List of copper alloys

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Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component. They have high resistance against corrosion. The best known traditional types are bronze, where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead. Both these are imprecise terms, both having been commonly referred to as lattens in the past. Today the term copper alloy tends to be substituted, especially by museums.[1]

Composition[edit]

The similarity in external appearance of the various alloys, along with the different combinations of elements used when making each alloy, can lead to confusion when categorizing the different compositions. There are as many as 400 different copper and copper-alloy compositions loosely grouped into the categories: copper, high copper alloy, brasses, bronzes, copper nickels, copper–nickel–zinc (nickel silver), leaded copper, and special alloys. The following table lists the principal alloying element for four of the more common types used in modern industry, along with the name for each type. Historical types, such as those that characterize the Bronze Age, are vaguer as the mixtures were generally variable.

Classification of copper and its alloys
FamilyPrincipal alloying elementUNS numbers
Copper alloys, brassZinc (Zn)C1xxxx–C4xxxx,C66400–C69800
Phosphor bronzeTin (Sn)C5xxxx
Aluminium bronzesAluminium (Al)C60600–C64200
Silicon bronzesSilicon (Si)C64700–C66100
Copper nickel, nickel silversNickel (Ni)C7xxxx
Mechanical properties of common copper alloys[2]
NameNominal composition (percentages)Form and conditionYield strength (0.2% offset, ksi)Tensile strength (ksi)Elongation in 2 inches (percent)Hardness (Brinell scale)Comments
Copper (ASTM B1, B2, B3, B152, B124, R133)Cu 99.9Annealed10324542Electrical equipment, roofing, screens
"
"
Cold-drawn40451590
"
"
"
Cold-rolled40465100
"
Gilding metal (ASTM B36)Cu 95.0, Zn 5.0Cold-rolled50565114Coins, bullet jackets
Cartridge brass (ASTM B14, B19, B36, B134, B135)Cu 70.0, Zn 30.0Cold-rolled63768155Good for cold-working; radiators, hardware, electrical, drawn cartridge cases.
Phosphor bronze (ASTM B103, B139, B159)Cu 89.75, Sn 10.0, P 0.25Spring temper1224241High fatigue-strength and spring qualities
Yellow or High brass (ASTM B36, B134, B135)Cu 65.0, Zn 35.0Annealed18486055Good corrosion resistance
"
"
Cold-drawn557015115
"
"
"
Cold-rolled (HT)607410180
"
Manganese bronze (ASTM 138)Cu 58.5, Zn 39.2, Fe 1.0, Sn 1.0, Mn 0.3Annealed30603095Forgings
"
"
Cold-drawn508020180
"
Naval brass (ASTM B21)Cu 60.0, Zn 39.25, Sn 0.75Annealed22564090Resistance to salt corrosion
"
"
Cold-drawn406535150
"
Muntz metal (ASTM B111)Cu 60.0, Zn 40.0Annealed20544580Condensor tubes
Aluminium bronze (ASTM B169 alloy A, B124, B150)Cu 92.0, Al 8.0Annealed25706080
"
"
Hard651057210
"
Beryllium copper (ASTM B194, B196, B197)Cu 97.75, Be 2.0, Co or Ni 0.25Annealed, solution-treated327045B60 (Rockwell)Electrical, valves, pumps, oilfield tools, aerospace landing gears, robotic welding, mold making [3]
"
"
Cold-rolled1041105B81 (Rockwell)
"
Free-cutting brassCu 62.0, Zn 35.5, Pb 2.5Cold-drawn447018B80 (Rockwell)Screws, nuts, gears, keys
Nickel silver (ASTM B112)Cu 65.0, Zn 17.0, Ni 18.0Annealed25584070Hardware
"
"
Cold-rolled70854170
"
Nickel silver (ASTM B149)Cu 76.5, Ni 12.5, Pb 9.0, Sn 2.0Cast18351555Easy to machine; ornaments, plumbing [4]
Cupronickel (ASTM B111, B171)Cu 88.35, Ni 10.0, Fe 1.25, Mn 0.4Annealed224445Condensor, salt-water pipes
"
"
Cold-drawn tube576015
"
CupronickelCu 70.0, Ni 30.0WroughtHeat-exchange equipment, valves
Ounce metal[5] Copper Alloy C83600 (also known as "Red brass" or "composition metal") (ASTM B62)Cu 85.0, Zn 5.0, Pb 5.0, Sn 5.0Cast17372560
Gunmetal (known as "red brass" in US)Varies Cu 80-90%, Zn <5%, Sn ~10%, +other elements@ <1%
Mechanical properties of Copper Development Association (CDA) copper alloys[6]
FamilyCDATensile strength [ksi]Yield strength [ksi]Elongation (typ.) [%]Hardness
[Brinell 10 mm-500 kg]
Machinability [YB = 100]
Min.Typ.Min.Typ.
Red brass8333210353535
836303714173050–6584
838293512162550–6090
Semi-red brass844293413152650–6090
848253612143050–6090
Manganese bronze8629095454820170–19530
8631101196083182258
865657125283013026
Tin bronze903404518213060–7530
90540451822257530
90735441822208020
Leaded tin bronze922344016203060–7242
923364016202560–7542
926404418203065–8040
927354221207745
High-leaded tin bronze932303514182060–7070
9342532162055–6570
935253212163055–6570
936333016211579-8380
937253512182055–7080
938253014161850–6080
9432127131042–5580
Aluminium bronze9526580252735110–14050
953657525272514055
9547585303518140–17060
95590100404412180–20050
9588595353825150-17050
Silicon bronze878808330372911540
Brinell scale with 3000 kg load
Comparison of copper alloy standards[6]
FamilyCDAASTMSAESAE supersededFederalMilitary
Red brass833
836B145-83683640QQ-C-390 (B5)C-2229 Gr2
838B145-838838QQ-C-390 (B4)
Semi-red brass844B145-844QQ-C-390 (B2)
848B145-848QQ-C-390 (B1)
Manganese bronze862B147-862862430AQQ-C-390 (C4)C-2229 Gr9
863B147-863863430BQQ-C-390 (C7)C-2229 Gr8
865B147-86586543QQ-C-390 (C3)C-2229 Gr7
Tin bronze903B143-903903620QQ-C-390 (D5)C-2229 Gr1
905B143-90590562QQ-C-390 (D6)
90790765
Leaded tin bronze922B143-922922622QQ-C-390 (D4)B-16541
923B143-923923621QQ-C-390 (D3)C-15345 Gr10
926926
92792763
High-leaded tin bronze932B144-932932660QQ-C-390 (E7)C-15345 Gr12
934QQ-C-390 (E8)C-22229 Gr3
935B144-93593566QQ-C-390 (E9)
937B144-93793764QQ-C-390 (E10)
938B144-93893867QQ-C-390 (E6)
943B144-943943QQ-C-390 (E1)
Aluminium bronze952B148-95295268AQQ-C-390 (G6)C-22229 Gr5
953B148-95395368BQQ-C-390 (G7)
954B148-954954QQ-C-390 (G5)C-15345 Gr13
955B148-955955QQ-C-390 (G3)C-22229 Gr8
958QQ-C-390 (G8)
Silicon bronze878B30878

