Crime prevention

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Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.

Studies[edit]

Criminologists such as Gottfredson, McKenzie, Eck, Farrington, Sherman, Waller and others have been at the forefront of analyzing what works to prevent crime. Prestigious commissions and research bodies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations, the United States National Research Council, the UK Audit Commission and so on, have analyzed their and others' research on what lowers rates of interpersonal crime.

They agree that governments must go beyond law enforcement and criminal justice to tackle the risk factors that cause crime because it is more cost effective and leads to greater social benefits than the standard ways of responding to crime. Interestingly, multiple opinion polls also confirm public support for investment in prevention. Waller uses these materials in Less Law, More Order to propose specific measures to reduce crime as well as a crime bill.

Some of the highlights of these authorities are set out below with some sources for further reading. The World Health Organization Guide (2004) complements the World Report on Violence and Health (2002) and the 2003 World Health Assembly Resolution 56-24 for governments to implement nine recommendations, which were:

  1. Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention.
  2. Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence.
  3. Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs and prevention of violence.
  4. Promote primary prevention responses.
  5. Strengthen responses for victims of violence.
  6. Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby promote gender and social equality.
  7. Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention.
  8. Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other mechanisms to protect human rights.
  9. Seek practical, internationally agreed responses to the global drugs and global arms trade.

The authoritative commissions agree on the Role of Municipalities, because they are best able to organize the strategies to tackle the risk factors that cause crime. The European Forum for Urban Safety and the United States Conference of Mayors have stressed that municipalities must target the programs to meet the needs of youth at risk and women who are vulnerable to violence.

To succeed, they need to establish a coalition of key agencies such as schools, job creation, social services, housing and law enforcement around a diagnosis.

Types[edit]

Several factors must come together for a crime to occur:

  1. an individual or group must have the desire or motivation to participate in a banned or prohibited behavior;
  2. at least some of the participants must have the skills and tools needed to commit the crime; and,
  3. an opportunity must be acted upon.

Primary prevention address individual and family level factors correlated with later criminal participation. Individual level factors such as attachment to school and involvement in pro-social activities decrease the probability of criminal involvement.

Family level factors such as consistent parenting skills similarly reduce individual level risk. Risk factors are additive in nature. The greater the number of risk factors present the greater the risk of criminal involvement. In addition there are initiatives which seek to alter rates of crime at the community or aggregate level.

For example, Larry Sherman from the University of Maryland in Policing Domestic Violence (1993) demonstrated that changing the policy of police response to domestic violence calls altered the probability of subsequent violence. Policing hot spots, areas of known criminal activity, decreases the number of criminal events reported to the police in those areas. Other initiatives include community policing efforts to capture known criminals. Organizations such as America's Most Wanted and Crime Stoppers these help catch the criminals.

Secondary prevention uses techniques focusing on at risk situations such as youth who are dropping out of school or getting involved in gangs. It targets social programs and law enforcement at neighborhoods where crime rates are high. The use of secondary crime prevention in cities such as Birmingham and Bogotá have achieved large reductions in crime and violence. Programs that are focused on youth at risk have been shown to significantly reduce crime.[citation needed]

Tertiary prevention is used after a crime has occurred in order to prevent successive incidents. Such measures can be seen in the implementation of new security policies following acts of terrorism such the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Situational crime prevention uses techniques focusing on reducing on the opportunity to commit a crime. Some of techniques include increasing the difficulty of crime, increasing the risk of crime, and reducing the rewards of crime.[1]

Situational Crime Prevention[edit]

Introduction and Description[edit]

Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a relatively new concept that employs a preventative approach by focussing on methods to reduce the opportunities for crime. SCP focuses on the criminal setting [2] and is different from most criminology as it begins with an examination of the circumstances that allow particular types of crime. By gaining an understanding of these circumstances, mechanisms are then introduced to change the relevant environments with the aim of reducing the opportunities for particular crimes. Thus, SCP focuses on crime prevention rather than the punishment or detection of criminals and its intention is to make criminal activities less appealing to offenders. [3]

SCP focuses on opportunity-reducing processes that:

The theory behind SCP concentrates on the creation of safety mechanisms that assist in protecting people by making criminals feel they may be unable to commit crimes or would be in a situation where they may be caught or detected, which will result in them being unwilling to commit crimes where such mechanisms are in place. The logic behind this is based on the concept of rational choice - that every criminal will assess the situation of a potential crime, weigh up how much they may gain, balance it against how much they may lose and the probability of failing, and then act accordingly.

