AT&T Stadium (previously known as Cowboys Stadium) is a city-owned stadium with a retractable roof in Arlington, Texas, United States. It serves as the home of the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League. It replaced the partially covered Texas Stadium, which opened in 1971 and served as the Cowboys' home through the 2008 season. It was completed on May 27, 2009. The stadium seats 80,000, making it the fourth largest stadium in the NFL by seating capacity. The maximum capacity of the stadium, including standing room, is 105,000. The Party Pass (open areas) sections are behind seats in each end zone and on a series of six elevated platforms connected by stairways.
It has the world's largest column-free interior and the fourth largest high definition video screen, which hangs from 20-yard line to 20-yard line. The facility can also be used for a variety of other activities outside of its main purpose (professional football) such as concerts, basketball games, boxing matches, college football and high school football contests, soccer matches, and motocross races.
Originally estimated to cost $650 million, the stadium's current construction cost was $1.15 billion, making it one of the most expensive sports venues ever built. To aid Cowboys owner and general manager Jerry Jones in paying the construction costs of the new stadium, Arlington voters approved the increase of the city's sales tax by 0.5 percent, the hotel occupancy tax by 2 percent, and car rental tax by 5 percent. The City of Arlington provided over $325 million (including interest) in bonds as funding, and Jones covered any cost overruns. Also, the NFL provided the Cowboys with an additional $150 million loan, following its policy for facilitating financing for the construction of new stadiums.
A pair of nearly 300 ft (91 m)-tall arches spans the length of the stadiumdome, anchored to the ground at each end. The new stadium also includes "more than 3,000 Sony LCD displays throughout the luxury suites, concourses, concession areas and more, offering fans viewing options that extend beyond the action on the field". and a center-hung video display board that was the largest high-definition television screen in the world. It has since been surpassed in size by the video board at Charlotte Motor Speedway. Glass doors, allowing each end zone to be opened, were designed and constructed by Dallas-based Haley-Greer glass systems.
The retractable roof was designed by structural engineering firm Walter P Moore and the systems were implemented by mechanization consultants Uni-Systems. The electrification of Cowboys Stadium's retractable roof was developed by VAHLE, Inc. These Kinetic Architecture fundamentals will be employed in order to create quick conversions of the facility to accommodate a variety of events. When the design was officially unveiled on December 12, 2006, it showed that, from inside the stadium, the roof (membrane installed by K Post Company of Dallas) will look very similar to the Texas Stadium roof, with its trademark hole. However, it can be covered by the retractable roof panel to protect against the elements.
A Dallas Cowboys Hall of Fame is planned for the Hall of Fame level. The drawings also include a site for a large sculpture northeast of the stadium, close to Randol Mill Road.
The stadium is the only NFL stadium that is completely inaccessible via public transportation, including bus, light rail, or people mover systems. The only way to get to the stadium is via car or private shuttle. On September 1, 2012, thousands of fans were forced to wait in hours-long taxi lines after the Alabama vs Michigan football game.
Mayor Robert Cluck claimed to use eminent domain as a last resort but most of the properties refused to sell to the city, indicating that the incentive program as not adequate according to Glenn Sodd, an attorney representing some home owners in the area. Attorney Bob Cohen, who is representing some of the property owners, said the city gave many of his clients little incentive to sell. He said he represents the owners of some rental properties who were counting on that monthly revenue for their retirement and said most homeowners can't afford to re-build or buy in that area with the incentive package.
1994: Cowboys owner Jerry Jones says he wants to expand the 65,000-seat Texas Stadium by up to 40,000 seats, add retractable roof panels and install a climate-control system to make the stadium a year-round venue for sporting events, including the Super Bowl, concerts, and conventions.
1997–2000: The Cowboys hold preliminary talks with Arlington officials about building a stadium there. The team also publicly discusses a $260 million plan to upgrade Texas Stadium. In 2000, the Cowboys compile a list of potential stadium sites, which include Grapevine, Coppell, and Arlington. The team continues negotiating with Irving to renovate Texas Stadium.
2001: Jones says Arlington is a leading contender for a $500 million stadium. The primary site considered is the 2,000 acres (810 ha) Lakes of Arlington tract on Farm Road 157. Other cities in the running include Grapevine and Grand Prairie. In October, Jones discusses the new stadium with the mayors of Arlington, Irving, Grapevine, and Dallas.
