Cotton Bowl (stadium)

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Cotton Bowl
"The House That Doak Built"
CottonBowl.jpg
Former namesFair Park Stadium (1930-1936)
Location1300 Robert B. Cullum Boulevard,
Fair Park, Dallas, Texas
Coordinates32°46′47″N 96°45′35″W / 32.77972°N 96.75972°W / 32.77972; -96.75972Coordinates: 32°46′47″N 96°45′35″W / 32.77972°N 96.75972°W / 32.77972; -96.75972
Broke ground1930[1]
Opened1930
Renovated1968, 1994, 2008
Expanded1948, 1949, 1994, 2008
OwnerCity of Dallas
OperatorCity of Dallas
SurfaceGrass (1930-1969), (1994-present)
Astroturf (1970-1993)
Construction cost$328,200
($4.57 million in 2012 dollars[2])
Capacity92,100[3]
Record attendance96,009[4]
Tenants
Cotton Bowl Classic (NCAA) (1937-2009)
State Fair Classic (NCAA) (1925-present)
Red River Rivalry (NCAA, Big 12) (1932-present)
Heart of Dallas Bowl (NCAA, 2011-present)
Dallas Cowboys (NFL) (1960-1971)
Dallas Texans (AFL) (1960-1962)
FIFA World Cup (1994)
Dallas Burn / FC Dallas (MLS) (1996-2002, 2004-2005)
SMU Mustangs (NCAA) (1932-1978, 1995-2000)
Dallas Texans (NFL) (1952)
Dallas Tornado (NASL) (1967-1968)
Dallas ISD, Playoffs (1974-present)[citation needed]
Dallas Desire (LFL) (2010)
 
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Cotton Bowl
"The House That Doak Built"
CottonBowl.jpg
Former namesFair Park Stadium (1930-1936)
Location1300 Robert B. Cullum Boulevard,
Fair Park, Dallas, Texas
Coordinates32°46′47″N 96°45′35″W / 32.77972°N 96.75972°W / 32.77972; -96.75972Coordinates: 32°46′47″N 96°45′35″W / 32.77972°N 96.75972°W / 32.77972; -96.75972
Broke ground1930[1]
Opened1930
Renovated1968, 1994, 2008
Expanded1948, 1949, 1994, 2008
OwnerCity of Dallas
OperatorCity of Dallas
SurfaceGrass (1930-1969), (1994-present)
Astroturf (1970-1993)
Construction cost$328,200
($4.57 million in 2012 dollars[2])
Capacity92,100[3]
Record attendance96,009[4]
Tenants
Cotton Bowl Classic (NCAA) (1937-2009)
State Fair Classic (NCAA) (1925-present)
Red River Rivalry (NCAA, Big 12) (1932-present)
Heart of Dallas Bowl (NCAA, 2011-present)
Dallas Cowboys (NFL) (1960-1971)
Dallas Texans (AFL) (1960-1962)
FIFA World Cup (1994)
Dallas Burn / FC Dallas (MLS) (1996-2002, 2004-2005)
SMU Mustangs (NCAA) (1932-1978, 1995-2000)
Dallas Texans (NFL) (1952)
Dallas Tornado (NASL) (1967-1968)
Dallas ISD, Playoffs (1974-present)[citation needed]
Dallas Desire (LFL) (2010)

The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park, site of the State Fair of Texas in Dallas, Texas, USA. Concerts or other events using a stage allow the playing field to be used for additional spectators. The Cotton Bowl was the longtime home of the annual Cotton Bowl Classic college football bowl game, for which the stadium is named. In January 2010, the game was moved to Cowboys Stadium in Arlington.

