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Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are overlapping syndromes of widespread muscle weakness and neurological dysfunction that can develop in critically ill patients receiving intensive care. CIP was first described by Dr. Charles F. Bolton in a series of five patients. CIP and CIM have similar symptoms and presentations and are often distinguished largely on the basis of specialized electrophysiologic testing or muscle and nerve biopsy. The causes of CIP and CIM are unknown, though they are thought to be a possible neurological manifestation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents, which are widely used in intensive care, may contribute to the development of CIP and CIM, as may elevations in blood sugar, which frequently occur in critically ill patients.