Conrad Black

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The Right Honourable
The Lord Black of Crossharbour
BornConrad Moffat Black
(1944-08-25) 25 August 1944 (age 69)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
NationalityCanadian (1944–2001)
British (1999–present)
EducationCarleton University (B.A.)
Université Laval (LL.L.)
McGill University (M.A.)
OccupationFormer newspaper publisher, author, columnist, investor
Home townToronto, Ontario, Canada
Net worth$80 million (2011)[2]
Spouse(s)Joanna Hishon (1978–1992)
Barbara Amiel, Lady Black (m. 1992)
Children2 sons, 1 daughter
ParentsGeorge Montegu Black II, Jean Elizabeth Riley
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The Right Honourable
The Lord Black of Crossharbour
BornConrad Moffat Black
(1944-08-25) 25 August 1944 (age 69)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
NationalityCanadian (1944–2001)
British (1999–present)
EducationCarleton University (B.A.)
Université Laval (LL.L.)
McGill University (M.A.)
OccupationFormer newspaper publisher, author, columnist, investor
Home townToronto, Ontario, Canada
Net worth$80 million (2011)[2]
Spouse(s)Joanna Hishon (1978–1992)
Barbara Amiel, Lady Black (m. 1992)
Children2 sons, 1 daughter
ParentsGeorge Montegu Black II, Jean Elizabeth Riley

Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, KSG (born August 25, 1944) is a Canadian-born British former newspaper publisher, a writer, a non-affiliated life peer, and a convicted felon in the United States for fraud.[n 1] Black controlled Hollinger International, once the world’s third-largest English-language newspaper empire,[3] which published The Daily Telegraph (UK), Chicago Sun Times (U.S.), The Jerusalem Post (Israel), National Post (Canada), The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia), and hundreds of community newspapers in North America, before he was fired by the board of Hollinger in 2004. [4]

In 2004, a shareholder-initiated prosecution of Black began in the United States over $80 million in assets claimed to have been improperly taken or inappropriately spent by Black.[5] He was convicted of three counts of fraud and one count of obstruction of justice in a U.S. court in 2007 and sentenced to six and a half years' imprisonment. In 2011, two of the charges were overturned on appeal, and he was re-sentenced to 42 months in prison on one count of mail fraud and on the one count of obstruction of justice.[6] Black was released on May 4, 2012.[7]

Early life and family[edit]

Black was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, to a wealthy family originally from Winnipeg, Manitoba. His father, George Montegu Black, Jr., C.A., was the president of Canadian Breweries Limited, an international brewing conglomerate that had earlier absorbed Winnipeg Breweries (founded by George Black Sr.). Conrad Black's mother was the former Jean Elizabeth Riley, a daughter of Conrad Stephenson Riley, whose father founded the Great-West Life Assurance Company, and a great-granddaughter of an early co-owner of the Daily Telegraph.[citation needed]

Biographer George Toombs said of Black's motivations: "he was born into a very large family of athletic, handsome people. He wasn't particularly athletic or handsome like they were, so he developed a different skill – wordplay, which he practised a lot with his father."[8] Black has written that his father was “cultured [and] humorous” and that his mother was a “natural, convivial, and altogether virtuous person.”[9] Of his older brother George Montegu Black III (Monte), Black has written that he was “one of the greatest natural athletes I have known,” and that though “generally more sociable than I was, he was never a cad or even inconstant, or ever an ungenerous friend or less than a gentleman.”[10]


Black was first educated at Upper Canada College (UCC), during which time, at age eight, he invested his life savings of $60 in one share of General Motors.[11] Six years later, according to Tom Bower's biography Dancing on the Edge,[12] he was expelled from UCC for selling stolen exam papers. He then attended Trinity College School where he lasted less than a year, being expelled for insubordinate behaviour. Black eventually graduated from a small, now defunct, private school in Toronto called Thornton Hall, continuing on to post-secondary education at Carleton University (History, 1965). He attended Toronto's Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, but his studies ended after he failed his first year exams.[12] He completed a law degree at Université Laval (Law, 1970), and in 1973 completed a Master of Arts degree in history at McGill University.[13] Black's thesis, later published as a biography, was on Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis. Black had been granted access to Duplessis’s papers, housed in Duplessis’s former residence in Trois-Rivières,[14] which included “figures from the famous Union Nationale Caisse Electorale (the party war chest), a copy of the leader of the Opposition’s tax returns, [and] gossip from bishops,”[9] as well as “historically significant letters from Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve side-by-side with hand-written, ungrammatical requests for jobs with the Quebec Liquor Board, unpaid bills, the returns of his ministers who were cheating on their taxes, a number of scribbled notes for Assembly speeches, tidbits of political espionage, compromising photographs, [and] a ledger listing the political contributions of every tavern-keeper in the province.”[14] Black subsequently had the principal items from the papers copied and microfilmed, and donated copies to McGill, York, and Windsor universities.[9]


