Coolie

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Coolie labourer c. 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. The bamboo pole he leans upon was used to hoist and carry the bundle at his feet with the pole over his shoulder and the bundle leaning against his back. On the left side of the image, in the background, another man uses this same technique of bearing a heavy load.

A coolie (alternatively spelled cooli, cooly, kuli, quli, koelie and other such variations), during the 19th and early 20th century, was a label applied to a slave or unskilled manual labourer from Asia, particularly if they were from Southern China, the Indian subcontinent, the Philippines or Indonesia. Today, the term is usually interpreted as an insult or a racial slur[1] towards a person or people of Asian descent throughout many nations in the world, but it's most particularly offensive when used in South Africa.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

Coolie is derived from the Hindi word kuli (क़ुली).[3] The origins of the word are uncertain but it is thought to have been originally used by a Gujurati tribe (the Kulī, who worked as day labourers) or perhaps to the Tamil word for a payment for work, kuli (கூலி).[3][4] An alternative etymological explanation is that the word came from the Urdu qulī (क़ुली, قلی), which itself could be from the Turkish word for slave, qul.[3] The word was used in this sense for labourers from India. In 1727 Dr. Engelbert Kämpfer described "coolies" as dock labourers who would unload Dutch merchant ships at Nagasaki in Japan.[5][6]

The Chinese word (pinyin: kǔlì) literally means "bitterly hard (use of) strength", in the Mandarin pronunciation. In Cantonese, the term is (Jyutping: Gu lei). The word refers to an Asian slave.

In southern Iran (some cities) this word was used to mean a low ranking day labourer. Coolie especially referred to those labourers who carry things on their back or perform manual labour. The word "cool" in that region is slang and among the locals refers to the human back.

History of the Coolie trade[edit]

An early trade in Asian labourers is believed to have begun sometime in or around the 16th century. Social and political pressure led to the abolition of the slave trade throughout the British Empire in 1807, with other European nations following suit. Labour-intensive industries, such as cotton and sugar plantations, mines and railway construction, in the colonies were left without a cheap source of manpower.[7] As a consequence, a large scale slavery-like trade in Asian (primarily Indian and Chinese) indentured labourers began in the 1820s to fill this vacuum. Some of these labourers signed contracts based on misleading promises, some were kidnapped, some were victims of clan violence whose captors sold them to coolie brokers, while others sold themselves to pay off gambling debts.[8][9] The British were the first to experiment with this potential new form of cheap labour in 1807, when they imported 200 Chinese men to work in Trinidad.

The coolie trade was often compared to the earlier slave trade and they accomplished very similar things.[10][11][12] However, there were significant differences between the Coolie trade and the African slave trade. Firstly, despite the many recorded cases of deceiving and kidnapping coolies, many coolies were voluntary labourers, although it is difficult to know what percentage of the total was represented by voluntary coolies. Owing to famines, wars, and shortages of land, many Asians also chose to go overseas to seek a better life. Secondly, coolies were not kept in bondage for life; they became free after serving out their contracts and could return to their country of origin although a large majority were believed to have served as labourers/slaves long after their contracts had expired. Coolies also received wages, although usually they were paid much less than local workers. Although there are reports of ships for Asian coolies carrying women and children, the great majority of them were men. Finally, regulations were put in place, as early as 1837 by the British authorities in India to safeguard these principles of voluntary, contractual work and safe and sanitary transportation although in practice this rarely occurred especially during examples such as the Pacific Passage or the Guano Pits of Peru. The Chinese government also made efforts to secure the wellbeing of their nation's workers, with representations being made to relevant governments around the world.

Chinese coolies[edit]

Workers from China were mainly transported to work in Peru and Cuba, but they also worked in British colonies like Jamaica, British Guiana (now Guyana), Trinidad and Tobago, British Honduras (now Belize) and Suriname.[13][14][15][16] The first shipment of Chinese labourers was to the British colony of Trinidad in 1806.

In 1847 two ships from Cuba transported workers to Havana to work in the sugar cane fields from the port of Xiamen, one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened to the British by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. The trade soon spread to other ports in Guangdong province and demand became particularly strong in Peru for workers in the silver mines and the guano collecting industry.[17][18][19][20] Australia began importing workers in 1848 and the United States began using them in 1865 on the First Transcontinental Railroad construction. These workers were deceived about their terms of employment to a much greater extent than their Indian counterparts, and consequently, there was a much higher level of Chinese emigration during this period.

Illustration of the port of Amoy, where many Chinese labourers were shipped to foreign lands, by Edwin Joshua Dukes.

