Crepis

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Crepis
Crepis jacquini a1.jpg
Crepis jacquinii
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Tribe:Cichorieae
Genus:Crepis
L.
Species

about 200, see text

 
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This article is about the genus of plant. For the bryozoan genus, see Crepis (bryozoan).
Crepis
Crepis jacquini a1.jpg
Crepis jacquinii
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Tribe:Cichorieae
Genus:Crepis
L.
Species

about 200, see text

Crepis, commonly known in some parts of the world as hawksbeard or hawk's-beard (but not to be confused with the related genus Hieracium similarly appellated), is a genus of annual and perennial flowering plants of the family Asteraceae superficially resembling the dandelion, the most conspicuous difference being that Crepis usually has branching scapes with multiple heads (though solitary heads can occur). The genus name Crepis derives from the Greek krepis, meaning "slipper" or "sandal", possibly in reference to the shape of the fruit.[1]

The genus is distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and Africa,[2] and several plants are known as introduced species practically worldwide.[1] The center of diversity is in the Mediterranean.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Crepis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the broad-barred white moth. The fly Tephritis formosa is known to attack the capitula of this plant.[3]

Seeds of Crepis species are an important food source for some bird species.[4]

Uses[edit]

In Crete, Greece the leaves of Crepis commutata which is called glykosyrida (γλυκοσυρίδα) is eaten raw, boiled, steamed or browned in salads. Another two species on the same island, Crepis vesicaria, called kokkinogoula (κοκκινογούλα), lekanida (λεκανίδα) or prikousa (πρικούσα) and a local variety called maryies (μαργιές) or pikrouses (πικρούσες) have both its leaves and tender shoots eaten boiled by the locals.

Secondary metabolites[edit]

The genus Crepis is a rich source of costus lactone-type guaianolides,[5] a class of sesquiterpene lactones.

Phenolics found in Crepis include luteolin-type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Crepis species contain the caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[6]

Diversity[edit]

There are about 200 species in the genus.[1][2]

Crepis pyrenaica
Crepis aurea

Species include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Crepis. Flora of North America.
  2. ^ a b c Enke, N. and B. Gemeinholzer. (2008). Babcock revisited: New insights into generic delimitation and character evolution in Crepis L.(Compositae: Cichorieae) from ITS and matK sequence data. Taxon 57(3) 756-68.
  3. ^ White, I.M. (1984). Tephritid Flies (Diptera: Tephritidea). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 10 pt 5a. Royal Entomological Society of London. pp. 134 pp. ISBN 0901546682. 
  4. ^ D. L. Buckingham and W. J. Peach (2005). "The influence of livestock management on habitat quality for farmland birds". Animal Science 81: 199–203. doi:10.1079/asc50700199. 
  5. ^ Zidorn, C. (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. 
  6. ^ Zidorn, C., et al. (2008). "Phenolics as chemosystematic markers in and for the genus Crepis (Asteraceae, Cichorieae)". Scientia Pharmaceutica (Vienna, Austria) 76: 743–50. doi:10.3797/scipharm.0810-25. ISSN 0036-8709. 

External links[edit]