The Cowboys hosted the Green Bay Packers for the 1966 NFL championship at the Cotton Bowl. Artificial turf was installed in 1970 and removed in 1993 in preparation for the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

The stadium has been home to many football teams over the years, including: SMU Mustangs (NCAA), Dallas Cowboys (NFL; 1960–1971), Dallas Texans (NFL) (1952), Dallas Texans (prior to moving to Kansas City) (AFL; 1960–1962), and soccer teams, the Dallas Tornado (NASL; 1967–1968), and FC Dallas (the Dallas Burn before 2005) (Major League Soccer; 1996–2002, 2004–2005). It was also one of the nine venues used for the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

Contents

History

Construction began on Fair Park Stadium in 1930 in Fair Park, Dallas on the same site as a wooden football stadium. Completed that year, the first game in the stadium was between Dallas-area high schools in October 1930. Built for a cost of $328,000, the stadium held 45,507 spectators. In 1936, the name officially changed to the Cotton Bowl.

In 1948, the stadium was decked on the west side, increasing capacity to 67,000. The east side was decked the following year, increasing capacity to 75,504. These decks were added to respond to the demand for fans to watch SMU halfback Doak Walker, leading the Cotton Bowl to be known as "the house that Doak built." The superstructure was also built at this time, creating the distinctive facade for the stadium. In 1968, chair-backs were installed, reducing capacity to 72,032. In 1970, the Cotton Bowl installed an AstroTurf surface, which remained until 1993.

In 1950, as a way to break the Texas League record for opening-day attendance, Richard Burnett got permission to play in the Cotton Bowl, which at the time could hold as many as 75,000. In order to draw a big crowd, he wanted a lineup of former stars to don Dallas Eagles uniforms and face one Tulsa hitter in the top of the first inning. Most of the retired stars were cool to the idea, except for then-current Dallas Eagles manager Charlie Grimm. When the legendary Ty Cobb agreed to come to Dallas, the others followed his lead. Preceding the game was a parade through downtown Dallas. "It was the pre-game show that got 'em," bellowed Dizzy Dean by way of self congratulation. "Cobb, Cochrane, Home Run Baker, Speaker, and Ol' Diz in Dallas duds." The 54,151 who showed up were lucky enough to see Ty Cobb hit several balls into the stands, just to show he could still handle the bat. The Kilgore College Rangerettes drill team performed on the field prior to the game. Texas governor Allan Shiversthrew out the first pitch. Defensively, the old-timer lineup of the Eagles were: Duffy Lewis in left field, Cobb in center field, Texas native Tris Speaker in right field, Frank "Home Run" Baker at third base, Travis Jackson at shortstop, Charlie Gehringer at second base, manager Grimm at first base, Mickey Cochrane at catcher, and former Houston Buffaloes star pitcher Dizzy Dean on the mound. Dean walked the leadoff batter for Tulsa, Harry Donabedian, on a 3-2 count, and then the regular Dallas players took the field. Dean got into an orchestrated rhubarb and was tossed from the game. The attendance figure still stands as the largest in Texas League history and second largest in the history of the minor leagues.

The Cotton Bowl hosted six matches of the 1994 World Cup. In preparation for these games, the stadium field was widened, and the press box was enlarged. Capacity was decreased to 71,615 in 1994 and to 68,252 in 1996.[5] The Stadium also Hosted the Gold Cup Soccer Matches in 1993.

1994 FIFA World Cup matches

DatTime (CDT)Team #1Res.Team #2RoundSpectators
1994-06-1716.30 Spain2–2 South KoreaGroup C56,247
1994-06-2118.30 Nigeria3–0 BulgariaGroup D44,132
1994-06-2715.00 Germany3–2 South KoreaGroup C63,998
1994-06-3018.30 Argentina0– 2 BulgariaGroup D63,998
1994-07-0312.00 Saudi Arabia1–3 SwedenRound of 1660,277
1994-07-0914.30 Netherlands2–3 BrazilQuarterfinals63,500

In the 2000s (decade), the renewed dominance of both the Oklahoma Sooners and the Texas Longhorns created a new interest in their rivalry, and the stadium. Temporary stands were erected in each end zone to increase seating for these games.