The trade flourished from 1847 to 1854 without incident, until reports began to surface of the mistreatment of the workers in Cuba and Peru. As the British government had political and legal responsibility for many of the ports involved, including Amoy, the trade was shut down at these places. However, the trade simply shifted to the more accommodating port in the Portuguese enclave of Macau.[21]

Many coolies were first deceived or kidnapped and then kept in barracoons (detention centres) or loading vessels in the ports of departure, as were African slaves. It's believed that up to 80% of all Chinese Coolies were forced into becoming coolies and into the coolie trade against their will. In 1875, British commissioners estimated that approximately eighty percent of the workers had been abducted. Their voyages, which are sometimes called the Pacific Passage, were as inhumane and dangerous as the notorious Middle Passage.[22][23] Mortality was very high. For example, it is estimated that from 1847 to 1859, the average mortality for coolies aboard ships to Cuba was 15.2 percent, and losses among those aboard ships to Peru were 40 percent in the 1850s and 30.44 percent from 1860 to 1863.[23]

They were sold and were taken to work in plantations or mines with very bad living and working conditions. The duration of a contract was typically five to eight years, but many coolies did not live out their term of service because of the hard labour and mistreatment. Those who did live were often forced to remain in servitude beyond the contracted period. The coolies who worked on the sugar plantations in Cuba and in the guano beds of the Chincha Islands (the islands of Hell) of Peru were treated brutally. Seventy-five percent of the Chinese coolies in Cuba died before fulfilling their contracts. More than two-thirds of the Chinese coolies who arrived in Peru between 1849 and 1874 died within the contract period. Among the four thousand coolies brought to the Chinchas in 1861, not a single one survived.

Because of these unbearable conditions, Chinese coolies often revolted against their Chinese and foreign oppressors at ports of departure, on ships, and in foreign lands. The coolies were put in the same neighbourhoods as Africans and, since most were unable to return to their homeland or have their wives come to the New World, many married African women. The coolies' interracial relationships and marriages with Africans, Europeans and Indigenous peoples, formed some of the modern world's Afro-Asian and Asian Latin American populations.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Chinese immigrant workers building the Transcontinental Railroad.

Chinese immigration to the United States was almost entirely voluntary, but working and social conditions were still harsh. In 1868, the Burlingame Treaty allowed unrestricted Chinese immigration into the country. Within a decade significant levels of anti-Chinese sentiment had built up, stoked by populists like Denis Kearney with racist slogans - "To an American, death is preferable to life on a par with the Chinese."[32]

Although Chinese labour contributed to the building of the first Transcontinental Railroad in the United States and of the Canadian Pacific Railway in western Canada, Chinese settlement was discouraged after completion of the construction. California's Anti-Coolie Act of 1862 and the federal Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 contributed to the curtailment of Chinese immigration to the United States.

Notwithstanding such attempts to restrict the influx of cheap labour from China, beginning in the 1870s Chinese workers helped construct a vast network of levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. These levees made thousands of acres of fertile marshlands available for agricultural production.

The 1879 Constitution of the State of California declared that "Asiatic coolieism is a form of human slavery, and is forever prohibited in this State, and all contracts for coolie labour shall be void.[33]

Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, a legal order approved by the Spanish Crown to encourage foreign settlement of the colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Colonos asiáticos is a Spanish term for coolies.[34] The Spanish colony of Cuba feared slavery uprisings such as those that took place in Haiti and used coolies as a transition between slaves and free labor. They were neither free nor slaves. Indentured Chinese servants also labored in the sugarcane fields of Cuba well after the 1884 abolition of slavery in that country. Two scholars of Chinese labor in Cuba, Juan Pastrana and Juan Perez de la Riva, substantiated horrific conditions of Chinese coolies in Cuba[35] and stated that coolies were slaves in all but name.[35] Denise Helly is one researcher who believes despite their slave-like treatment, the free and legal status of the Asian laborers in Cuba separated them from slaves. The coolies could challenge their superiors, run away, petition government officials, and rebel according to Rodriguez Pastor and Trazegnies Granda.[36] Once they had fulfilled their contracts the colonos asiáticos integrated into the countries of Peru, The Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Cuba. They adopted cultural traditions from the natives and also welcomed in non-Chinese to experience and participate into their own traditions.[34] Before the Cuban Revolution in 1959, Havana had Latin America's largest Chinatown.

