On November 19, 2013, Deeds was critically wounded during an incident at his home in Millboro, in Bath County, Virginia, where he was stabbed multiple times by his son Austin "Gus" Deeds. Gus was found dead from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in the home. Senator Deeds recovered and was discharged three days later. 
A Washington Post article published April 12, 2010, revealed that Deeds and his wife Pam had divorced as of February 4, (as the Washington Post described) "a casualty of a nearly 20-year pursuit of a lifelong ambition that kept him away from home".
Deeds won election to the Virginia House of Delegates 1991 by defeating incumbent Emmett Hanger in a 57%–41% victory. This started a nine-year career in the Virginia House of Delegates.
In the House of Delegates, Deeds introduced several legislative proposals, including introducing Megan's Law to the Virginia General Assembly, which was passed in 1998. Other legislation promoted by Deeds include environmental protection and anti-drug laws.
Deeds won a special state senate election in 2001 to succeed Emily Couric, who had died of pancreatic cancer. During Deeds' Senate tenure, legislation that Deeds proposed includes:
SB150 – Requires that direct recording electronic devices[clarification needed] be equipped to produce a contemporaneous paper record of each vote that can be verified by the voter and used in recounts. (2006)
SB891 – Requires the board of visitors of each public two-year and four-year institution of higher education to provide reduced in-state tuition rates for the children of faculty and staff members employed by the institution, effective for the 2008–2009 academic year. (2007) Not enacted, rolled into SB982 and left in the Senate Finance Committee.
SB34 – Increases the mandatory retirement age for judges from age 70 to age 75. (2008)
SB669 – Permits ABC agents to check the national criminal database when conducting background checks on prospective licensees. (2008)
Deeds was also a proponent of a Senate resolution to close Virginia's so-called "gun show loophole", and made public appearances to generate support for the measure.
In the general election campaign, running against Republican nominee Bob McDonnell, Deeds ran on his record as a moderate Democrat who supported gun rights, strong punishment for criminals, and the death penalty. Deeds' stance on gun control included supporting a ban on semi-automatic firearms, but that did not prevent him from earning the endorsement of the NRA, which cited his patronage of a state constitutional amendment that guaranteed the right to hunt. McDonnell outspent Deeds by almost three million dollars (McDonnell spent $5,962,067 to Deeds' $3,103,585); $2,084,089 of McDonnell's campaign contributions were funneled through the Republican State Leadership Committee, exploiting a loophole in state law that was closed by the General Assembly shortly after the election.
The initial result of the vote was 49.96%–49.95%, with Deeds behind by fewer than 350 votes. Due to the closeness of the race's outcome, Deeds asked for a recount. Judge Theodore Markow of Richmond set the recount for December 20, 2005, a date so close to the inauguration that invitations to the event were mailed without a name for the Attorney General to be inaugurated. The recount reaffirmed the earlier outcome, and McDonnell became Attorney General.
Deeds announced his intention to seek the Democratic nomination for governor on December 13, 2007. At the end of a close three-way race against former DNC chair Terry McAuliffe and former State Delegate Brian Moran, Deeds won by a large margin, taking about 50 percent of the vote in the June 9, 2009 Democratic Primary. He again faced McDonnell, the Republican nominee, in the November 2009 general election. McDonnell was selected at his party's nominating convention. Deeds lost the gubernatorial race by a wide margin to McDonnell, 41.25% to 58.61%.
In 2005, Deeds said that he disagreed with the Supreme Court ruling (Roper v. Simmons) making it unconstitutional to execute juveniles. He argued that it was the jury's duty to determine when and where the death penalty should come into play.
In 2006, Deeds was part of the unanimous Democratic coalition that voted to oppose an amendment to the Virginia State Constitution that would ban same-sex marriage.
Deeds announced he would be voting against the above amendment because he said that the Amendment went too far in its definition of marriage.
In July 2009, Deeds stated he believes "Marriage is between a man and a woman" and declined to say gay marriage is a civil right.