The following table outlines the chemical composition of various grades of copper alloys.

Chemical composition of copper alloys[6][7]
FamilyCDAAMSUNSCu [%]Sn [%]Pb [%]Zn [%]Ni [%]Fe [%]Al [%]Other [%]
Red brass833C83300931.51.54
C83400[8]9010
8364855BC8360085555
838C8380083467
Semi-red brass844C8440081379
845C84500783712
848C84800763615
Manganese bronzeC86100[9]670.52135Mn 4
862C86200642634Mn 3
8634862BC86300632536Mn 3
8654860AC86500580.539.511Mn 0.25
Tin bronze903C903008884
9054845DC9050088100.3 max2
907C9070089110.5 max0.5 max
Leaded tin bronze922C922008861.54.5
923C923008781 max4
9264846AC92600871012
927C92700881020.7 max
High-leaded tin bronze932C9320083773
934C9340084880.7 max
935C93500855910.5 max
9374842AC937008010100.7 max
938C93800787150.75 max
9434840AC94300705250.7 max
Aluminium bronze952C952008839
953C9520089110
9544870B
4872B
C9540085411
C95410[10]85411Ni 2
955C95500814411
C95600[11]917Si 2
C95700[12]75238Mn 12
958C9580081549Mn 1
Silicon bronzeC87200[13]89Si 4
C87400[14]8314Si 3
C87500[15]8214Si 4
C87600[16]905.5Si 4.5
878C87800[17]8014Si 4
C87900[18]6534Si 1
Chemical composition may vary to yield mechanical properties

Brasses[edit]

Main article: Brass

A brass is an alloy of copper with zinc. Brasses are usually yellow in color. The zinc content can vary between few % to about 40%; as long as it is kept under 15%, it does not markedly decrease corrosion resistance of copper.

Brasses can be sensitive to selective leaching corrosion under certain conditions, when zinc is leached from the alloy (dezincification), leaving behind a spongy copper structure.

Bronzes[edit]

Main article: Bronze

A bronze is an alloy of copper and other metals, most often tin, but also aluminium and silicon.

Precious metal alloys[edit]

Copper is often alloyed with precious metals like silver and gold, to create, for example, Corinthian bronze, hepatizon, tumbaga and shakudo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ British Museum, "Scope Note" for "copper alloy"
  2. ^ Lyons, William C. and Plisga, Gary J. (eds.) Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, Elsevier, 2006
  3. ^ National Bronze & Metals | http://www.nbmmetals.com/products/copper-alloys/beryllium-copper.html
  4. ^ Lewis Brass & Company | http://www.lewisbrass.com/copperalloydata/
  5. ^ Cast copper alloy C83600 (Ounce Metal) substech.com
  6. ^ a b c Standard brass & bronze casting alloys, retrieved 2009-09-07 .
  7. ^ Brass and Bronze Alloys, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  8. ^ UNS C83400, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  9. ^ UNS C86100, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  10. ^ UNS C95410, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  11. ^ UNS C95600, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  12. ^ UNS C95700, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  13. ^ UNS C87200, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  14. ^ UNS C87400, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  15. ^ UNS C87500, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  16. ^ UNS C87600, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  17. ^ UNS C87800, retrieved 2009-09-08 .
  18. ^ UNS C87900, retrieved 2009-09-08 .

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]