In South America, Chinese indentured labourers worked in Peru's silver mines and coastal industries (i.e., guano, sugar, and cotton) from the early 1850s to the mid-1870s; about 100,000 people immigrated as indentured workers. They participated with the War of the Pacific, looting and burning down the haciendas where they worked, subsequent to the capture of Lima by the invading Chilean army in January 1880. Some 2000 coolies even joined the Chilean Army in Peru taking care for the wounded and burying the dead. Other were sent by Chileans to work in the newly conquered nitrate fields.[37]

The Chinese Engineering and Mining Corporation, of which later U.S. president Herbert Hoover was a director, was instrumental in supplying Chinese coolie labour to South African mines from c.1902 to c.1910 at the request of mine owners, who considered such labour cheaper than native African and white labour.[38] The horrendous conditions suffered by the coolie labourers led to questions in the British parliament as recorded in Hansard.[39]

In 1866, the British, French and Chinese governments agreed to mitigate the abuse by requiring all traders to pay for the return of all workers after their contract elapsed. The employers in the British West Indies declined these conditions, bringing the trade there to an end. Until the trade was finally abolished in 1875, over 150,000 coolies had been sold to Cuba alone, the majority having been shipped from Macau. These labourers endured conditions far worse than those experienced by their Indian counterparts. Even after the 1866 reforms, the scale of abuse and conditions of near slavery did not get any better, if anything they deteriorated. In the early 1870s increased media exposure of the trade led to a public outcry, and the British, as well as the Qing government, put pressure on the Portuguese authorities to bring the trade at Macau to an end; this was ultimately achieved in 1874.[21] By that time, a total of up to half a million Chinese workers had been exported.[40]

Indian Coolies[edit]

Hindu festival for the indentured Indian workers, on the French colony Réunion.

By the 1820s, many Indians were voluntarily enlisting to go abroad for work, in the hopes of a better life. European merchants and businessmen quickly took advantage of this and began recruiting them for work as a cheap source of labour.[41][42] The British began shipping Indians to colonies around the world, including Mauritius, Fiji, Natal, and British East Africa. The Dutch also shipped workers to labour on the plantations on Suriname and the Dutch East Indies. A system of agents was used to infiltrate the rural villages of India and recruit labourers. They would often deceive the credulous workers about the great opportunities that awaited them for their own material betterment abroad. The Indians primarily came from the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but also from Tamil Nadu and other areas to the south of the country.[21]

Without permission from the British authorities, the French attempted to illegally transport Indian workers to their sugar producing colony, the Reunion Island, from as early as 1826. By 1830, over 3000 labourers had been transported. After this trade was discovered, the French successfully negotiated with the British in 1860 for permission to transport over 6,000 workers annually, on condition that the trade would be suspended if abuses were discovered to be taking place.[12][43]

The British began to transport Indians to Mauritius in East Africa, starting in 1829. Slavery had been abolished with the planters receiving two million pounds sterling in compensation for the loss of their slaves. The planters turned to bringing in a large number of indentured labourers from India to work in the sugar cane fields. Between 1834 and 1921, around half a million indentured labourers were present on the island. They worked on sugar estates, factories, in transport and on construction sites.[44]

In 1837, the Raj issued a set of regulations for the trade. The rules provided for each labourer to be personally authorised for transportation by an officer designated by the Government, it limited the length of service to five years subject to voluntary renewal, it made the contractor responsible for returning the worker after the contract elapsed and required the vessels to conform to basic health standards.[21]

Newly arrived Indian coolies in Trinidad.

Despite this, conditions on the ships were often extremely crowded, with rampant disease and malnutrition. The workers were paid a pittance for their labour, and were expected to work in often awful and harsh conditions. Although there were no large scale scandals involving coolie abuse in British colonies, workers often ended up being forced to work, and manipulated in such a way that they became dependent on the plantation owners so that in practice they remained there long after their contracts expired; possibly as little as 10% of the coolies actually returned to their original country of origin. Colonial legislation was also passed to severely limit their freedoms; in Mauritius a compulsory pass system was instituted to enable their movements to be easily tracked. Conditions were much worse in the French colonies of Reunion and Guadeloupe and Martinique, where workers were 'systematically overworked' and abnormally high mortality rates were recorded for those working in the mines.[21]

However, there were also attempts by the British authorities to regulate and mitigate the worst abuses. Workers were regularly checked up on by health inspectors, and they were vetted before transportation to ensure that they were suitably healthy and fit to be able to endure the rigours of labour. Children under the age of 15 were not allowed to be transported from their parents under any circumstances.[21]

The first campaign against the 'coolie' trade in England likened the system of indentured labour to the slavery of the past. In response to this pressure, the labour export was temporarily stopped in 1839 by the authorities when the scale of the abuses became known, but it was soon renewed due to its growing economic importance. A more rigorous regulatory framework was put into place and severe penalties were imposed for infractions in 1842. In that year, almost 35,000 people were shipped to Mauritius.[21]

In 1844, the trade was expanded to the colonies in the West Indies, including Jamaica, Trinidad and Demerara, where the Asian population was soon a major component of the island demographic.