In November 2006, the city of Dallas and the State Fair of Texas finally agreed on funding for a long-planned[6] $50 million renovation, with $30 million of this amount from a city bond.[7] Thus, in April 2007, the schools signed a contract to play at the Cotton Bowl through 2015, coupled with a $57 million fund for upgrades and improvements to the aging stadium.[8] The 2008 game was held on October 11.

The 2008 renovations include the expansion of the seating capacity of the stadium from 68,252 to 92,100,[3] mostly through the complete encircling of the second deck, new media and VIP facilities, a new scoreboard and video screen, updated restrooms and concession areas, lighting, utility and sound upgrades and the replacement of all the stadium's seats. A new record for attendance was set when 96,009 fans attended the 2009 Oklahoma vs. Texas football game.

Stadium usage

Football

Cotton Bowl Classic

Panoramic view of the 2008 Cotton Bowl Classic between Missouri and Arkansas

From 1937 to 2009, the Cotton Bowl hosted the Cotton Bowl Classic, an annual NCAA Division I bowl game. Beginning in 2010, the bowl game has been played at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas. From 1941 to 1994, the Southwest Conference champion would play in the bowl game; since 1997, the first postseason of the Big 12 Conference, its second-place team has competed against an SEC team in the Cotton Bowl Classic.

Dallas Cowboys

The Dallas Cowboys also called the Cotton Bowl home for 12 seasons, from the team's formation in 1960 until 1971, when the Cowboys moved to Texas Stadium.

Heart of Dallas Bowl

Since 2011, the Cotton Bowl has been the home of the Heart of Dallas Bowl, an annual New Year's Day college football bowl game. The game was tentatively named the "Dallas Football Classic" prior to TicketCity being announced as the bowl game's title sponsor. The game was called the "TicketCity Bowl" for the first two match ups. On October 4, 2012, the name changed again to its current incarnation. The game has had bowl tie-ins with the Big 12 Conference in 2011, Conference USA in 2012, and the Big Ten Conference in both 2011 and 2012. The inaugural game saw the Texas Tech Red Raiders defeat the Northwestern Wildcats, 45–38.

Red River Rivalry

The annual college football game between the University of Oklahoma Sooners and the University of Texas at Austin Longhorns, also known before 2005 as the Red River Shootout, is played at the Cotton Bowl during the State Fair of Texas, instead of on either school's campus. Ticket sales are equally divided between the two schools, and the fans are split on the 50-yard line. The Longhorns have a record of 59-42-5 against the Sooners.

SMU Mustangs

The Cotton Bowl served as the home for the SMU Mustangs football team for two periods in the program's history. SMU played at least a few games at the Cotton Bowl from 1932 to 1947, and moved there permanently in 1948 due to Doak Walker's popularity. The Mustangs played at the Cotton Bowl until 1978, when they moved to Texas Stadium. The Cotton Bowl also served as home to SMU in the 1990s, after the team served the NCAA death penalty and played at Ownby Stadium on campus. Games moved back to campus in 2000 with the completion of Gerald J. Ford Stadium.

State Fair Classic

In addition to the Red River Shootout, the Grambling State University Tigers and the Prairie View A&M University Panthers play each other at the Cotton Bowl in the State Fair Classic. This game often occurs the weekend before the Texas-OU Red River Rivalry game. It is a neutral site for both teams; Grambling State is located in northern Louisiana and Prairie View A&M is located about 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Houston, Texas. The halftime show, the "Battle of the Bands," is arguably more eagerly anticipated than the game itself. The State Fair Classic is heavily marketed in the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, with local hip hop stations encouraging a large turnout among the region's African-American community.

