people would occasionally name their sons after their fathers, something not practiced in antiquity.
Critics discredit the historical accuracy of the Book of Mormon. They note various issues, including anachronisms and lack of archaeological and genetic evidence.
Critics point out that the Book of Mormon contains references to various plants and animals (horses, swine, etc.) that did not exist in the Americas at the time of the story. Critics also point out that the Book of Mormon contains references to various technologies (chariots, steel, etc.) that did not exist in the Americas at the time of the story.
Apologists offer varying views on these anachronisms, typically countering them in one of two ways. One claim is that archaeological evidence may exist that has not yet been found. Another is that Joseph Smith used English words in a generic way, sometimes referring to an item other than that which the direct English word would imply.
|Subject||Reference Verse||Problem||BOM Date|
|Cimeter (Scimitar)||Mosiah 9:16||And it came to pass that I did arm them with bows, and with arrows, with swords, and with cimeters, and with clubs, and with slings, and with all manner of weapons which we could invent, and I and my people did go forth against the Lamanites to battle. (See also Enos 1:20; Mosiah 10:8; Alma 2:12; 27:29; 43:18, 20, 37; 44:8; 60:2; Heaman 1:14)||Scimitars (Curved Swords) didn't exist until the 500's.||200-187 B.C.|
|Elephants||Ether 9:19||And they also had horses, and asses, and there were elephants and cureloms and cumoms; all of which were useful unto man, and more especially the elephants and cureloms and cumoms.||Elephants weren't in America at the time of the BOM.|
|Honey Bees||Ether 2:3||And they did also carry with them deseret, which, by interpretation, is a honey bee; and thus they did carry with them swarms of bees, and all manner of that which was upon the face of the land, seeds of every kind.||Honey Bees were introduced to America by the Spanish.|
|Horses||1 Nephi 18:25||And it came to pass that we did find upon the land of promise, as we journeyed in the wilderness, that there were beasts in the forests of every kind, both the cow and the ox, and the ass and the horse, and the goat and the wild goat, and all manner of wild animals, which were for the use of men. And we did find all manner of ore, both of gold, and of silver, and of copper. (Horses see 2 Nephi 12:7; 2 Nephi 15:28; Enos 1:21; Alma 18:9, 10,12; 20:6; 3 Nephi 3:22; 4:4; 6:1; 21:14; Ether 9:19; )||Horses didn't exist in America until the 16th Century.||590-589 B.C|
|Steel||1 Nephi 4:9||And I beheld his sword, and I drew it forth from the sheath thereof; and the hilt thereof was of pure gold, and the workmanship thereof was exceedingly fine, and I saw that the blade thereof was of the most precious steel. (See also 1 Neph 16:18; 2 Nephi 5:15; Jarom 1:8; Ether 7:9)||The Jews didn't have steel at that time.||600-592 B.C.|
|Silk||Alma 4:6||And it came to pass in the eighth year of the reign of the judges, that the people of the church began to wax proud, because of their exceeding riches, and their fine silks, and their fine-twined linen, and because of their many flocks and herds, and their gold and their silver, and all manner of precious things, which they had obtained by their industry; and in all these things were they lifted up in the pride of their eyes, for they began to wear very costly apparel. Jews didn't have silk then.||The Jews didn't have silk at that time.||86-83 B.C.|
|Wheat & Barley||Mosiah 9:9||And we began to till the ground, yea, even with all manner of seeds: with seeds of corn and of wheat and of barley....||Wheat and Barley were brought to America by Europeans.|
|Sheep||Ether 9:18||and also all manner of cattle, of oxen and cows, and of sheep and of swine and of goats....||Europeans brought Sheep to America.|
|Goats||1 Ne. 18:25||both the cow and the ox and the ass and the horse and the goat and the wild goat....||Europeans introduced the first domesticated goats to America.|
|Cattle and Cows||Ether 9:18||and also all manner of cattle, of oxen and cows, and of sheep and of swine and of goats....||There is no evidence that Old World cattle (members of the genus Bos) inhabited the New World prior to European contact in the 17th century AD.|
|Swine||Ether 9:18||and also all manner of cattle, of oxen and cows, and of sheep and of swine and of goats....||Europeans brought swine to America.|
|This section requires expansion. (February 2011)|
Critics point out that there are many inconsistencies and implausibilities in the story of the Israelites coming from the Mid-East to the Americas, and in the geographical descriptions of the lands in the Americas in which the stories take place.
Scholars currently have no definitive location for the Book of Mormon setting, but many believe that Mesoamerica is the location. There is currently no found archaeological evidence to support the Book of Mormon.
The Book of Mormon suggests that the Native Americans are descended from people who came to the Americas by boat from the Middle East. However, scientists have used techniques involving genetic markers to conclude that Native American genes are East Asian and not Middle Eastern in origin.
Apologists argue that 1) not all Native Americans are Lamanite and 2) the Middle Eastern genes in Native Americans who are Lamanite may have been diluted beyond what can now be detected or lost in time through genetic shifts such as founder effect, bottleneck effect, genetic drift, or admixture. This theory is untestable with current scientific methods.
Critics reject the belief that the Book of Mormon is of divine origin; they discredit the book's divine origin by discrediting Joseph Smith. Critics point out that Joseph Smith also translated the Book of Abraham. Unlike the Book of Mormon, fragments of the documents from which Smith translated the Book of Abraham are available for inspection; Egyptologists find no resemblance between the original text and Smith's translation, casting doubt on Smith's claimed divine gift of translation.
Supporters point out that the Church has never claimed that the fragments of papyri which include facsimile 1, 2, and 3 are where Joseph Smith obtained his material for the Book of Abraham. These fragments are from the Egyptian Book of the Dead which was just one of the scrolls from Egypt that Joseph Smith had in his possession. When these fragments were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum many years ago, Hugh Nibley wrote a book called "The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, An Ancient Egyptian Endowment" showing how the fragments that had been discovered had nothing to do with the Book of Abraham but everything to do with Egyptian funeral texts from "The Book of the Dead".
Though most changes are small spelling and grammar corrections, critics claim that even these are significant in light of Smith's claims of divine inspiration. Critics assert that some of these changes were systematic attempts to hide the book's flaws.