Corn production in the United States

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Sweetcorn, yellow, raw
(seeds only)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy360 kJ (86 kcal)
Carbohydrates18.7 g
- Starch5.7 g
- Sugars6.26 g
- Dietary fiber2 g
Fat1.35 g
Protein3.27 g
- Tryptophan0.023 g
- Threonine0.129 g
- Isoleucine0.129 g
- Leucine0.348 g
- Lysine0.137 g
- Methionine0.067 g
- Cystine0.026 g
- Phenylalanine0.150 g
- Tyrosine0.123 g
- Valine0.185 g
- Arginine0.131 g
- Histidine0.089 g
- Alanine0.295 g
- Aspartic acid00.244 g
- Glutamic acid00.636 g
- Glycine0.127 g
- Proline00.292 g
- Serine00.153 g
Water75.96 g
Vitamin A equiv.9 μg (1%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin644 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.155 mg (13%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.055 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3)1.77 mg (12%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.717 mg (14%)
Vitamin B60.093 mg (7%)
Folate (vit. B9)42 μg (11%)
Vitamin C6.8 mg (8%)
Iron0.52 mg (4%)
Magnesium37 mg (10%)
Manganese0.163 mg (8%)
Phosphorus89 mg (13%)
Potassium270 mg (6%)
Zinc0.46 mg (5%)
Link to USDA Database entry
One ear of medium size (6-3/4" to 7-1/2" long)
maize has 90 grams of seeds
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
 
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Left: Worldwide corn production chart; Right: Iowa corn (2011).

Corn production (also maize production) plays a major role in the economy of the United States. The country is one of the worldwide corn leaders with 80,000,000 acres (32,000,000 ha) of land reserved for corn production. Corn growth is dominated by west/north central Iowa and east central Illinois. The US is ranked first in the world in corn production, and 20% of its annual yield is exported.[1]

Etymology[edit]

Corn primarily means maize in the United States[2] and Canada;[3] this terminology started as a shortening of "Indian corn".[2] Indian corn primarily means maize (the staple grain of indigenous Americans), but can refer more specifically to multicolored "flint corn" used for decoration.[4] However, outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand corn means any cereal crop, its meaning varying geographically to refer to the local staple.[2][5]

History[edit]

Left: Illustration depicting both male and female flowers of maize; Right: Select corn production chart for 2010 by the United States Department of Agriculture

Corn is believed to have been introduced from Mexico to the United States a few thousand years ago.[6] The original corn plant known as teosinte is still grown in Mexico and its size (ears of corn) has substantially increased due to efforts of American Indians and scientific research. It is now the third leading grain crop in the world.[7]

By the time scientific assessment of conduciveness to grow corn in the United States was undertaken by Meriwether Lewis in 1804, the immigrant settlers had already spread its growth in many parts of the country due to its suitability to grow in varying climatic and soil conditions. Once the suitability of land in the central part of the country, the Midwestern United States, was scientifically established as fertile and rich by the scientists Lewis and Clark, the settlers moved to the area in large numbers and started growing corn in a big way, reaping large benefits. Over the centuries, the crop varieties underwent changes to get better yields while farming methods were improved. As a result the fertile belt soon came to be known as "the Corn Belt". Hybrid cropping techniques were widely practiced from late 1880s, and the hybrid varieties developed with cross and re-cross breeding techniques developed by university research. This ushered a new age of agriculture. The 1% area devoted to hybrid varieties in 1934 rose to 78% in the 1940s and continued to rise thereafter. In the 1950s, Henry A. Wallace, former Vice President and former Secretary of Agriculture, and an early developer of hybrid seeds, observed that "the Corn Belt had developed into the most productive agricultural civilization the world has ever seen." This trend has continued and now the corn production level in American farms is a significant 20% higher per acre than in the rest of the world.[8]

As the growth of corn has spread to extensive production in 14 states (though it is grown to a lesser extent in all the other US states), a coalition of farmers associations in all these states has been established. This association is known as the Corn Farmers Coalition, which is a union of the National Corn Growers Association and 14 state corn associations (including Iowa Corn). It spearheads interaction with policy-makers in Washington about the efforts put in by how innovative farmers to maintain and increase corn crop yield year after year with fixed assets ensuring environmental standards.[9]

Production[edit]

A 1918 US poster promoting corn.