2003: The Cowboys ask the Irving City Council to extend their lease at Texas Stadium, which expires at the end of the 2008 season, on a year-to-year basis. They narrow their search to sites in Las Colinas and Dallas, and state legislators file bills that would allow Dallas County to increase its hotel occupancy and car rental taxes to pay for a new stadium.
2004: In April, the Cowboys announce plans to build a $650 million stadium at Fair Park in Dallas. The deal requires $425 million in public financing from a 3 percent hotel-occupancy tax and a 6 percent car-rental tax. The deal falls apart in June when Dallas County commissioners say they cannot justify asking voters to approve the team's request for $425 million in public funding. In July, the Cowboys and Arlington announce they are negotiating to locate the stadium near Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (then Ameriquest Field). In August, the Arlington City Council agrees unanimously to put before voters a tax increase that would fund the city's $325 million portion of the project. Voters approve the tax increase on November 2.
2005: Arlington and the Cowboys choose the site south of Randol Mill Road and east of Collins Street for the new stadium. The city begins notifying residents and property owners of its plans to acquire their property. The Cowboys hire the HKS architectural firm to design the stadium. Early blueprints show 414 luxury suites and a two-panel retractable roof. The city completes its sale of $297.9 million in bonds to pay for its portion of the construction. Demolition of houses begins November 1.
January 2006: The Cowboys hired Oklahoma-based Manhattan Construction as the general contractor for the stadium and the city completes its land purchases, although it still faces a number of lawsuits over land acquisition. Later that month, Tarrant County work crews begin demolition of more than 150 Arlington residences and small business structures to make room for the stadium.
March 2006: Alliance announced between Manhattan Construction and two general contractors, Rayco Construction of Grand Prairie and 3i Construction of Dallas, to manage the stadium's construction.
April 2006: Excavation begins by Mario Sinacola and Sons Excavating. By August, they had moved over 1.4 million cubic yards of earth, shaping a 13-to-14-acre (5.3 to 5.7 ha) stadium bowl an average of 54 feet (16 m) deep.
August 2006: Two construction cranes are raised on the site.
October 2006: The grass amphitheater on Randol Mill Road is leveled to make way for the extension of Baird Farm Road.
December 2006: The stadium's structure begins to go up and on December 12, Jerry Jones unveils the in-depth plans and designs of the stadium to the public.
January 2007: A construction worker is injured in a 20 ft (6 m) fall.
February 2007: Masonry work begins.
March 2007: Heldenfels Enterprises awarded the contract to manufacture and erect the pre-cast/pre-stressed concrete structural components and placement of them begins in April.
June 2007: Work on the retractable roof, designed by Uni-Systems, starts.
July 2007: Exterior facade and enclosure work began.
October 2007: First steel arch is completed.
Armed Forces Color Guard at Super Bowl XLV
February 2008: Second steel arch is completed.
June 2008: Jones commissions the world's largest 1080p HDTV, to hang above field.
June 2008: An electrician is electrocuted while working on the stadium. Two days before, three people were injured while assembling a crane.
2009: The stadium is scheduled for 'substantial completion' in June. The artificial-turf field was brought into the stadium in July. The Cowboys played their first pre-season home game on August 21 and their first regular-season home game on Sunday, September 20.
May 13, 2009: Jerry Jones announced the official name of the new venue as Cowboys Stadium.
February 6, 2011: The 2010 NFL Season Super Bowl was hosted at the Cowboys Stadium, which saw the Green Bay Packers defeat the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XLV.
July 25, 2013: Jerry Jones announced the official name of the venue would soon change to AT&T Stadium.
January 12, 2015: Serve as host of the first National Bowl College Championship game in the College Football Playoff era.
July 19, 2009: The first sporting event is held in Cowboys Stadium. Costa Rica won in the Gold Cup Quarterfinal game versus Guadeloupe, with the first goal scored in stadium history during the 2nd minute by Celso Borges. That match was immediately followed by a sold out match between Mexico and Haiti, with 82,252 in attendance.
