Cree

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Cree
Nēhiyaw
CreeCamp1871.jpg
Nēhiyaw camp near Vermilion, Alberta, in 1871
Total population
over 200,000
Regions with significant populations
Canada, United States
Languages
Cree, English, French
Related ethnic groups
Métis, Oji-Cree, Ojibwe, Innu
 
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Cree
Nēhiyaw
CreeCamp1871.jpg
Nēhiyaw camp near Vermilion, Alberta, in 1871
Total population
over 200,000
Regions with significant populations
Canada, United States
Languages
Cree, English, French
Related ethnic groups
Métis, Oji-Cree, Ojibwe, Innu

The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations/Native Americans in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada. The major proportion of Cree in Canada live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories. About 38,000 live in Quebec.[1]

In the United States, this Algonquian-speaking people historically lived from Lake Superior westward. Today, they live mostly in Montana, where they share a reservation with the Ojibwe (Chippewa).[2]

The documented westward migration over time has been strongly associated with their roles as traders and hunters in the North American Fur Trade.[3]

Sub-groups[edit]

The linguistic subdivisions of the Cree.

The Cree are generally divided into eight groups based on dialect and region:

Collectively the Cree used the autonym Nēhilawē (those who speak our language).[5] They used "Cree" to refer to their people only when speaking the languages of the European colonists, French or English.[6]

Political organization[edit]

Historical[edit]

As hunter-gathers, the basic unit of organization for Cree peoples were the lodge, a group of perhaps eight or a dozen people, usually the families of two separate but related married couples, who lived together in the same wigwam (domed tent) or teepee (conical tent), and the band, a group of lodges who moved and hunted together. In the case of disagreement lodges could leave bands, and bands could be formed and dissolved with relative ease, but as there is safety in numbers, all families would want to be part of some band, and banishment was considered a very serious punishment. Bands would usually have strong ties to their neighbours through intermarriage and would assemble together at different parts of the year to hunt and socialize together. Besides these regional gatherings, there was no higher-level formal structure, and decisions of war and peace were made by consensus with allied bands meeting together in council. People could be identified by their clan, which is a group of people claiming descent from the same common ancestor; each clan would have a representative and a vote in all important councils held by the band (compare: Anishinaabe clan system).[7]

Each band remained independent of each other; however, Cree-speaking bands tended to work together and with their neighbours against outside enemies. Those Cree who moved onto the Great Plains and adopted bison hunting, called the Plains Cree, were allied with the Assiniboine and the Saulteaux in what was known as the "Iron Confederacy" which was a major force in the North American fur trade from the 1730s to the 1870s.

When a band went to war, they would nominate a temporary military commander, called a okimahkan, loosely translated as "war chief." This office was different from that of the "peace chief", a leader who had a role more like that of diplomat. In the run-up to the 1885 North-West Rebellion, Big Bear was the leader of his band, but once the fighting started Wandering Spirit became war leader.

Contemporary[edit]

There have been several attempts to create a national political organization that would represent all Cree peoples, at least as far back as a 1994 gathering at the Opaskwayak Cree First Nation reserve.[8]

Name[edit]

The name "Cree" is derived from the Algonkian-language exonym Kirištino˙, which the Ojibwa used for tribes around Hudson Bay. The French colonists and explorers, who spelled the term Kilistinon, Kiristinon, Knisteneaux,[9] Cristenaux, and Cristinaux, used the term for numerous tribes which they encountered north of Lake Superior, in Manitoba, and west of there.[10] The French used these terms to refer to various groups of peoples in Canada, some of which are now better distinguished as Severn Anishinaabe (Ojibwa), who speak languages different from the Algonquin.[11]

Depending on the community, the Cree may call themselves by the following names: the nēhiyawak, nīhithaw, nēhilaw, and nēhinaw; or ininiw, ililiw, iynu (innu), or iyyu. These names are derived from the historical autonym nēhiraw (uncertain meaning) or from the historical autonym iriniw (meaning "person"). Cree using the latter autonym tend to be those living in the territories of Quebec and Labrador.[12]

Language[edit]

The Cree language (also known in the most broad classification as Cree-Montagnais, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi, to show the groups included within it) is the name for a group of closely related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Labrador. It is the most widely spoken aboriginal language in Canada.[13] The only region where Cree has official status is in the Northwest Territories, together with eight other aboriginal languages.[14][15]

The two major groups: Nehiyaw and Innu, speak a mutually intellligible Cree dialect continuum, which can be divided by many criteria. In a dialect continuum, "It is not so much a language, as a chain of dialects, where speakers from one community can very easily understand their neighbours, but a Plains Cree speaker from Alberta would find a Quebec Cree speaker difficult to speak to without practice."[16]

One major division between the groups is that the Eastern group palatalizes the sound /k/ to either /ts/ (c) or to /tʃ/ (č) when it precedes front vowels. There is also a major difference in grammatical vocabulary (particles) between the groups. Within both groups, another set of variations has arisen around the pronunciation of the Proto-Algonquian phoneme *l, which can be realized as /l/, /r/, /y/, /n/, or /ð/ (th) by different groups. Yet in other dialects, the distinction between /eː/ (ē) and /iː/ (ī) has been lost, merging to the latter. In more western dialects, the distinction between /s/ and /ʃ/ (š) has been lost, both merging to the former.