The total production of corn in the US for the year 2012–13 is reported to be 11.291 billion bushels of which the major use is for manufacture of ethanol and its co-product (Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles) accounting for 40% (29% + 11%) or 4,450 million bushels (3,229 + 1,221). The other uses are given in the table.[10]

Uses of Corn/Maize
TypeProduction (Million Bushels)Percentage
Ethanol322927
DDGS122111
Other processing*141012
Beef cattle119911
Poultry119111
Hogs9909
Dairy8138
Exports9008
Residual use169<1
Other animals169<1
Total11291100
Million Bushels & Percenatge.[10]

cereals.[11]

Sweetcorn, yellow, raw
(seeds only)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy360 kJ (86 kcal)
Carbohydrates18.7 g
- Starch5.7 g
- Sugars6.26 g
- Dietary fiber2 g
Fat1.35 g
Protein3.27 g
- Tryptophan0.023 g
- Threonine0.129 g
- Isoleucine0.129 g
- Leucine0.348 g
- Lysine0.137 g
- Methionine0.067 g
- Cystine0.026 g
- Phenylalanine0.150 g
- Tyrosine0.123 g
- Valine0.185 g
- Arginine0.131 g
- Histidine0.089 g
- Alanine0.295 g
- Aspartic acid00.244 g
- Glutamic acid00.636 g
- Glycine0.127 g
- Proline00.292 g
- Serine00.153 g
Water75.96 g
Vitamin A equiv.9 μg (1%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin644 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.155 mg (13%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.055 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3)1.77 mg (12%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.717 mg (14%)
Vitamin B60.093 mg (7%)
Folate (vit. B9)42 μg (11%)
Vitamin C6.8 mg (8%)
Iron0.52 mg (4%)
Magnesium37 mg (10%)
Manganese0.163 mg (8%)
Phosphorus89 mg (13%)
Potassium270 mg (6%)
Zinc0.46 mg (5%)
Link to USDA Database entry
One ear of medium size (6-3/4" to 7-1/2" long)
maize has 90 grams of seeds
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database


The final estimate of corn production for the years 1950 to 1959 in the United States is given as some three billion bushels and in recent years, some nine billion bushels are produced each year.[6] Corn growth is dominated by west north central Iowa and east central Illinois.[12] In 2011, the national average production was 147 bushels per acre, and reported to be 20 bushels per acre more than the yield in 2002. Based on a national contest in 2011 when an average of 300 bushels per acre was achieved others are sure to follow suit which result in a yield of 300 bushels per acre by 2030 from the same extent land holdings under corn.[8][10]

Ethanol[edit]

Two types of ethanol are produced mostly (98%) from Corn and other plants such as sorghum. The waste product of about 33% used as livestock feed. Ethanol is blended with gasoline to produce E10 and E85 fuels for automobile vehicles. Its manufacture has created 400,000 jobs in the US and its environmental friendliness is recorded in the form of reduced gas emissions of 25.3 million metric tons. One bushel of corn can produce 2.8 gallons of ethanol, 17.5 lbs of livestock feed and 18 lbs of carbon dioxide.[13] It is also reported that every acre of corn results ultimately in reducing 8 tonnes (7.9 long tons; 8.8 short tons) of greenhouse gas emission. On account of great demand for ethanol corn is fetching higher prices. This has resulted in farmers increasing acreage under corn by adopting crop rotations between corn and soybeans; the later crop's production has thus declined. Further more acreage under corn has also been allowed to be increased under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 overriding the act of 1983, which had been fixed at 60,200,000 hectares (149,000,000 acres).[1][14]

Nutritional value[edit]

The nutritional value of sweet, yellow and raw corn grown in the US, as part of the Vegetables and Vegetable Products, has Carbohydrate Factor of 3.57, Fat Factor of 8.37 and Protein Factor of 2.44, and has a refuse of 64% which comprises 35% husk, silk, trimmings and 29% cob. The edible part of the corn has nutritional values and weights as given in the table.[15]

Agriculture[edit]

The land exclusive for corn cultivation is 80,000,000 acres (32,000,000 ha) of land.[16] This would cover the entire country of Germany.[17] The United States is the world's leading producer of corn,[18] having produced 333,010,910 tonnes (327,751,510 long tons; 367,081,690 short tons) of the crop in the year 2009.[19]