August 21, 2009: The Cowboys played the Tennessee Titans in their first preseason home game and first American football game ever played at Cowboys Stadium. The game was nationally televised on FOX at 7 PM CDT. Dallas won the game 30–10, with one play from scrimmage blown dead when a ball punted by Titans' rookie punter A. J. Trapasso struck the main video screen after repeatedly striking it during pregame warmups.
September 20, 2009: The Cowboys played their first NFL regular season game in the new stadium, with former President and Texas resident George W. Bush handling the opening coin toss. The Cowboys lost to their long-time NFC East division rivals, the New York Giants, 33–31 with Eli Manning leading them on a last second field goal by Lawrence Tynes. It was televised on NBC. This game attracted a record-breaking crowd of 105,121. After the game, Manning signed the wall of the visitor's locker room with the message, "First win in the New Stadium".
September 28, 2009: The Cowboys got their first home regular season win. They beat the Carolina Panthers 21–7 with 90,588 in attendance. The game was televised on ESPN's Monday Night Football and marked a record 42nd win for the Cowboys on MNF.
Although the stadium had yet to sell naming rights, many fans started referring to the project with various nicknames such as JerryWorld, the "Death Star", "The Palace in Dallas" (for which announcer Bob Costas was criticized by the Arlington mayor), "Cowboys Cathedral", "Jerrassic Park" and others. There was also a petition by some fans to have the stadium named after longtime Cowboys' coach Tom Landry.
On May 13, 2009, Jerry Jones announced the official name as Cowboys Stadium.
On July 25, 2013, Jerry Jones announced that the Dallas Cowboys and AT&T had agreed to grant naming rights to AT&T, changing the name of Cowboys Stadium to AT&T Stadium, effective immediately. The sponsorship deal was reported to be worth about $17–19 million per year. This is AT&T's fourth major sports venue where it holds the naming rights, which includes San Francisco's AT&T Park, San Antonio's AT&T Center, and Jones AT&T Stadium in Lubbock.
During the debut preseason game of Cowboys Stadium, a punt by Tennessee Titans punter A. J. Trapasso hit the 2,100 in. screen above the field. The punt deflected backwards and was ruled in-play until Titans coach Jeff Fisher informed the officials that the punt struck the scoreboard. By rule, the down was replayed. Cowboys owner Jerry Jones believes that Trapasso was trying to hit the scoreboard, saying "If you look at how you punt the football, unless you're trying to hit the scoreboard, you punt the ball to get downfield. You certainly want to get some hangtime, but you punt the ball to get downfield, and you sure don't punt the ball down the middle. You punt it off to the side." Whether the screen would affect an opposing team's punting strategy has been debated. For teams with strategies centered on maximizing hang-time, physicist Christopher Moore of Longwood University has shown via computer simulation that well-kicked punts have the potential to hit the screen no matter the field position. Trapasso disputed Jones' suggestion that he was intentionally trying to hit the board, and other NFL punters have suggested that the board may pose a problem for longer hang-time punts. The screen was retrofitted with 16 custom winches using 11,000 ft. of 1-1/2" domestic galvanized wire rope to accomplish the safe, efficient transport of the video board in time to make room for U2's massive set during their 360° Tour, and was moved back down after the concert. The video board is also the primary attachment point for up to 370,000 pounds of concert and theatrical rigging.
On August 24, 2013, Cowboys punter Chris Jones became the second player to hit the scoreboard. He would concede a touchdown on the re-kick.
The video board has been surpassed by the board at Reliant Stadium. For basketball events played in Cowboys Stadium, such as the 2010 NBA All-Star Game, the video board is actually larger than the court.
NBA All-Star Weekend
From February 14 to February 16, 2010, the stadium hosted the 2010 NBA All-Star Game. With an announced crowd of 108,713, the game became the highest-attended basketball game in history, setting a new Guinness World Record. The East squad prevailed with a 141–139 victory over the West.
Cowboys playing at Cowboys Stadium
On January 3, 2010, the Cowboys defeated the Philadelphia Eagles in a 24 – 0 shutout to win the NFC East division title and complete the first ever back-to-back shutouts in franchise history.
On January 9, 2010, the Cowboys hosted their first playoff game in the new stadium, again playing the Eagles. Dallas won 34–14, breaking their infamous 13-year playoff win drought.
