Conversion of units of temperature

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This is a compendium of temperature conversion formulas and comparisons among eight different temperature scales, several of which have long been obsolete.

Celsius (centigrade)[edit]

from Celsiusto Celsius
Fahrenheit[°F] = [°C] × 95 + 32[°C] = ([°F] − 32) × 59
Kelvin[K] = [°C] + 273.15[°C] = [K] − 273.15
Rankine[°R] = ([°C] + 273.15) × 95[°C] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 59
Delisle[°De] = (100 − [°C]) × 32[°C] = 100 − [°De] × 23
Newton[°N] = [°C] × 33100[°C] = [°N] × 10033
Réaumur[°Ré] = [°C] × 45[°C] = [°Ré] × 54
Rømer[°Rø] = [°C] × 2140 + 7.5[°C] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 4021

Fahrenheit[edit]

from Fahrenheitto Fahrenheit
Celsius[°C] = ([°F] − 32) × 59[°F] = [°C] × 95 + 32
Kelvin[K] = ([°F] + 459.67) × 59[°F] = [K] × 95 − 459.67
Rankine[°R] = [°F] + 459.67[°F] = [°R] − 459.67
Delisle[°De] = (212 − [°F]) × 56[°F] = 212 − [°De] × 65
Newton[°N] = ([°F] − 32) × 1160[°F] = [°N] × 6011 + 32
Réaumur[°Ré] = ([°F] − 32) × 49[°F] = [°Ré] × 94 + 32
Rømer[°Rø] = ([°F] − 32) × 724 + 7.5[°F] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 247 + 32

Kelvin[edit]

from Kelvinto Kelvin
Celsius[°C] = [K] − 273.15[K] = [°C] + 273.15
Fahrenheit[°F] = [K] × 95 − 459.67[K] = ([°F] + 459.67) × 59
Rankine[°R] = [K] × 95[K] = [°R] × 59
Delisle[°De] = (373.15 − [K]) × 32[K] = 373.15 − [°De] × 23
Newton[°N] = ([K] − 273.15) × 33100[K] = [°N] × 10033 + 273.15
Réaumur[°Ré] = ([K] − 273.15) × 45[K] = [°Ré] × 54 + 273.15
Rømer[°Rø] = ([K] − 273.15) × 2140 + 7.5[K] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 4021 + 273.15

Rankine[edit]

from Rankineto Rankine
Celsius[°C] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 59[°R] = ([°C] + 273.15) × 95
Fahrenheit[°F] = [°R] − 459.67[°R] = [°F] + 459.67
Kelvin[K] = [°R] × 59[°R] = [K] × 95
Delisle[°De] = (671.67 − [°R]) × 56[°R] = 671.67 − [°De] × 65
Newton[°N] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 1160[°R] = [°N] × 6011 + 491.67
Réaumur[°Ré] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 49[°R] = [°Ré] × 94 + 491.67
Rømer[°Rø] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 724 + 7.5[°R] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 247 + 491.67

Newton[edit]

from Newtonto Newton
Celsius[°C] = [°N] × 10033[°N] = [°C] × 33100
Fahrenheit[°F] = [°N] × 6011 + 32[°N] = ([°F] − 32) × 1160
Kelvin[K] = [°N] × 10033 + 273.15[°N] = ([K] − 273.15) × 33100
Rankine[°R] = [°N] × 6011 + 491.67[°N] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 1160
Delisle[°De] = (33 − [°N]) × 5011[°N] = 33 − [°De] × 1150
Réaumur[°Ré] = [°N] × 8033[°N] = [°Ré] × 3380
Rømer[°Rø] = [°N] × 3522 + 7.5[°N] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 2235

Réaumur[edit]

from Réaumurto Réaumur
Celsius[°C] = [°Ré] × 54[°Ré] = [°C] × 45
Fahrenheit[°F] = [°Ré] × 94 + 32[°Ré] = ([°F] − 32) × 49
Kelvin[K] = [°Ré] × 54 + 273.15[°Ré] = ([K] − 273.15) × 45
Rankine[°R] = [°Ré] × 94 + 491.67[°Ré] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 49
Delisle[°De] = (80 − [°Ré]) × 158[°Ré] = 80 − [°De] × 815
Newton[°N] = [°Ré] × 3380[°Ré] = [°N] × 8033
Rømer[°Rø] = [°Ré] × 2132 + 7.5[°Ré] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 3221