If the consonants /p/ /t/ /c/ and /k/* used in Cree are compared[17] to their English counterparts, it is noticeable that there is little distinction of voicing. In English, voicing marks the difference of meaning in words such as "bin : pin". Since there is not distinction of voicing in Cree, it is common for variants of /t/ to sound more like [d] without any difference in meaning.[18]

Victor Gollum lists Cree in the Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages as one of fifty five languages that have more than 1,000 speakers which are being actively acquired by children.[19]

Identity and ethnicity[edit]

In Canada[edit]

Cree Indian, taken by G. E. Fleming, 1903
Nehiyaw girl (1928).

The Cree are the largest group of First Nations in Canada, with over 200,000 members and 135 registered bands.[20] This large population may be a result of the Crees' traditional openness to inter-tribal marriage. Together, their reserve lands are the largest of any First Nations group in the country.[20] The largest Cree band and the second largest First Nations Band in Canada after the Six Nations Iroquois is the Lac La Ronge Band in northern Saskatchewan.

Given the traditional Cree opening to mixed marriages, it is acknowledged by academics that all bands are ultimately of mixed heritage and multilingualism and multiculturalism was the norm. In the West mixed bands of Cree, Saulteaux and Assiniboine, all partners in the Iron Confederacy, are the norm. However in recent years, as indigenous languages have declined across western Canada where there were once three languages spoken on a given reserve, there may now only be one. This has led to a simplification of identity, and it has become "fashionable" for bands in many parts of Saskatchewan to identify as "Plains Cree" at the expense of a mixed Cree-Salteaux history. There is also a tendency for bands to recategorize themselves as "Plains Cree" instead of Woods Cree or Swampy Cree. Neal McLeod argues this is partly due to the dominant culture's fascination with Plains Indian culture as well as the greater degree of written standardization and prestige Plains Cree enjoys over other Cree dialects.[8]

The Métis (from the French, Métis - of mixed ancestry) are people of mixed ancestry, such as Nehiyaw (or Anishinaabe) and French, English, or Scottish heritage. According to Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, the Métis were historically the children of French fur traders and Nehiyaw women or, from unions of English or Scottish traders and northern Dene women (Anglo-Métis). Generally in academic circles, the term métis can be used to refer to any combination of persons of mixed Native American and European heritage, although historical definitions for Métis remain. Canada's Indian and Northern Affairs broadly define Métis as those persons of mixed First Nation and European ancestry, while The Métis National Council defines a Métis as "a person who self-identifies as Métis, is distinct from other Aboriginal peoples, is of historic Métis Nation Ancestry and who is accepted by the Métis Nation".[21]

In the United States[edit]

At one time the Cree were located in northern Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana. Today majority live as part of the federally recognized Chippewa Cree tribe, located on the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, and in minority as "Landless Cree" on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation and as "Landless Cree" and "Rocky Boy Cree" on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, all in Montana. The Chippewa Cree share the reservation with the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians, who form the "Chippewa" (Ojibwa) half of the Chippewa Cree tribe. On the other Reservations, the Cree minority share the Reservation with the Assiniboine, Gros Ventre and Sioux tribes. Traditionally, the southern limits of the Cree territory in Montana were the Missouri River and the Milk River.

First Nation communities[edit]

Illustration of a Snake woman (left) and a Nehiyaw woman (right), c. 1840-1843, Karl Bodmer

1 Naskapi (Iyiyiw and Innu)

2 Montagnais
a Eastern Montagnais (Innu)

b Western Montagnais (Nehilaw and Ilniw)

3 Atikamekw (Nehiraw)

4 James Bay Cree
Iyiyiw and Iyiniw Eeyou Istchee/Baie-James Territory

5 Moose Cree (Mōsonī / ililī)

6 Swampy Cree (Maškēkowak / nēhinawak)

7 Woodland Cree
a Rocky Cree (Asinīskāwiyiniwak)

b Woods Cree (Sakāwithiniwak / nīhithawak)

8 Plains Cree (Paskwāwiyiniwak / nēhiyawak)
a Downstream People (Māmihkiyiniwak)

i Calling River / Qu'Appelle Cree (Kātēpwēwi-sīpīwiyiniwak)

  • Ocean Man First Nation (also Assiniboine and Saulteaux)
  • Pheasant Rump Nakota Nation (also Nakoda and Saulteaux)
  • Whitebear First Nation

ii Rabbit skins (Wāpošwayānak)

  • Kahkewistahaw First Nation
  • Okanese First Nation (also Saulteaux)
  • Pasqua First Nation (also Saulteaux)
  • Sakimay First Nation (also Saulteaux)

iii Touchwood Hills Cree (Pasākanacīwiyiniwak)(also Saulteaux) – Punnichy, Saskatchewan

iv Cree-Assiniboine / Young Dogs (Nēhiyawi-pwātak)(also Assiniboine)