Members of the Chinese Labour Corps carry out riveting work at the Central Workshops of the Royal Tank Regiment.

Starting in 1879, many Indians were transported to Fiji to work on the sugar cane plantations. Many of them chose to stay after their term of indenture elapsed and today they number about 40% of the total population. Indian workers were also imported into the Dutch colony of Suriname after the Dutch signed a treaty with the United Kingdom on the recruitment of contract workers in 1870. In Mauritius, the Indian population are now demographically dominant, with Indian festivals being celebrated as national holidays.[21]

This system prevailed until the early twentieth century. Increasing focus on the brutalities and abuses of the trade by the sensationalist media of the time, incited public outrage and lead to the official ending of the coolie trade in 1916 by the British government. By that time tens of thousands of Chinese workers were being used along the Western Front by the allied forces (see Chinese Labour Corps).[45]

Modern use[edit]

In media[edit]

Film[edit]

In the film The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), the term is used numerous times to mean a slave or slaves or being used as slaves.

Throughout the film Gandhi (1982), the term was used as a racial slur.

In the 1984 film The Last Dragon, the lead character Leroy Green (played by Taimak) was often referred to as a "coolie" by his adversaries and even his own little brother because of his emulation of the stereotypical protagonist character in Kung-Fu movies typically seen in the late 70s-early 80s.

Coolie (1983) is an Indian film about a coolie, Amitabh Bachchan, who works at a railway station and has a lover. His lover's father once murdered a girl's father in an attempt to force her to marry him, but she did not give in. After 10 years of imprisonment, he flooded her village (injuring her new husband) and causing her to awaken with amnesia. It starred Amitabh Bachchan and Waheeda Rehman.

The film Romper Stomper (1992) shows a white power skinhead named Hando (played by Russell Crowe) expressing distress about the idea of being a coolie in his own country. Also, the gang he directs makes frequent attacks at gangs of working class Vietnamese Australians.

Guiana 1838 is a 2004 docu-drama that explores the unknown world of indentureship and slavery in the British Colonies of the West Indies. It reveals the trials and tribulation of both the African slaves and the unsuspecting Indians from Calcutta who expected "El Dorado" only to find themselves on a ship to hard labour. [3]

In Stephen Chow's action-comedy film Kung Fu Hustle (2004), former Shaolin monk Xing Yu plays a character who works as a Coolie, doing hard labour in a multi-floored apartment-block village called "Pig Sty Alley". However, when a petty thief (Stephen Chow) and his sidekick pose as members of the infamous "Axe Gang" and accidentally bring upon the wrath of actual members, Coolie is the first of three retired martial artists who come to the village's aid. He is a master of the 12 Kicks of the Tam School (十二路潭腿), a leg-oriented boxing style. He is later beheaded by assassins hired by the Axe Gang to kill the village's landlords.

The documentary film directed by Yung Chang called Up the Yangtze (2007) follows the life of a family in China that are relocated due to the flooding of the Yangtze. The daughter is sent directly from finishing middle school to work on a cruise ship for western tourists, to earn money for her family. Her father referred to himself as a 'coolie' who used to carry bags on and off of boats.[49]

2010's Merry-Go-Round (HK) Dong fung po (original title) the backdrop of this drama is based on the events of the "coolie trade" to the U.S., where Chinese who died abroad had their bodies shipped back to China via Hong Kong. Those whose bodies were not found or unrecoverable, i.e. mining accidents, lost at sea, etc., had empty coffins sent back. The empty coffins symbolised the return of the souls back to their homelands.[50]

Television[edit]

The phrase was used repeatedly in the 1993–1994 Fox weird west series The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.–set in the 1890s–in reference to Chinese workers.

