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Cosmetics (colloquially known as makeup or make-up) are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.
In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition also includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
The word cosmetics derives from the Greek κοσμητική τέχνη (kosmetikē tekhnē), meaning "technique of dress and ornament", from κοσμητικός (kosmētikos), "skilled in ordering or arranging" and that from κόσμος (kosmos), meaning amongst others "order" and "ornament". The first archeological evidence of cosmetics comes from the hollowed out tombs of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs. Archaeological evidence of cosmetics dates at least from ancient Egypt and Greece. According to one source, early major developments include:
The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament, such as in 2 Kings 9:30, where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and in the book of Esther, where various beauty treatments are described.
During the sixteenth century, the personal attributes of the women who used make-up created a demand for the product among the upper class.
Of the major cosmetics firms, the largest is L'Oréal, which was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt 26% and Nestlé 28%; the remaining 46% is traded publicly). The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after.
Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers.
Although modern make-up has been traditionally used mainly by women, an increasing number of males are gradually using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance or cover their own facial features. Concealer is commonly used by cosmetic-conscious men. Cosmetics brands release cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are increasingly using such products.
During the 20th century, the popularity of cosmetics increased rapidly. Cosmetics are increasingly used by girls at a young age, especially in the United States. Due to the fast-decreasing age of make-up users, many companies, from high-street brands like Rimmel to higher-end products like Estee Lauder, cater to this expanding market by introducing flavored lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using young models. The social consequences of younger and younger cosmetics use has had much attention in the media over the last few years.
Cosmetic companies successfully resist regulation by government agencies like the FDA, and have also lobbied against this regulation throughout the years. The FDA does not have to approve or review cosmetics, or what goes in them, before they are sold to the consumers. The FDA only regulates against the colors that can be used in the cosmetics and hair dyes. The cosmetic companies do not have to report any injuries from the products; they also only have voluntary recalls of products.
There has been growing awareness of and preference for cosmetics lacking toxic ingredients, especially those derived from petroleum, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and parabens. Numerous reports have raised concern over the safety of a few surfactants. SLS causes a number of skin problems, including dermatitis.
Parabens can cause skin irritation and contact dermatitis in individuals with paraben allergies, a small percentage of the general population. Animal experiments have shown that parabens have a weak estrogenic activity, acting as xenoestrogens.
Often, though, the speculation of safety of cosmetics originates from scare stories and internet hoaxes unsupported by science. Many ingredients deemed unsafe by the media have been found safe by scientists in the EU where astringent regulations are enforced.
Cosmetics testing is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban all cosmetics-related animal testing. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal, has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, asking that the ban be quashed. The ban is also opposed by the European Federation for Cosmetics Ingredients, which represents 70 companies in Switzerland, Belgium, France, Germany and Italy.
Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, hand sanitizer, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to coloring products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
Cosmetics that are meant to be applied to the face and eye area are usually applied with a brush or the fingertips.
Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
Makeup remover is a product used to remove the makeup products applied on the skin. It is used to clean the skin before other procedures, like applying bedtime lotion.
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Skin care products can also fall under the general category of cosmetics. These are products used to improve the appearance and health of skin, formulated for different types of skin and associated characteristics. Skin care products include cleansers, facial masks, toners, moisturizers, sunscreen, tanning oils and lotions, skin lighteners, serums and exfoliants.
There are five basic skin types, including:
This type of skin has a fine, even and smooth surface due to its ideal balance between oil and moisture content and is therefore neither greasy nor dry. People who have normal skin have small, barely-visible pores. Thus, their skin usually appears clear and does not frequently develop spots and blemishes. This type of skin needs minimal and gentle treatment, but does still require maintenance.
Dry skin has a parched appearance and tends to flake easily. It is prone to wrinkles and lines due to its inability to retain moisture, as well as an inadequate production of sebum by sebaceous glands. Dry skin often has problems in cold weather, which dries it out even further. Constant protection in the form of a moisturizer by day and a moisture-rich cream by night is essential. It is important not to over-exfoliate even in cases of extreme flaking, as this only dries out the skin further; gentle exfoliants using sugar, rice bran or mild acids are the most suitable, although they should not be used more frequently than once per week to avoid causing irritation and dryness.