The farmlands under corn in the US to the extent of 95% are family-owned (90 families of farmers and account for 55% of world corn exports.[14]) Highest yield of over 12 billion bushels have been recorded up to 2011 with 12.4 billion bushels reported in 2011 with yields of more than 140 bushels per acre. A milestone in production in the US is that the farmers take out 20% more corn per acre than in any other part of the world.[20] Farming practice is based on irrigation only in about 11% area while the balance area is under un-irrigated conditions. The farm practices have also resulted in implementing conservation measures which have reduced soil erosion to the extent of 44%. Out of 316,000 corn farms about 300,000 farms (95% of them) are owned by families. There are more than 30% of corn farms which are operated by women.[14][21]

Value[edit]

US$267 is spent by the average American annually on corn.[17] In 2011, one bushel of corn cost $6.20.[22] The value of each and every corn farm varies from location to location, depending on the amount of bushels produced and the quality of corn.[23] Other factors such as the weather or economic crises may cause corn prices to fluctuate or to rise.[24][25][26] Over the years, the value of corn, though, is only going upwards in essence, owing to the country's greater demand and reliance for corn.[26] There have even been instances of corn robberies.[27]

By state[edit]

Iowa corn picker (2011)
Corn dogs at the Olmsted County Fair, Minnesota (2006)

Iowa

Iowa, the largest producer of corn in the US, grows three times as much corn as Mexico. Iowa harvested 3,548 acres (1,436 ha) of sweet corn in 2007. In 2011, the state had 92,300 corn farms on 30,700,000 acres (12,400,000 ha), the average size being 333 acres (135 ha), and the average dollar value per acre being US$6,708. In the same year, there were 13.7 million harvested acres of corn for grain, producing 2.36 billion bushels, which yielded 172.0 bu/acre, with US$14.5 billion of corn value of production.[28] Almost 1.88 billion bushels of corn were grown in the state in 2012 on 13.7 million acres of land, while the 2013 projections are 2.45 billion bushels of corn on 13.97 million acres of land.[29]

Nebraska

Nebraska is known as the “Cornhusker State”  – and is the third largest corn-producing state in the United States.[30]

Minnesota

Corn is Minnesota's largest crop. In 1922-31, production averaged 30.4 bushels per acre; in 1947-56, it average 46.6 bushels per acre; in 1973, it averaged 91.4 bushels per acre; and in 1994, the average was 142 bushels per acre. In 1935-46, a shift to hybrid varieties occurred.[31] In 2010, the state produced 1.29 billion bushels.[32] In 2012, Minnesota's farmers produced the largest corn crop in the state's history, at 1.37 billion bushels harvested, equaling 165 bushels per acre, on 250,000 acres.[33]

Illinois
Corn fields near Royal, Illinois.

The first corn varieties grown in Illinois were those obtained from local Indians or varieties brought to Illinois from the New England states. After the Civil War, varieties were developed which were adapted to the state's soils and climate, such as Reid's Yellow Dent. During the period of 1900-05, there were 10,500,000 acres planted, with a decline to 8,862,000 acres in 1925-30.[34] In 2012, Illinois sowed 12.8 million acres of corn in 2012, ranking fourth in corn production, behind Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The state averaged 105 bushels per acre in 2012, down from 157-bushel per acre in 2010 and 2011.[35]

Alaska

Although the state of Alaska has a cold temperate, some Alaskan farmers still manage to grow corn, through means such as greenhouse farming. As corn grows in relatively high temperatures, global warming is a good sign in this context.[36] Corn is popular among Alaskans.[36]

Indiana

Corn is a popular crop in the state of Indiana; it is mostly grown as animal feed.[37] Indiana is located in the United States' Corn Belt.[38]

Texas

The state of Texas is a great producer of corn; the final estimate of corn produced in 2010 was some 301 million bushels on 2,300,000 acres (930,000 ha) of land, totaling to $1.2 billion of crop.[39]

Alabama

Corn was introduced to Alabama in around the eighteenth century; there have been traces of corn found in Nuyuka's Upper Creek village which dates back to the period.[40]

In popular culture[edit]

Mitchell Corn Palace (1907)