Deeds was endorsed by the NRA during his 2005 Attorney General run over Republican Bob McDonnell. In the 2009 gubernatorial race, the NRA endorsed McDonnell.
Deeds proposed a measure, which ultimately failed, that would eliminate private sales at gun shows. The bill's proponents called it a measure to prevent another disaster like the Virginia Tech massacre even though the shooter purchased his firearms from licensed gun dealers and not at a gun show.
Deeds signed a pledge to repeal the law that restricts citizens from buying more than one handgun a month. The law was repealed by his opponent, Bob McDonnell in February 2012 
Deeds has voted multiple times against Castle Doctrine bills
In January 2011, Deeds voted against Senate Bill 876 (Castle Doctrine) which would have allowed “a lawful occupant use of physical force, including deadly force, against an intruder in his dwelling who has committed an overt act against him, without civil liability.”
In February 2011, Deeds was one of eight senators on the Senate Courts of Justice Committee who “passed by indefinitely” House Bill 1573, defeating the bill by an 8 to 4 margin.
Deeds voted to designate English as the official language of the Commonwealth.
Deeds voted to make undocumented immigrants ineligible for state and local benefits.
Deeds voted against a bill allowing undocumented immigrants to pay in-state tuition rates.
Deeds introduced SB926 to create a 7-member non-partisan committee to oversee the 2010–2011 Redistricting plan. In 2009, the Bill passed the State Senate 39-0, but was killed by the House of Delegates' Committee on Privileges and Elections. In 2010, the bill once again passed the Senate with unanimous vote of 40–0 before once again being killed in committee by the House of Delegates
Deeds said that, if elected Governor of Virginia, he would use his veto power and amendment powers to try and force the House of Delegates into accepting a version of SB926.
Deeds' gubernatorial campaign has issued a plan called "Better Schools. Better Jobs" to detail Deeds' plans regarding education. The plan calls for up to $15,000 in student loans for 4-year college students, and for creating partnerships with community colleges and traditional universities.
Deeds was criticized by the McDonnell campaign for lacking a coherent transportation plan. During the second debate between the candidates, McDonnell held up a blank sheet of paper as a representation of the Deeds plan.
Deeds later wrote a column in the Washington Post laying out his plan, which includes the possibility of a new gas tax or other tax.
^Deeds for Virginia. "Meet Senator Deeds". Retrieved May 25, 2009. "Using his relationships with law enforcement officers and his experience as a prosecutor, Deeds wrote the state law that has turned the tide against homegrown illegal methamphetamine drug labs. In addition to his work to clean up the Kim-Stan landfill Superfund site, Senator Deeds also wrote one of the most progressive laws to preserve open space and protect the environment."
^Sluss, Michael (March 4, 2005). "Roanoke senator drops statewide nomination bid". The Roanoke Times (The Times-World Corporation). Retrieved June 13, 2009. "Roanoke state Sen. John Edwards has dropped plans to seek the Democratic nomination for Virginia attorney general, saying he could not devote enough time to mount a competitive campaign. Edwards' decision leaves state Sen. Creigh Deeds of Bath County as the lone candidate for the Democratic nomination, which will be determined in a June 14 primary."
^Jenkins, Chris (September 30, 2005). "NRA Backs Democrat For Va. Attorney General". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved April 30, 2010. "Virginia Sen. R. Creigh Deeds, who is running for attorney general, received the endorsement of the National Rifle Association"
^Nuckols, Christina (February 4, 2006). "Group says McDonnell backing wasn't tied to one donor". Landmark Communications. Retrieved June 12, 2009. "McDonnell has been working with lawmakers this year to draft legislation that will require the state leadership committee and similar groups to disclose their donors."
^"Mr. McDonnell's Dodge". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). October 28, 2005. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
^Sluss, Michael (December 22, 2005). "Close race finally ends; McDonnell beats Deeds". The Roanoke Times (The Times-World Corporation). Retrieved June 13, 2009. "McDonnell became the official winner Wednesday night when a three-judge panel in Richmond Circuit Court certified his 360-vote victory over Democrat Creigh Deeds."