On February 6, 2011, the stadium hosted Super Bowl XLV. Others bidding for the game's location were the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona and Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Cowboys attempted to increase its capacity to 105,000 seats in hopes of setting the record for attendance at a Super Bowl. In a last-minute rush to add seats during one of the area's notorious ice-storms, seven construction workers were injured by ice sliding off of the stadium roof. Hours before kickoff, over 1,200 seats were blocked off in the interest of safety; according to a police officer in the affected area, the seats hadn't been finished in time for the fire marshal to inspect them. Approximately 800 people were given other seats inside the stadium, thus costing the NFL any chance of setting the Super Bowl attendance record (the final figure of 103,219 came 766 short of the record set in Super Bowl XIV). However, about 400 people were unable to be seated and were given a letter from the NFL that could be exchanged for three times the face value of the ticket. Those people were also given the option to either watch on a TV in one of the stadium's lounges, where they would be unable to see the field in person, or watch on screens outside the stadium. The NFL also announced that those 400 people would receive free tickets to the next year's Super Bowl. On February 9, 2011, the first lawsuit was filed against the NFL and Jerry Jones.
December 4, 2010: The final Big 12 Championship game is held at the stadium. The Oklahoma Sooners and Nebraska Cornhuskers rekindle their rivalry as the Sooners win 23–20.
Since NCAA rules require that a conference have twelve members in order to stage a football championship game, the Big 12 Championship Game is suspended indefinitely for the time being, as the Big 12 Conference currently has ten members (see 2010–13 NCAA conference realignment).
January 6, 2012: The Arkansas Razorbacks defeated Kansas State Wildcats by a score of 29 - 16. Attendance was 80,956, currently the third-highest attendance in Cotton Bowl history. During the game, Arkansas receiver Joe Adams returned a punt 51 yards for a touchdown, which was the first punt return for a touchdown in the Cotton Bowl since former Arkansas Razorback Lance Alworth returned a punt 49 yards for a touchdown in a 7-6 loss to Duke in 1961. The win also propelled the Razorbacks to a #5 ranking in the final AP poll and gave them their first 11-win season since joining the Southeastern Conference in 1991. Kansas State ended the season with a 10-3 record and ranked #15 in the final AP poll.
January 4, 2013: The #10 Texas A&M Aggies creamed the #12 Oklahoma Sooners 41–13 to finish the season with a 11–2 record. Johnny Manziel rushed for 229 yards (on just 17 carries) during the game, a Cotton Bowl record and national bowl record for a quarterback, rushing for two touchdowns and throwing for two more. Manziel totaled 516 total yards also a Cotton Bowl record. Though the halftime score was 14–13 Texas A&M, the Aggies went on to score 27 unanswered second half points to win the game. The game's attendance of 87,025 is the second highest in Cotton Bowl history, behind the 2009 game between Mississippi-Texas Tech at 88,175.
October 3, 2009: Cowboys owner Jerry Jones watched his alma mater, the Arkansas Razorbacks, defeat the Texas A&M Aggies 47–19 in the first of ten games called the Southwest Classic to be played at the stadium.
October 9, 2010: The Arkansas Razorbacks jumped out to an early 21-7 lead, and held on to defeat the Texas A&M Aggies by a score of 24-17.
October 1, 2011: The Arkansas Razorbacks rallied from an 18 point halftime deficit to defeat the Texas A&M Aggies 41-38.
Texas Farm Bureau Insurance Shootout
In 2009, the Big 12 Conference game between the Baylor Bears and Texas Tech Red Raiders was held at Cowboys Stadium, the first time in the series the match-up was held on a neutral site. The game was the highest attended in the series' history, with 71,964 in attendance.
After the 2010 game was held at the Cotton Bowl in Fair Park, Dallas during the State Fair of Texas, the series will return to Cowboys Stadium for the 2011 and 2012 games. The series' neutral site contract at Cowboys Stadium could continue until 2014.
Cowboys Stadium being set up for Texas vs. North Carolina game
December 19, 2009: In the first college basketball game at the stadium, before a crowd of 38,052, the Texas Longhorns defeated the defending national champion North Carolina Tar Heels, 103–90.