The Corn Palace in Mitchell, South Dakota is the only palace of its kind in the world.[41] Initially built in 1892, the palace reached its current form in 1921. The building, with minarets and kiosks, is in Moorish style and has the same features as the original Corn Palace. It is a popular venue for the fall festival of stage entertainment held during the crop-growing season and harvest, which is held every year during the month of August. Nearly 500,000 visit the palace annually. For the annual festival, the palace is decked up with new murals made of corn and other grains and endemic grasses and is made in to “the agricultural show-place of the world”.[41] Decorations are made in 13 different colors or shades of corn such as red, brown, black, blue, white, orange, calico, yellow and green. The theme chosen for creating the murals for the annual festival changes every year. The corns are nailed "ear by ear" on the external faces of the Corn Palace, which are created starting from May and then removed in August, after the festival is over. This palace is also used for exhibitions, cultural dance and drama festivals, for conferences and also as sports for basketball venue during winter months.[41]

In Dublin, Ohio, right on the highway, there are 109 "people-sized ears of corn" made in concrete that are erected at an old corn field honoring Sam Frantz, an inventor of hybrid corn. These was erected in the field in 1994 by Malcolm Cochran, a local artist of the Dublin Arts Council.[42]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c "Corn". Oxford English Dictionary. 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 113949144X. 
  4. ^ "Indian corn". Merriam-Webster Dictionary, definition 3. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  5. ^ Ensminger, Audrey H. (1994). Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed.. CRC Press. pp. 479–. ISBN 0849389801. "The word "maize" is preferred in international usage because in many countries the term "corn", the name by which the plant is known in the United States, is synonymous with the leading cereal grain" 
  6. ^ a b Smith, C. Wayne (2004). Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 134–. ISBN 9780471411840. 
  7. ^ "FAQ". Iowa Corn organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Family corn farmers: American ingenuity" (pdf). Corn Farmers Coalition Organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Corn Farmers Coalition: Fact Book". Corn Farmers Coalition Organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c "Production and Use". Iowa Corn organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  11. ^ breakdown of 'other processing' category
  12. ^ Elliott, Foster Floyd (1933). Fifteenth census of the United States. Census of agriculture. Types of farming in the United States. United States Government Printing Office. pp. 47–. 
  13. ^ "Fuel your future Ethanol Acitivity Book". Retrieved 3 June 2013\publisher=Renewable Fuels Association. 
  14. ^ a b c "Corn Farmers Coalition". Iowa Corn organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  15. ^ "Nutrient data for 11167, Corn, sweet, yellow, raw". USDA: National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  16. ^ "Corn – Overview". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Wile, Rob (July 18, 2012). "11 Wild Facts About Corn In America". Business Insider. 
  18. ^ "Corn Production by Country in 1000 MT". Index Mundi. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  19. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (2009). "Maize, rice and wheat : area harvested, production quantity, yield". 
  20. ^ "A story of technology and innovation" (pdf). Corn Farmers Coalition Organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  21. ^ "Down-to-earth people" (pdf). Corn Farmers Coalition Organization. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
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  27. ^ "Six Arrested for Corn Robbery Near Berry". The Tuscaloosa News. January 16, 1955. p. 4. 
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  30. ^ http://www.nebraskacorn.org/main-navigation/grain-traders/advantage-nebraska/
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  33. ^ Hughlett, Mike (January 11, 2013). "Minnesota sees record corn, sugar beet production in 2012". Pioneer Press. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  34. ^ Federal Writers' Project. Illinois (1939). Illinois: A Descriptive and Historical Guide. North American Book Dist LLC. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-403-01292-3. 
  35. ^ "Illinois drops to No. 4 in corn production". Daily Herald. January 11, 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Caldwell, Suzanna (August 21, 2012). "Rare, successful Alaska corn harvest gives Fairbanks farmers hope". Alaska Dispatch. 
  37. ^ "Mycotoxins in Indiana corn will concern pig producers". Pig Progress. December 14, 2006. 
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  40. ^ Blake, Leonard (2001). Plants from the Past: Works Of Leonard W. Blake & Hugh C. Cutler. University of Alabama Press. pp. 88–. ISBN 9780817310875. 
  41. ^ a b c "Corn Palace". City of Mitchell. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  42. ^ "Field Of Giant Corn Ears". Roadside America.com. Retrieved 3 June 2013.