One example of SCP in practice is automated traffic enforcement. Automated Traffic Enforcement Systems (ATES) use automated cameras on the roads to catch drivers who are speeding and those who run red lights. Such systems enjoy use all over the world. These systems have been installed and are advertised as an attempt to keep illegal driving incidences down. As a potential criminal, someone who is about to speed or run a red light knows that their risk of getting caught is nearly 100% with these systems. This completely disincentivizes the person from speeding or running red lights in areas in which they know ATES are set up. Though not conclusive, evidence shows that these type of systems work. In a Philadelphia study, some of the city's most dangerous intersections had a reduction of 96% in red light violations after the installation and advertisement of an ATES system.[4]

Applying SCP to Information Systems (IS)[edit]

It has been suggested that the theory behind situational crime prevention may also be useful in improving information systems (IS) security by decreasing the rewards criminals may expect from a crime. SCP theory aims to affect the motivation of criminals by means of environmental and situational changes and is based on three elements:

IS professionals and others who wish to fight computer crime could use the same techniques and consequently reduce the frequency of computer crime that targets the information assets of businesses and organisations. Designing out crime from the environment is a crucial element of SCP and the most efficient way of using computers to fight crime is to predict criminal behaviour, which as a result, makes it difficult for such behaviour to be performed. SCP also has an advantage over other IS measures because it does not focus on crime from the criminal’s viewpoint. Many businesses/organisations are heavily dependent on information and communications technology (ICT) and information is a hugely valuable asset, which means IS has become increasingly important. [6] While storing information in computers enables easy access and sharing by users, computer crime is a considerable threat to such information, whether committed by an external hacker or by an ‘insider’ (a trusted member of a business or organisation). [7] After viruses, illicit access to and theft of, information form the highest percentage of all financial losses associated with computer crime and security incidents. [7] Businesses need to protect themselves against such illegal or unethical activities, which may be committed via electronic or other methods and IS security technologies are vital in order to protect against amendment, unauthorised disclosure and/or misuse of information. [7] Computer intrusion fraud is a huge business with hackers being able to find passwords, read and alter files and read email, but such crime could almost be eliminated if hackers could be prevented from accessing a computer system or identified quickly enough. [8]

Despite many years of computer security research, huge amounts of money being spent on secure operations and an increase in training requirements, there are frequent reports of computer penetrations and data thefts at some of the most heavily protected computer systems in the world. [9] Criminal activities in cyberspace are increasing with computers being used for numerous illegal activities, including email surveillance, credit card fraud and software piracy. [10] As the popularity and growth of the Internet continues to increase, many web applications and services are being set up, which are widely used by businesses for their business transactions. [11]

In the case of computer crime, even cautious companies or businesses that aim to create effective and comprehensive security measures may unintentionally produce an environment, which helps provide opportunities because they are using inappropriate controls. [12] Consequently, if the precautions are not providing an adequate level of security, the IS will be at risk. [12]

Situational Crime Prevention and Fraud[edit]

In computer systems that have been developed to design out crime from the environment, one of the tactics used is risk assessment, where business transactions, clients and situations are monitored for any features that indicate a risk of criminal activity. Credit card fraud has been one of the most complex crimes worldwide in recent times and despite numerous prevention initiatives, it is clear that more needs to be done if the problem is to be solved. [13] Fraud management comprises a whole range of activities, including early warning systems, signs and patterns of different types of fraud, profiles of users and their activities, security of computers and avoiding customer dissatisfaction. [14] There are a number of issues that make the development of fraud management systems an extremely difficult and challenging task, including the huge volume of data involved; the requirement for fast and accurate fraud detection without inconveniencing business operations; the ongoing development of new fraud to evade existing techniques; and the risk of false alarms. [14]

Generally, fraud detection techniques fall into two categories: statistical techniques and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques.