  • Landless Cree of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana
  • Landless Cree and Rocky Boy Cree of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Montana
  • Piapot First Nation

b Upstream People (Natimiyininiwak)

i Beaver Hills Cree (Amiskwacīwiyiniwak)

ii House Cree (wāskahikaniwiyiniwak)

iii Parklands Cree / Willow Cree (Paskokopāwiyiniwak)

  • Beardy's and Okemasis First Nations
  • James Smith First Nation
  • Peter Chapman Cree Nation (incorporated into James Smith First Nation, but with some legal status as a separate entity).[22]

iv River Cree (Sīpīwininiwak)

v Northern Plains Cree / Western Woodland Cree / Bush Cree (Sakāwiyiniwak)

Notable leaders[edit]

Other notable people[edit]

Mähsette Kuiuab, chief of the Cree ca. 1840-1843, Karl Bodmer

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. 
  2. ^ "Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. 
  3. ^ Alexander Mackenzie, [1] Voyages from Montreal Through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in 1789 and 1793.
  4. ^ a b Moose Cree First Nation community profile
  5. ^ "[T]heir native name", David Thompson, Travels in Western North America 1784-1812, Victor G. Hopwood, ed., Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1971
  6. ^ David Pentland, "Synonymy", in Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 6, June Helm, ed., Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1981, p. 227
  7. ^ http://johncochrane.ca/drupal/node/84
  8. ^ a b http://www2.brandonu.ca/library/CJNS/20.2/cjnsv20no1_pg437-454.pdf
  9. ^ MacKenzie, Alexander. (1793) Journal of a Voyage from Fort Chipewyan to the Pacific Ocean in 1793.
  10. ^ David Thompson noted, "The French Canadians...call them 'Krees', a name which none of the Indians can pronounce...", "Life with the Nahathaways", in David Thompson: Travels in Western North America 1784-1812, Victor G. Hopwood, ed., Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1971, p. 109.
  11. ^ Adolph M. Greeberg, James Morrison[disambiguation needed], "Group Identities in the Boreal Forest: The Origin of the Northern Ojibwa", Ethnohistory 29(2):75-102 (1982)
  12. ^ David H. Pentland, "Synonymy", in "West Main Cree", in Handbook of North American Indians, v. 6, June Helm, ed., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1981, p. 227.
  13. ^ Canada: 2006 Census
  14. ^ Northwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 (as amended 1988, 1991-1992, 2003)
  15. ^ "Languages of Canada", Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Note: The western group of languages includes Swampy Cree, Woods Cree and Plains Cree. The eastern language is called Moose Cree. Retrieved 21 September 2008.
  16. ^ "Cree", Language Geek. Retrieved 21 September 2008.
  17. ^ * Most dialects have these consonants.
  18. ^ Wolfart, H. C., and Janet F. Carroll. Meet Cree: A Guide to the Language : Second Edition, New York: University of Alberta, 1981
  19. ^ C. Moseley (April 23, 2007), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages (Curzon Language Family Series), Routledge, pp. 3–4, ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0, 070071197X 
  20. ^ a b Source: Canadian Geographic
  21. ^ "Citizenship: The Métis Nation". Métis National Council. 
  22. ^ http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/peter_chapman_first_nation.html
  23. ^ Mistawasis First Nation
  24. ^ AHTAHKAKOOP FIRST NATION
  25. ^ not to confused with the Ahtahkakoop (‘Starblanket’), of the House Cree (Wāskahikaniwiyiniwak)
  26. ^ Ahchuchhwahauhhatohapit
  27. ^ Nehiyawak Leadership
  28. ^ by his knowledge of Sioux spirituality and medicine the Cree called him Payipwāt - 'One who knows the secrets of the Sioux'
  29. ^ they had more than any other Cree group adapted to the life on the Plains, were known as horse thieves and warriors, and as they drove little trade, they were feared by the Hudson's Bay Company as troublemakers
  30. ^ KIWISÜNCE
  31. ^ PAYIPWAT
  32. ^ Cree Nation
  33. ^ not to be confused with the Ojibwe leader Mino-giizhig ("Fine Day")
  34. ^ Poundmaker was given his name because he had a special skill in the construction of Buffalo Pounds for slaying of grazing bison.
  35. ^ Back to Batoche
  36. ^ Pitikwahanapiwiyin
  37. ^ Treaty 6 - The Signing
  38. ^ Peechee's Band
  39. ^ clue to his Métis descent, as the ermine fur is white in winter and brown in summer - as well as the skin of a Métis
  40. ^ The People Who Own Themselves
  41. ^ Beardy's Okemasis First Nation
  42. ^ was the daughter of George Sutherland’s first wife Papamikiwis (‘Swinger’)
  43. ^ Indians Who Fought in the 1885 Resistance
  44. ^ One Arrow
  45. ^ Little Pine First Nation
  46. ^ Lucky Man Cree Nation
  47. ^ PAPEWES
  48. ^ Maskepetoon
  49. ^ Red Pheasant First Nation
  50. ^ Kahkewistahaw First Nation
  51. ^ Kahkewistahaw band
  52. ^ PASKWÜW
  53. ^ Métis Who Withdrew From Treaty

References[edit]

External links[edit]