Copper River (Alaska)

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Copper River
Chitina dipnet.jpg
A fisherman (bottom center) dipnetting for salmon on the Copper River at Chitina in Southcentral Alaska
Origin62°10′39″N 143°49′05″W / 62.17750°N 143.81806°W / 62.17750; -143.81806 Copper Glacier on Mount Wrangell
Mouth60°23′19″N 144°57′39″W / 60.38861°N 144.96083°W / 60.38861; -144.96083 Copper Bay of Pacific Ocean
Basin countriesUnited States of America
Length290 mi (470 km)
Source elevation4,380 ft (1,340 m)
Mouth elevation0 ft (0 m)
Avg. discharge57,400 cu ft/s (1,630 m3/s) at mouth
Basin area24,000 sq mi (62,000 km2)
 
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Copper River
Chitina dipnet.jpg
A fisherman (bottom center) dipnetting for salmon on the Copper River at Chitina in Southcentral Alaska
Origin62°10′39″N 143°49′05″W / 62.17750°N 143.81806°W / 62.17750; -143.81806 Copper Glacier on Mount Wrangell
Mouth60°23′19″N 144°57′39″W / 60.38861°N 144.96083°W / 60.38861; -144.96083 Copper Bay of Pacific Ocean
Basin countriesUnited States of America
Length290 mi (470 km)
Source elevation4,380 ft (1,340 m)
Mouth elevation0 ft (0 m)
Avg. discharge57,400 cu ft/s (1,630 m3/s) at mouth
Basin area24,000 sq mi (62,000 km2)

The Copper River or Ahtna River (/ɑːtˈnə/), Ahtna Athabascan ‘Atna’tuu ([ʔät.näʔ.tu]), "river of the Ahtnas,"[1] Tlingit Eeḵhéeni ([iː.qʰhiː'.nɪ]), "river of copper,"[2][3] is a 290-mile (480 km) river in south-central Alaska in the United States. It drains a large region of the Wrangell Mountains and Chugach Mountains into the Gulf of Alaska.[4] It is known for its extensive delta ecosystem, as well as for its prolific runs of wild salmon, which are among the most highly prized stocks in the world.[5] The river is the tenth largest in the United States, as ranked by average discharge volume at its mouth.[6]

Description[edit]

The Copper River rises out of the Copper Glacier, which lies on the northeast side of Mount Wrangell, in the Wrangell Mountains, within Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park.[7] It begins by flowing almost due north in a valley that lies on the east side of Mount Sanford, and then turns west, forming the northwest edge of the Wrangell Mountains and separating them from the Mentasta Mountains to the northeast.[8] It continues to turn southeast, through a wide marshy plain to Chitina, where it is joined from the southeast by the Chitina River (Ahtna Athabascan Tsedi Na' [tʃɛ.diː.näʔ] < tsedi "copper" + na’ "river").[1][8] The Copper River is approximately 290 miles (470 km) long.[9] It drops an average of about 12 feet per mile (2.3 m/km), and drains more than 24,000 square miles (62,000 km2)—an area the size of West Virginia.[10][9] The river runs at an average of 7 miles per hour (11 km/h).[10] Downstream from its confluence with the Chitina it flows southwest, passing through a narrow glacier-lined gap in the Chugach Mountains within the Chugach National Forest east of Cordova Peak.[11] There is an extensive area of linear sand dunes radiating from the mouth of the Copper River that reach heights of 250 feet (76 m).[12][13] Both Miles Glacier and Child's Glacier calve directly into the river.[14] The Copper enters the Gulf of Alaska southeast of Cordova where it creates a delta nearly 50 miles (80 km) wide.[12]

History[edit]

The name of the river comes for the abundant copper deposits along the upper river that were used by Alaska Native population and then later by settlers from the Russian Empire and the United States.[15] Extraction of the copper resources was rendered difficult by navigation difficulties at the river's mouth.[8][15] The construction of the Copper River and Northwestern Railway from Cordova through the upper river valley from 1908 to 1911 allowed widespread extraction of the mineral resources, in particular from the Kennecott Mine, discovered in 1898.[15][16] The mine was abandoned in 1938 and is now a ghost town tourist attraction and historic district maintained by the National Park Service.[15][16] Copper River Highway (Alaska Route 10) runs from Cordova to the lower Copper River near Child's Glacier, following the old railroad route and ending at the reconstructed Million Dollar Bridge across the river.[17][18] The Tok Cut-Off (Alaska Route 1) follows the Copper River Valley on the north side of the Chugach Mountains.[19]

Fisheries[edit]

Copper River sockeyes, 2007.