As its name implies, this type of skin surface is slightly to moderately greasy, which is caused by the over secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the surface of the skin causes dirt and dust from the environment to adhere to it. Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads, whiteheads, spots and pimples. It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every day, especially in hot or humid weather. Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based and non-comedogenic moisturizer is required in addition. Exfoliation is also necessary, but over-exfoliation can cause irritation and increase in oil production; exfoliants that contain fruit acids are particularly helpful, and fine-grained exfoliants may help to clear blocked pores, discouraging breakouts and improving the skin's appearance.
This is the most common type of skin. As the name suggests, it is a combination of both oily and dry or normal skin, where certain areas of the face are oily and the others dry. The oily parts are usually found on a central panel, called the T–Zone, consisting of the forehead, nose and chin. The dry areas usually consist of the cheeks and the areas around the eyes and mouth. In such cases, each part of the face should be treated according to its skin type. There are also skin care products made especially for those who have combination skin; these contain ingredients that cater to both skin types.
Sensitive skin has a tendency to react to many potential triggers with irritation, redness, stinging or burning, flaking, lumpiness and rashes. The most common causes of irritation are chemical dyes and fragrances, soaps, some flower and spice oils, shaving creams, tanning lotions or spray tans, changes in temperature, excessive cleansing or exfoliating, waxing, threading, shaving and bleaching. People with sensitive skin should try to avoid products with unnecessary fragrances or dyes, and generally avoid using products that cause irritation. Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can be oily, normal or combination as well.
Cleansing is the first essential step to any daily skin care routine. Cleansers are generally applied to wet skin over the face and sometimes also the neck, avoiding the eyes and lips.
Cleansing the face once per day is typically adequate for normal or dry skins. However, a mild cleanser should also be used at night if makeup has been worn to remove any excess dirt or oil. Oily skins should be cleansed more frequently, at least twice per day. Water-based, gentle cleansers are ideal for all skin types, though particularly acne-prone skin may require medicated cleansers containing benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid to discourage acne. While soap can be used as a cleanser, it should be avoided in cases of dry and sensitive skins; many alternatives are available. Oil-based cleansers have become particularly popular with oily skin, as they are very gentle and do not over-dry the skin, but still effectively remove dirt and makeup. It is important to cleanse before applying makeup, regardless of skin type, as this helps to create a clean surface for makeup application. Many cleansers are also suitable for use as a makeup remover, but a proper makeup remover is preferable, particularly for the removal of eye makeup.
Face masks are treatments applied to the skin for a period of time, then removed. Typically, they are applied to a dry, cleansed face, avoiding the eyes and lips.
There are many kinds of face masks available, which typically fall into one or more of the following categories:
Exfoliants are products that help slough off dry, dead skin cells to improve the skin's appearance. This is achieved either by using acids or other chemicals to loosen old skin cells, or abrasive substances to physically scrub them off. Exfoliation can even out patches of rough skin, improve circulation to the skin, clear blocked pores to discourage acne and improve the appearance and healing of scars. Exfoliants should be applied to wet, cleansed skin, avoiding the eye area; abrasive exfoliants or scrubs should then be rubbed into the skin in a circular motion for at least 30 seconds. Dry skin should only be exfoliated in spots with severe flaking, and no more than once per week; oily skins may be able to tolerate twice weekly exfoliation. Signs of over-exfoliation include sore, dry and irritated or reddened skin and excessive dryness or oiliness.
Chemical exfoliants may include citric acid (from citrus fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar), malic acid (from various fruits), glycolic acid, lactic acid or salicylic acid. They may be liquids or gels, and may or may not contain an abrasive to remove old skin cells afterwards. Abrasive exfoliants include gels, creams or lotions, as well as physical objects. Loofahs, microfibre cloths, natural sponges or brushes may be used to exfoliate skin, simply by rubbing them over the face in a circular motion. Gels, creams or lotions may contain an acid to encourage dead skin cells to loosen, and an abrasive such as beads, sea salt, sugar, ground nut shells, rice bran or ground apricot kernels to scrub the dead cells off the skin. Salt and sugar scrubs tend to be the harshest, while scrubs containing beads or rice bran are typically very gentle.