In the 1983 miniseries, The Thorn Birds, based on the novel by Colleen McCullough, the main character, Meggie, tells her new husband, Luke, that sugar cane cutting is "coolie" labor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Location Settings (2011-10-20). "Malema under fire over slur on Indians". News24. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  2. ^ Most current dictionaries do not record any offensive meaning ("an unskilled laborer or porter usually in or from India hired for low or subsistence wages" Merriam-Webster) or make a distinction between an offensive meaning in referring to "a person from the Indian subcontinent or of Indian descent" and an at least originally inoffensive, old-fashioned meaning, for example "dated an unskilled native labourer in India, China, and some other Asian countries" (Compact Oxford English Dictionary). However, some dictionaries indicate that the word may be considered offensive in all contexts today. For example, Longman's 1995 edition had "old-fashioned an unskilled worker who is paid very low wages, especially in parts of Asia", but the current version adds "taboo old-fashioned a very offensive word ... Do not use this word".
  3. ^ a b c Oxford English Dictionary, retrieved 19 April 2012 
  4. ^ Britannica Academic Edition, retrieved 19 April 2012 
  5. ^ Kämpfer, Engelbert (1727). The History ofk,o Japan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Preferences. 
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Dictionary, Arts, Sciences, and General Literature (9th, American Reprint ed.). Maxwell Sommerville (Philadelphia). 1891. p. 296. Volume VI. 
  7. ^ Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989". Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  8. ^ Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780814732977. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
    Jackson, Yo, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 9781412909488. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
    Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck". Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity. SUNY Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9781438427379. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619-1803". Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
    Francis C.Assisi (16 May 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America". India Currents. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Coolie Trade in the 19th Century, retrieved 29 May 2013 
  11. ^ Hugh Tinker (1993). New System of Slavery. Hansib Publishing, London. ISBN 978-1-870518-18-5. 
  12. ^ a b Evelyn Hu-DeHart. "Coolie Labor". University of Colorado. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  13. ^ : Chinese in the English-Speaking Caribbean
  14. ^ Look Lai, Walton (1998). The Chinese in the West Indies: a documentary history, 1806–1995. The Press University of the West Indies. ISBN 976-640-021-0. 
  15. ^ Li 2004, p. 44
  16. ^ Robinson 2010, p. 108
  17. ^ Asia-Canada:Chinese Coolies, retrieved 14 June 2013 
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  19. ^ Chinese Coolies in Cuba, retrieved 14 June 2013 
  20. ^ Chinese Indentured Labour in Peru, retrieved 14 June 2013 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants". Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  22. ^ "Forced Labour". The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom. 2010. 
  23. ^ a b Slave Trade:Coolie Trade, retrieved 29 May 2013 
  24. ^ "Taste of Peru". Taste of Peru. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  25. ^ Influência da aculturação na autopercepção dos idosos quanto à saúde bucal em uma população de origem japonesa
  26. ^ Identity, Rebellion, and Social Justice Among Chinese Contract Workers in Nineteenth-Century Cuba
  27. ^ CIA – The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  28. ^ Chinese in the English-Speaking Caribbean - Settlements
  29. ^ Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: Contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow [1]
  30. ^ DNA study from ancestry24
  31. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2850426/ Strong Maternal Khoisan Contribution to the South African Coloured Population: A Case of Gender-Biased Admixture. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 April 9; 86(4): 611–620. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.02.014
  32. ^ University of Arkansas
  33. ^ [2] The Chinese in California, 1850–1879
  34. ^ a b Narvaez, Benjamin N. "Chinese Coolies in Cuba and Peru: Race, Labor, and Immigration, 1839–1886." (2010): 1–524. Print.
  35. ^ a b Significance of Chinese Coolies to Cuba, retrieved 14 June 2013 
  36. ^ Helly, "Idéologie et ethnicité"; Rodríguez Pastor, "Hijos del Celeste Imperio"; Trazegnies Granda, "En el país de las colinas de arena", Tomo II
  37. ^ Bonilla, Heraclio. 1978. The National and Colonial Problem in Peru. Past & Present.
  38. ^ Walter Liggett, The Rise of Herbert Hoover (New York, 1932)
  39. ^ Indian South Africans:Coolie commission 1872, retrieved 29 May 2013 
  40. ^ Meagher, Arnold J. (2008). The Coolie Trade: The Traffic in Chinese Laborers to Latin America 1847-1874. Arnold J.  Unknown parameter |meagherccessdate= ignored (help)
  41. ^ Coolie (Asian labourers), retrieved 29 May 2013 
  42. ^ The Chinese American Experience:1857-1892, retrieved 29 May 2013 
  43. ^ "St. Lucia’s Indian Arrival Day". Caribbean Repeating Islands. 2009. 
  44. ^ "Indian indentured labourers". The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom. 2010. 
  45. ^ The Long, Long Trail: The Labour Corps of 1917-1918
  46. ^ "Thai Unions Hot under Collar at PM "coolie" Slur." The Star Online. 30 September 2005. Web. 29 Jan 2011.
  47. ^ Humanitarian Movement Against Child Oppression & Others Living in Exploitation
  48. ^ "Straattaal Straatwoordenboek: Definitie". Straatwoordenboek.nl. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  49. ^ "Up the Yangtze (Trailer) by Yung Chang - NFB". Films.nfb.ca. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  50. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1756487/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]