The river's famous salmon runs arise from the use of the river watershed by over 2 million salmon each year for spawning.[14] The extensive runs result in many unique varieties, prized for their fat content.[20] The river's commercial salmon season is very brief, beginning in May for chinook salmon and sockeye salmon for periods lasting days or hours at a time.[21] Sport fishing by contrast is open all year long, but peak season on the Cooper lasts from August to September when the silver salmon runs.[22][23] The fisheries are co-managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and the Department of the Interior Federal Subsistence Board.[22][24] Management data are obtained primarily by ADF&G at the Miles Lake sonar station and the native village of Eyak at the Baird Canyon and Canyon Creek research stations.[25][26]

Birding[edit]

The Copper River Delta, which extends for 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) is the largest contiguous wetlands along the Pacific coast of North America.[12][14] It is used annually by 16 million shorebirds, including the world's entire population of western sandpipers and dunlins.[27] It is also home to the world's largest population of nesting trumpeter swans and is the only known nesting site for the dusky Canada goose subspecies (Branta canadensis occidentalis).[28][29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Smelcer, John (2011). AHTNA NOUN DICTIONARY and Pronunciation Guide (2nd Edition). Copper Center, Alaska: The Ahtna Heritage Foundation. p. 28, 34. ISBN 0-9656310-2-8. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "Tlingit (Lingít, Łingít)". Omniglot. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Thornton, Thomas F (January 2012). University of Washington, ed. "Being and Place Among the Tlingit, p. 64". Retrieved 2013-03-02. 
  4. ^ "Geological Survey Circular, Issues 491-500". USGS. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Special Ecological Sites IN ALASKA’S EASTERN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND & COPPER RIVER DELTA. Anchorage, Alaska: National Wildlife Federation. 2005. p. 6. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "Largest Rivers in the United States" (PDF). USGS. 
  7. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". NPS. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Keltie, John Scott (1902). "Recent Explorations in Alaska". The Geographical Journal (Volume 19): 609. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Brabets, Timothy P. (1997). Geomorphology of the Lower Copper River, Alaska. USGS. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Mendenhall, Walter Curran (1905). Geology of the Central Copper River Region, Alaska Issue 41 of Geological Survey professional paper Geology of the Central Copper River Region, Alaska. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 20. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Copper River Float". NPS. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c Mohlenbrock, Robert H. (2006). This Land: A Guide to Western National Forests. University of California Press. ISBN 0520930517. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  13. ^ "Cordova Peak, Alaska". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c "Chugach Visitors Guide Summer 2014". Alaska Geographic. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Human History". NPS. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  16. ^ a b "An Alaskan Regional Railroad - 1930's Copper River & Northwestern Railway". Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  17. ^ Staff. "The Copper River Highway". The Milepost. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  18. ^ Google Inc. "Overview Map of Copper River Highway". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://maps.google.com/maps?f=d&source=s_d&saddr=New+England+Cannery+Rd&daddr=NF-S-851&geocode=FTADnAMd5vVP9w%3BFVrDnQMdKFlf9w&abauth=4fc6efa3X656j7WLP2epr0kYwWuJPRD_x6I&vps=3&ei=8O_GT7rAAZ7GMoP1sfgI&jsv=417c&sll=60.590002,-144.757919&sspn=0.20096,0.441513&vpsrc=6&hl=en&mra=ls&num=10&mid=1338437629. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  19. ^ "Glenn Highway-Tok Cutoff". The Milepost. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  20. ^ Lange, Lori. "corodva, alaska: copper river salmon fishing". recipe girl. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "Copper River salmon opening today with first 12 hour fishing period". seafoodnews.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  22. ^ a b "PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND FRESH WATERS". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  23. ^ Van Vanasse, Deb (2009). Insiders' Guide® to Anchorage and Southcentral Alaska: Including the Kenai Peninsula, Prince William Sound, and Denali National Park. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 160. ISBN 0762756063. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  24. ^ "Federal Subsistence Board News Release". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  25. ^ "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Subsistence Management Fisheries Resource Monitoring Program Estimating Chinook salmon escapement on the Copper River, 2004 annual report Annual Report No. FIS 04-503". http://www.arlis.org/. LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  26. ^ "Copper River Sonar Tools". ADF&G. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  27. ^ Hagner, Chuck. "Birdwatching at the Copper River Delta in Alaska". Birdwatchingdaily.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  28. ^ "Species at Alaganik Slough". US Forest Service. 
  29. ^ "Birds Field Trip: Dusky Canada Geese". Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Friends Association. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]