Toners are used after cleansing the skin to freshen it up and remove any traces of cleanser, mask or makeup, as well to help restore the skin's natural pH. They are usually applied to a cotton pad and wiped over the skin, but can also be sprayed onto the skin from a spray bottle.
Toners typically contain alcohol, water, and herbal extracts or other chemicals depending on skin type. Toners containing alcohol are quite astringent, and usually targeted at oily skins. Dry or normal skin should be treated with alcohol-free toners. Witch hazel solution is a popular toner for all skin types, but many other products are available. Many toners also contain salicylic acid and/or benzoyl peroxide. These types of toners are also targeted at oily skin types, as well as acne-prone skin.
|This section possibly contains original research. (December 2012)|
Moisturizers are creams or lotions that hydrate the skin and help it to retain moisture; they may also contain various essential oils, herbal extracts or chemicals to assist with oil control or reducing irritation. Night creams are typically more hydrating than day creams, but may be too thick or heavy to wear during the day, hence their name. Tinted moisturizers contain a small amount of foundation, which can provide light coverage for minor blemishes or to even out skin tones. They are usually applied with the fingertips or a cotton pad to the entire face, avoiding the lips and area around the eyes.
All skin types need moisturizing. Moisturizer helps prevent flaking and dryness, and may help to delay the formation of wrinkles. People with dry skin should choose oil-based moisturizers with ingredients to help the skin retain moisture and protect it from dryness, heat or cold in the environment. People with normal skin can choose from a wide variety of moisturizers, but light lotions or gels are typically all that is required. Water-based, low-oil and non-comedogenic moisturizers should be used on oily skin; medicated moisturizers containing tea tree extracts or fruit enzymes can help to control oil production or treat acne.
Eyes require a different kind of moisturizer compared with the rest of the face. The skin around the eyes is extremely thin and sensitive, and is often the first area to show signs of ageing. Eye creams are typically very light lotions or gels, and are usually very gentle; some may contain ingredients such as caffeine or Vitamin K to reduce puffiness and dark circles under the eyes. Eye creams or gels should be applied over the entire eye area with a finger, using a patting motion.
Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. The sun can cause extreme damage to the skin, not only in the form of sunburns and skin cancer; exposure to UVA and UVB radiation can cause patches of uneven skin tone and dry out the skin, reducing its elasticity and encouraging sagging and wrinkle formation. It is important to make use of sunscreen to protect the skin from sun damage; sunscreen should be applied at least 20 minutes before exposure, and should be re-applied every four hours. Sunscreen should be applied to all areas of the skin that will be exposed to sunlight, and at least a tablespoon (25 ml) should be applied to each limb, the face, chest, and back, to ensure thorough coverage. Many tinted moisturizers, foundations and primers now contain some form of SPF.
Sunscreens may come in the form of creams, gels or lotions; their SPF number indicates their effectiveness in protecting the skin from the sun's radiation. There are sunscreens available to suit every skin type; in particular, those with oily skin should choose non-comodegenic sunscreens; those with dry skins should choose sunscreens with moisturizers to help keep skin hydrated, and those with sensitive skin should choose unscented, hypoallergenic sunscreen and spot-test in an inconspicuous place (such as the inside of the elbow or behind the ear) to ensure that it does not irritate the skin.
Ingredient listings in cosmetics are highly regulated in many countries.
Once a niche market, handmade and certified organic products are becoming more mainstream. Even though many cosmetic products are regulated, health concerns persist regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Aside from color additives, cosmetic products and their ingredients are not subject to regulation prior to their release on the market. Many new products are released every season, often after only slight testing. Many cosmetic companies claim to produce "all natural" and "organic" products. Products claimed to be organic should be certified "USDA Organic".
The term "mineral makeup" applies to a category of face makeup, including foundation, eye shadow, blush, and bronzer, made with loose, dry mineral powders. Lipsticks, liquid foundations, and other liquid cosmetics, as well as compressed makeups such as eye shadow and blush in compacts, are also often called mineral makeup if they have the same primary ingredients as dry mineral makeups. However, liquid makeups must contain preservatives and compressed makeups must contain binders, which dry mineral makeups do not.
Mineral makeup usually does not contain synthetic fragrances, preservatives, parabens, mineral oil, and chemical dyes. For this reason, many dermatologists consider mineral makeup to be purer and kinder to the skin than makeup that contains those ingredients.