March 2013: 2013 NCAA Tournament South Regional featuring 3 games with the winner of the third going to the NCAA Men's Final Four
June 6, 2009 – Country music legend George Strait headlined in a summer concert at the opening of Cowboys Stadium along with performances by Reba McEntire, Blake Shelton, and Lee Ann Womack. 60,188 fans were in attendance, with the stadium project not entirely complete.
July 19, 2009 – Cowboys Stadium hosted two matches in the quarterfinal round of the 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup. Costa Rica defeated Guadeloupe, 5–1. Mexico shut out Haiti, 4–0 in front of 85,000 fans.
August 19, 2009 – Paul McCartney concluded his Summer Live '09 Tour at the stadium. This concert was the first official stadium event after the city of Arlington declared the stadium open.
September 7, 2009 - The first High School football game played at Cowboy Stadium was between Euless Trinity and Bingham High School (Utah). Trinity won 42-21
October 12, 2009 – U2 brought their 360° Tour to Cowboys Stadium, with Muse as their opening act. To make room for the large claw shaped stage, the video board was raised 25 feet (7.6 m) and was not used during the concert.
November 12, 2009 – The first Texas high school football playoff game played at Cowboys Stadium was between Bowie High School (Arlington, Texas) and Richland High School (North Richland Hills; Texas). 
February 2010 – The first MDA Muscle Walk in the Dallas/Fort Worth area takes place. This event was held annually, having returned in 2011, 2012, and 2013. That event is now moving to Rangers Ballpark in Arlington starting in 2014.
July 17, 2010 – On July 17, 2010, two of the top professional soccer clubs in Mexico – Club America and San Luis F.C. – will compete in a friendly at Cowboys Stadium. Club America will be making its second appearance at Cowboys Stadium. In 2009, Club America played Chelsea FC in the World Football Challenge in front of 57,229 fans at Cowboys Stadium.
June 5, 2011 – Cowboys Stadium hosted the opening matches of the 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup. Costa Rica defeated Cuba 5–0 in the opener, while Mexico defeated El Salvador 5–0 in the nightcap in front of 80,108 fans.
June 30, 2011 – The final round of the 2011 US Women's Open in bowling was played at Cowboys Stadium, with Leanne Hulsenberg winning.
Dec. 7-Dec. 17, 2011 -Cowboys Stadium hosted all the Texas 11-man football State Championships for the first time It was also the first time all 11-man State Championships were held in one location.
April 28, 2012 - Cowboys Stadium hosted the first opera simulcast in a sports venue in northern Texas when the Dallas Opera's performance of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" was broadcast to an audience of about 15,000 on the Cowboys Stadium video screen from a closed-circuit feed of the live performance at the Winspear Opera House in Dallas about twenty-five miles away.
May 25, 2013 - Taylor Swift plays a sold out show to 53,020 people as apart of the North American leg of her Red Tour. This show marked her second sellout at AT&T Stadium.
July 24, 2013 - Cowboys Stadium hosted the semifinals matches of the 2013 CONCACAF Gold Cup. United States defeated Honduras 3-1, Panama defeated Mexico 2-1, last game with the name of Cowboys Stadium.
On October 20, 2008, Cowboys owner Jones and then New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner announced a joint business venture called Legends Hospitality Management LLC which would operate the concessions and merchandising sales at the new Cowboys stadium in Arlington, Texas, and at the new Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, New York, along with the stadiums of the Yankees' minor league affiliates. Former Pizza Hut President Michael Rawlings will run the company from its new headquarters in Newark, New Jersey. The company was also backed by Wall Street investment firm Goldman Sachs and Dallas private equity firm CIC Partners LP.
The fees for premium parking at Dallas Cowboys games are estimated at $75 per game, based on season ticket holder parking charges. The fees to park at major concerts and other sporting events will be nearly $40 per space at the new stadium. A shuttle operates between the T&P Station and Cowboys Stadium for all Cowboys regular season and postseason games and selected college football games, which averages approximately 900 riders per game. For special events like Super Bowl XLV parking prices can increase to as much as $990.
^"Guest Info". Stadium.dallascowboys.com. Retrieved October 27, 2010.