Important statistical data analysis techniques to detect fraud include:

Important AI techniques for fraud management are:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1], Barthe, Emmanuel. Crime Prevention Publicity Campaigns. U.S. Department of Justice. 2006, p.9.
  2. ^ Willison R., Understanding the perpetration of employee computer crime in the organisational context, Information and Organisation, Vol 16, p304 - 324, 2006
  3. ^ a b Clark R.V., Situational Crime Prevention Successful Case Studies, 2nd Edition, Harrow and Heston, New York p2, 1997
  4. ^ Page B.H., Automated Traffic Enforcement Systems: The Efficacy of Such Systems and Their Effect on Traffic Law, p13, 2009
  5. ^ Me G., Spagnoletti P., Situational Crime Prevention and Cyber-crime Investigation: the Online Pedo-pornography Case Study, Eurocon 2005
  6. ^ Willison R. Siponen M. Overcoming the insider: reducing employee computer crime through Situational Crime Prevention, Communications of the ACM, Vol 52(9), 2009
  7. ^ a b c Beebe N.L., Rao V.S., Using Situational Crime Prevention Theory to Explain the Effectiveness of Information Systems, Security, Proceedings of the 2005 SoftWars Conference,[2], Las Vegas 2005
  8. ^ Bolton R., Hand D.J., Statistical Fraud Detection: A Review, Statistical Science, Vol 17(3), p235 - 255, 2002
  9. ^ Garfinkel S.L., Inside Risks, The Cybersecurity Risk, Communications of the ACM, Vol 55 (6), p29 - 32, 2012
  10. ^ Sukula S.K., Mittal, K.K., Computer crimes and preventive measures in cyber law, Journal of Social Welfare and Management, Vol 2(2), p63 - 70, 2010
  11. ^ Thakar U., Dagdee N., Varma S., Pattern Analysis and Signature Extraction for Intrusion Attacks on Web Services, International Journal of Network Security and Its Applications, Vol 2(3), p190 - 205, 2010
  12. ^ a b Willison R., Backhouse J., Opportunities for computer crime: considering systems risk from a criminological perspective, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol 15, p 403 - 414, 2006
  13. ^ Prabowo H.Y. Building our defence against credit card fraud: a strategic review, Journal of Money Laundering Control, Vol 14(4) p371 -386, 2011
  14. ^ a b c Palshikar G.K., The Hidden Truth: data analysis can be a strategic weapon in your company’s management and control of fraud, [3] Intelligent Enterprise 2002
  15. ^ Predictive policing

Bibliography[edit]

  • Audit Commission, Misspent youth: Young people and crime, London: Audit Commission for Local Authorities and NHS in England and Wales, 1996
  • Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, Beating crime, London: Home Office, 1998
  • Home Office, Reducing offending: An assessment of research evidence on ways of dealing with offending behaviour, edited by Peter Goldblatt and Chris Lewis. London: Home Office, Research and Statistics, 1998
  • International Centre for Prevention of Crime, Urban Crime Prevention and Youth at Risk: Compendium of promising strategies and programs from around the world, Montreal, 2005
  • International Centre for Prevention of Crime, Crime Prevention Digest II: Comparative Analysis of Successful Community Safety, Montreal, 1999
  • International Centre for Prevention of Crime, 100 Crime Prevention Programs to Inspire Action across the World, Montreal, 1999
  • National Research Council (US), Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence, edited by Wesley Skogan, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004
  • National Research Council (U.S.), Juvenile crime, juvenile justice, edited by Joan McCord, et al., Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001
  • National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Violence in families: assessing prevention and treatment programs, Committee on the Assessment of Family Violence Interventions, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Edited by Rosemary Chalk and Patricia King. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004
  • Sherman, Lawrence, David Farrington, Brandon Welsh, Doris MacKenzie, 2002, Evidence Based Crime Prevention, New York: Routledge
  • Skogan, Wesley and Susan Hartnett, Community Policing: Chicago Style, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997
  • United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Guidelines for the Prevention of Crime, New York: United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, 2002
  • Waller, Irvin, Less Law, More Order: The Truth about Reducing Crime, West Port: Praeger Imprint Series, 2006
  • Welsh, Brandon, and David Farrington, eds., Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims, and Places, New York: Springer, 2006
  • World Health Organization, World report on road traffic injury prevention: Summary, Geneva, 2004
  • World Health Organization, Preventing violence: A guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva: Violence and Injuries Prevention, 2004
  • World Health Organization, World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva: Violence and Injuries Prevention, 2002

External links[edit]