However, some mineral makeups contain Bismuth oxychloride, which can be irritating to the skin of sensitive individuals. Others also contain talc, over which there is some controversy because of its comedogenic tendencies (tendency to clog pores and therefore cause acne) and because some people are sensitive to talc.
Because titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have anti-inflammatory properties, mineral makeups with those ingredients can also have a calming effect on the skin, which is particularly important for those who suffer from inflammatory problems such as rosacea. Zinc oxide is also anti-microbial, so mineral makeups can be beneficial for people with acne.
Mineral makeup is noncomedogenic (as long as it does not contain talc) and offers a mild amount of sun protection (because of the titanium dioxide and zinc oxide).
Because they do not contain liquid ingredients, mineral makeups can last in their containers indefinitely as long as the user does not contaminate them with other liquid or fingertips.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The worlds largest cosmetic companies are The L'Oréal Group, The Procter & Gamble Company, Unilever, Shiseido Company, Limited and Estée Lauder Companies, Inc. The market volume of the cosmetics industry in the US, Europe, and Japan is about EUR 70B/y, according to a 2005 publication. In the United States, the cosmetic industry's size was US$42.8 billion in 2008. In Germany, the cosmetic industry generated EUR 12.6 billion of retail sales in 2008, which makes the German cosmetic industry the third largest in the world, after Japan and the United States. It has been shown that in Germany this industry grew nearly 5 percent in one year, from 2007 to 2008. German exports in this industry reached EUR 5.8 billion in 2008, whereas imports of cosmetics totaled EUR 3 billion. The main countries that export cosmetics to Germany are France, Switzerland, the United States and Italy, and they mainly consist of makeup and fragrances or perfumes for women.
The worldwide cosmetics and perfume industry currently generates an estimated annual turnover of US$170 billion (according to Eurostaf - May 2007). Europe is the leading market, representing approximately €63 billion, while sales in France reached €6.5 billion in 2006, according to FIPAR (Fédération des Industries de la Parfumerie - the French federation for the perfume industry). France is another country in which the cosmetic industry plays an important role, both nationally and internationally. Most products with a label, "Made in France" are valued on the international market. According to data from 2008, the cosmetic industry has grown constantly in France for 40 consecutive years. In 2006, this industrial sector reached a record level of EUR 6.5 billion. Famous cosmetic brands produced in France include Vichy, Yves Saint Laurent, Yves Rocher and many others.
The Italian cosmetic industry is also an important player in the European cosmetic market. Although not as large as in other European countries, the cosmetic industry in Italy was estimated to reach EUR 9 billion in 2007. The Italian cosmetic industry is however dominated by hair and body products and not makeup as in many other European countries. In Italy, hair and body products make up approximately 30% of the cosmetic market. Makeup and facial care, however, are the most common cosmetic products exported to the United States.
Due to the popularity of cosmetics, especially fragrances and perfumes, many designers who are not necessarily involved in the cosmetic industry came up with different perfumes carrying their names. Moreover, some actors and singers have their own perfume line (such as Celine Dion). Designer perfumes are, like any other designer products, the most expensive in the industry as the consumer pays not only for the product but also for the brand. Famous Italian fragrances are produced by Giorgio Armani, Dolce and Gabbana and others.
Recently, Procter & Gamble, which sells CoverGirl and Dolce & Gabbana makeup, funded a study concluding that makeup makes women seem more competent. Due to the source of funding, the quality of this Boston University study is questioned.
The cosmetic industry worldwide seems to be continuously developing, now more than ever with the advent of the Internet companies. Many famous companies sell their cosmetic products online also in countries in which they do not have representatives.
Research on the email marketing of cosmetics to consumers suggests they are goal-oriented with email content that is seen as useful, motivating recipients to visit a store to test the cosmetics or talk to sales representatives. Useful content included special sales offerings and new product information rather than information about makeup trends.
The main directive in the European Union affecting the manufacture, labelling and supply of cosmetics and personal care products is Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. It applies to all the countries of the EU as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. These regulations apply to single-person companies making or importing just one product as well as to large multinationals. In the UK the directive is enacted as the Cosmetic Product (safety) Regulations 2008. Manufacturers and importers of cosmetic products must comply with the applicable regulations in order to sell their products in the EU. In this industry it is common fall back on a suitably qualified person, such as an independent third party inspection and testing company, to verify the cosmetics’ compliance with the requirements of applicable cosmetic regulations and other relevant legislation, including REACH, GMP, hazardous substances, etc.