Powderpuff Football

Sideline photo taken at a Blondes vs. Brunettes Powder Puff Football Game

Blondes vs. Brunettes powderpuff football games are played in cities across the United States. [9] Proceeds from the event are donated to The Alzheimer’s Association. The annual contests were started by Sara Allen Abbott whose father, Texas State Representative Joseph Hugh Allen, died of Alzheimer’s disease in 2008. Looking for a way to raise funds for The Alzheimer’s Association, Abbott organized a powder puff football game in tribute to her father, a lifelong football fan.[10] The games are currently played in over 20 cities throughout the United States. The increasing popularity of the game in the Dallas area resulted in moving the 2012 game to the Cotton Bowl where it could accomodate a larger crowd.[11]

Soccer

1994 FIFA World Cup

The Cotton Bowl was one of the venues of 1994 FIFA World Cup

Dallas Burn

FC Dallas of MLS (formerly known as the Dallas Burn) called the Cotton Bowl home for its first 7 seasons, between 1996 and 2002, as well as for the 2004 and 2005 seasons, before opening their own stadium, Pizza Hut Park, in Frisco.

Concerts

The stadium has also been a venue for a number of historic concerts, most notably that which featured then 21-year-old Elvis Presley, which took place on October 11, 1956, and attracted what was then the largest audience in Texas history for an outdoor concert, in excess of 27,000.

Many consecutive summers of huge concerts, featuring several artists, began in July 1978, with the 1st annual Texxas Jam, which sold out with over 80,000 attendees. Each Texxas Jam had a unique lineup of major artists chosen by the promoter.

Over the years, the Texxas Jam featured some of the top-billed headliner artists of the day, including Aerosmith, Heart, Deep Purple, Boston, Journey, Ted Nugent, Scorpions, Loverboy, Cheap Trick, Van Halen, Blue Öyster Cult, Sammy Hagar,Nazareth, Styx, Foghat, Santana, The Eagles & Triumph, among others.

The annual events came to an end in the summer of 1988, when Van Halen headlined the "Monsters Of Rock" Tour.

Since then, the stadium has continued to be used as a major concert venue; Eric Clapton notably held his first massive 3-day Crossroads Guitar Festival there in 2004.

The Cotton Bowl was also the site for the 1991 Drum Corps International World Championships.

High School Football is back on at the Cotton Bowl. A rematch of a thrilling 58-52 triple overtime game between Colleyville Heritage and Duncanville was scheduled for Aug 26, 2011.

In popular culture

Sources

References

  1. ^ http://www.dallascityhall.com/FairPark/fair_park_factsheet.html#Cotton
  2. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  3. ^ a b http://www.cottonbowlstadium.com/
  4. ^ http://espn.go.com/ncf/recap?gameId=292900251
  5. ^ http://www.attcottonbowl.com/stadium/
  6. ^ Levinthal, Dave (2005-08-20). "Miller determined to keep Texas-OU game". Dallas Morning News. 
  7. ^ Dallas, City of (2006). "City of Dallas 2006 Bond Program". http://www.dallascityhall.com/html/2006_bond_program.html. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  8. ^ Associated Press (2007-04-20). "Texas-OU game to stay in Cotton Bowl through 2015". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=2844007. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  9. ^ Blondes vs. Brunettes Powderpuff Fundraiser [1]
  10. ^ The Non-Profit Times: “Blondes vs. Brunettes: Grassroots Effort Scores for Alzheimer's Association” September 15, 2010, page 7. Retrieved March 16, 2012 [2]
  11. ^ NBC Dallas-Fort Worth Channel 5 "Blondes vs. Brunettes for Charity - Cotton Bowl to Host Blondes vs. Brunettes Football Game on Aug. 11" Retrieved October 6, 2012[3]

External links

Events and tenants
Preceded by
first stadium
Home of the Dallas Cowboys
1960 – October 11, 1971
Succeeded by
Texas Stadium
Preceded by
first stadium
Home of the Dallas Texans
1960 – 1962
Succeeded by
Municipal Stadium
Preceded by
first stadium
Dragon Stadium
Home of the Dallas Burn
1996 – 2002
2004 – 2005
Succeeded by
Dragon Stadium
Pizza Hut Park
Preceded by
first stadium
Home of the Cotton Bowl Classic
1937 – 2009
Succeeded by
Cowboys Stadium
Preceded by
Rich Stadium
Host of the Drum Corps International
World Championship

1991
Succeeded by
Camp Randall Stadium