Rømer[edit]

from Rømerto Rømer
Celsius[°C] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 4021[°Rø] = [°C] × 2140 + 7.5
Fahrenheit[°F] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 247 + 32[°Rø] = ([°F] − 32) × 724 + 7.5
Kelvin[K] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 4021 + 273.15[°Rø] = ([K] − 273.15) × 2140 + 7.5
Rankine[°R] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 247 + 491.67[°Rø] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 724 + 7.5
Delisle[°De] = (60 − [°Rø]) × 207[°Rø] = 60 − [°De] × 720
Newton[°N] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 2235[°Rø] = [°N] × 3522 + 7.5
Réaumur[°Ré] = ([°Rø] − 7.5) × 3221[°Rø] = [°Ré] × 2132 + 7.5

Comparison[edit]

CelsiusFahrenheitKelvinRankineDelisleNewtonRéaumurRømer
300.00572.00573.151031.67−300.0099.00240.00165.00
290.00554.00563.151013.67−285.0095.70232.00159.75
280.00536.00553.15995.67−270.0092.40224.00154.50
270.00518.00543.15977.67−255.0089.10216.00149.25
260.00500.00533.15959.67−240.0085.80208.00144.00
250.00482.00523.15941.67−225.0082.50200.00138.75
240.00464.00513.15923.67−210.0079.20192.00133.50
230.00446.00503.15905.67−195.0075.90184.00128.25
220.00428.00493.15887.67−180.0072.60176.00123.00
210.00410.00483.15869.67−165.0069.30168.00117.75
200.00392.00473.15851.67−150.0066.00160.00112.50
190.00374.00463.15833.67−135.0062.70152.00107.25
180.00356.00453.15815.67−120.0059.40144.00102.00
170.00338.00443.15797.67−105.0056.10136.0096.75
160.00320.00433.15779.67−90.0052.80128.0091.50
150.00302.00423.15761.67−75.0049.50120.0086.25
140.00284.00413.15743.67−60.0046.20112.0081.00
130.00266.00403.15725.67−45.0042.90104.0075.75
120.00248.00393.15707.67−30.0039.6096.0070.50
110.00230.00383.15689.67−15.0036.3088.0065.25
100.00212.00373.15671.670.0033.0080.0060.00
90.00194.00363.15653.6715.0029.7072.0054.75
80.00176.00353.15635.6730.0026.4064.0049.50
70.00158.00343.15617.6745.0023.1056.0044.25
60.00140.00333.15599.6760.0019.8048.0039.00
50.00122.00323.15581.6775.0016.5040.0033.75
40.00104.00313.15563.6790.0013.2032.0028.50
30.0086.00303.15545.67105.009.9024.0023.25
20.0068.00293.15527.67120.006.6016.0018.00
10.0050.00283.15509.67135.003.308.0012.75
0.0032.00273.15491.67150.000.000.007.50
−10.0014.00263.15473.67165.00−3.30−8.002.25
−20.00−4.00253.15455.67180.00−6.60−16.00−3.00
−30.00−22.00243.15437.67195.00−9.90−24.00−8.25
−40.00−40.00233.15419.67210.00−13.20−32.00−13.50
−50.00−58.00223.15401.67225.00−16.50−40.00−18.75
−60.00−76.00213.15383.67240.00−19.80−48.00−24.00
−70.00−94.00203.15365.67255.00−23.10−56.00−29.25
−80.00−112.00193.15347.67270.00−26.40−64.00−34.50
−90.00−130.00183.15329.67285.00−29.70−72.00−39.75
−100.00−148.00173.15311.67300.00−33.00−80.00−45.00
−110.00−166.00163.15293.67315.00−36.30−88.00−50.25
−120.00−184.00153.15275.67330.00−39.60−96.00−55.50
−130.00−202.00143.15257.67345.00−42.90−104.00−60.75
−140.00−220.00133.15239.67360.00−46.20−112.00−66.00
−150.00−238.00123.15221.67375.00−49.50−120.00−71.25
−160.00−256.00113.15203.67390.00−52.80−128.00−76.50
−170.00−274.00103.15185.67405.00−56.10−136.00−81.75
−180.00−292.0093.15167.67420.00−59.40−144.00−87.00
−190.00−310.0083.15149.67435.00−62.70−152.00−92.25
−200.00−328.0073.15131.67450.00−66.00−160.00−97.50
−210.00−346.0063.15113.67465.00−69.30−168.00−102.75
−220.00−364.0053.1595.67480.00−72.60−176.00−108.00
−230.00−382.0043.1577.67495.00−75.90−184.00−113.25
−240.00−400.0033.1559.67510.00−79.20−192.00−118.50
−250.00−418.0023.1541.67525.00−82.50−200.00−123.75
−260.00−436.0013.1523.67540.00−85.80−208.00−129.00
−273.15−459.670.000.00559.73−90.14−218.52−135.90
CelsiusFahrenheitKelvinRankineDelisleNewtonRéaumurRømer