In the European Union, the circulation of cosmetic products and their safety has been a subject of legislation since 1976. One of the newest amendments of the directive concerning cosmetic industry is a result of the attempt to ban animal testing. Testing cosmetic products on animals has been illegal in the European Union since September 2004, and testing the separate ingredients of such products on animals is also prohibited by law, since March 2009.
Cosmetic regulations in Europe are often updated to follow the trends of innovations and new technologies while ensuring product safety. For instance, all annexes of the Directive 76/768/EEC were aimed to address potential risks to human health. The new and latest EU Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 will take full effect in July 2013. Under this new regulation, manufacturers, retailers and importers of cosmetics in Europe will be designated as “Responsible Person”. This new status implies that the responsible person has the legal liability to ensure that the cosmetics and brands they manufacture or sell comply with the current cosmetic regulations and norms. The responsible person is also responsible of the documents contained in the Product Information File, a list of product information including data such as Cosmetic Product Safety Report, product description, GMP statement or product function.
In the U.S. the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the body making legislation in what concerns cosmetic industry and its various aspects within the United States. The FDA joined with thirteen other Federal agencies in forming the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in 1997, which is an attempt to ban animal testing and find other methods to test cosmetic products.
The Anvisa is the Brazil’s Health Agency, the regulatory body responsible for cosmetic legislation and directives in the country. The rules apply to manufacturers, importers and retailers of cosmetics in Brazil, and most of them have been harmonized so they can apply to the entire Mercosur.
The current legislation restricts the use of certain substances such as pyrogallol, formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde and bans the use of others such as lead acetate in cosmetic products. All restricted and forbidden substances and products are listed in the regulation RDC 16/11 and RDC 162, 09/11/01.
More recently, a new cosmetic Technical Regulation (RDC 15/2013) was set up to establish a list of authorized and restricted substances for cosmetic use, used in products such as hair dyes, nail hardeners or used as product preservatives.
Most Brazilian regulations are optimized, harmonized or adapted in order to be applicable and extended to the entire Mercosur economic zone.
The International Standardization Organization (ISO) published new guidelines on the safe manufacturing of cosmetic products under a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regime. Regulators in several countries and regions have adopted this standard, ISO 22716:2007, effectively replacing existing guidance and standards. ISO 22716 provides a comprehensive approach for a quality management system for those engaged in the manufacturing, packaging, testing, storage, and transportation of cosmetic end products. The standard deals with all aspects of the supply chain, from the early delivery of raw materials and components until the shipment of the final product to the consumer.
The standard is based on other quality management systems, ensuring smooth integration with such systems as ISO 9001 or the British Retail Consortium (BRC) standard for consumer products. Therefore, it combines the benefits of GMP, linking cosmetic product safety with overall business improvement tools that enable organisations to meet global consumer demand for cosmetic product safety certification.
In July 2012, since microbial contamination is one of the greatest concerns regarding the quality of cosmetic products, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has introduced a new standard for evaluating the antimicrobial protection of a cosmetic product by preservation efficacy testing and microbiological risk assessment.
An account executive is responsible for visiting department and specialty stores with counter sales of cosmetics. They explain new products and "gifts with purchase" arrangements (free items given out upon purchase of cosmetics items costing over some set amount).
A beauty adviser provides product advice based on the client's skin care and makeup requirements. Beauty advisers can be certified by an Anti-Aging Beauty Institute.
A cosmetician is a professional who provides facial and body treatments for clients. The term cosmetologist is sometimes used interchangeably with this term, but the former most commonly refers to a certified professional. A freelance makeup artist provides clients with beauty advice and cosmetics assistance. They are usually paid by the hour by a cosmetic company, however they sometimes work independently.
Professionals in cosmetics marketing careers manage research focus groups, promote the desired brand image, and provide other marketing services (sales forecasting, allocation to different retailers, etc.).
Many involved within the cosmetics industry often specialize in a certain area of cosmetics such as special effects makeup or makeup techniques specific to the film, media and fashion sectors.
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