Comparison of temperature scales[edit]

Comparison of temperature scales
CommentKelvinCelsiusFahrenheitRankineDelisleNewtonRéaumurRømer
Absolute zero0.00−273.15−459.670.00559.73−90.14−218.52−135.90
Lowest recorded surface temperature on Earth[1]184−89.2[1]−128.6[1]331284−29−71−39
Fahrenheit's ice/salt mixture255.37−17.780.00459.67176.67−5.87−14.22−1.83
Ice melts (at standard pressure)273.150.0032.00491.67150.000.000.007.50
Triple point of water273.160.0132.018491.688149.9850.00330.0087.50525
Average surface temperature on Earth288155951912851215
Average human body temperature*310379855895122927
Highest recorded surface temperature on Earth[2]33158[2]136.4[2]59663194638
Water boils (at standard pressure)373.1339[3]99.9839[3]211.97102[4]671.64102[4]0.0033.0080.0060.00
Titanium melts1941166830343494−23525501334883
The surface of the Sun58005500990010400−8100180044002900

* Normal human body temperature is 36.8 °C ±0.7 °C, or 98.2 °F ±1.3 °F. The commonly given value 98.6 °F is simply the exact conversion of the nineteenth-century German standard of 37 °C. Since it does not list an acceptable range, it could therefore be said to have excess (invalid) precision.[5]

Some numbers in this table have been rounded.

Graphical representation[edit]

0 K / 0 °Ra (-273.15 °C)0 °F (-17.78 °C)150 °D32 °F7.5 °Rø0 °C / 0 °Ré / 0 °N212 °F100 °C80 °Ré60 °Rø33 °N0 °DFile:Comparison of temperature scales blank.svgComparison of temperature scales blank.svg
Rankine (°Ra)
Kelvin (K)
Fahrenheit (°F)
Celsius (°C)
Réaumur (°Ré)
Rømer (°Rø)
Newton (°N)
Delisle (°D)
Absolute zeroLowest recorded surface temperature on Earth[1]Fahrenheit's ice/water/salt mixtureMelting point of ice (at standard pressure)Average surface temperature on Earth (15 °C)Average human body temperature (37 °C)Highest recorded surface temperature on Earth[2]Boiling point of water (at standard pressure) 

Conversion table between different temperature units[edit]

KelvinCelsiusFahrenheitRankine scaleRømer scaleNewton scaleDelisle scaleRéaumur scale

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The Coldest Inhabited Places on Earth; researches of the Vostok Station recorded the coldest known temperature on Earth on July 21st 1983: −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).
  2. ^ a b c d World: Highest Temperature; an Italian weather station in al 'Aziziyah (Libya) measured a temperature of 58 °C (136.4 °F) on September 13th 1922. "Although this record has gained general acceptance as the world's highest temperature recorded under standard conditions, the validity of the extreme has been questioned."
  3. ^ a b http://chemistry.uah.edu/Faculty/shriver/supplements/Temperature%20scales.pdf The University of Alabama in Huntsville - Temperature scales – Celsius, centigrade, and kelvin
  4. ^ a b http://www.tampile.com/scales.php Tampile - Temperature Conversion Scales
  5. ^ "Temperature of a Healthy Human (Body Temperature)". Hypertextbook.com. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 

External links[edit]