Black's first marriage was in 1978 to Joanna Hishon of Montreal, who worked as a secretary in his brother Montegu's brokerage office. The couple had two sons and a daughter.[15] They separated in 1991. Their divorce was finalized in 1992; the same year Black married British-born journalist Barbara Amiel. Black flattered Amiel, describing her variously as "beautiful, brilliant, ideologically a robust spirit" and "chic, humorous and preternaturally sexy." Courtroom evidence revealed that the couple exchanged over 11,000 emails.[8] In a February, 2011, public Valentine greeting, Black wrote:

“I have been persecuted and Barbara was under no obligation to share fully in the life-enhancing and undoubtedly character-building experience of sharing that fate with me completely. But she has, and no one can know, and it is beyond my power adequately to express here, what her constancy has meant to me. For more than four years before I was sent to prison, she toiled with me against the heavy odds generated by the legal and media onslaught. She endured an avalanche of abuse directed at her (although she wasn’t accused of anything) as extravagant, flakey, apt to bolt, domineering, and what Kafka called 'nameless crimes.' For the next 29 months, she led a lonely life in Florida, in a climate that aggravated her medical problems. And once or twice every week, she got up at 3 a.m. to drive over four hours to see me.”[16]


"My family," Black wrote in 2009, "was divided between atheism and agnosticism, and I followed rather unthinkingly and inactively in those paths into my twenties." By his early thirties he "no longer had any confidence in the non-existence of God." Thereafter, he "approached Rome at a snail's pace," and began to study the writings of Roman Catholic thinkers such as St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Cardinal Newman, and Jacques Maritain.[17] Having accepted the possibility of miracles and thus of the Resurrection of Christ, Black was received into the Catholic Church on June 18, 1986 by Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, Archbishop of Toronto.[9] Black would develop a close friendship with Carter and rely on him as a spiritual advisor; on Carter’s death, Black wrote: “In the 25 years I knew him, his judgment and personality were always sober but never solemn; and never, not at his most beleaguered and not on the verge of death, did he show a trace of despair. He was intellectual but practical, spiritual but not sanctimonious or utopian, proud but never arrogant. He must have had faults, but I never detected any. He was a great man, yet the salt of the earth.”[18]

In 2001, Black was invested as a Knight of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, a Papal order of chivalry.

Black has written that his faith helped him endure his imprisonment in the United States.[19] Black is also a major shareholder in The Catholic Herald,[19] and was the vice-president of Paul-Émile Cardinal Léger’s charity for a number of years.[20]


Black became involved in a number of businesses, mainly publishing newspapers, and briefly in mining. In 1966, Black bought his first newspaper, the Eastern Townships Advertiser in Quebec. Following the foundation, as an investment vehicle, of the Ravelston Corporation by the Black family in 1969, Black, together with friends David Radler and Peter G. White, purchased and operated the Sherbrooke Record, the small English language daily in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In 1971, the three formed Sterling Newspapers Limited, a holding company that would acquire several other small Canadian regional newspapers.[citation needed]

Corporate ownership through holding companies[edit]

George Black died in June 1976, leaving Conrad Black and his older brother, Montegu, a 22.4% stake in Ravelston Corporation, which by then owned 61% voting control of Argus Corporation, an influential holding company in Canada. Argus controlled large stakes in seven Canadian corporations, Labrador Mining, Noranda Mines, Hollinger Mines, Standard Broadcasting, Dominion Stores, Domtar and Massey-Ferguson.[21]

In 1977, Black became a director of the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.[22]

Through his father's holdings in Ravelston, Black gained early association with two of Canada's most prominent businessmen: Bud McDougald and E. P. Taylor, president and founder of Argus, respectively. Following McDougald's death in 1978, Black paid $30-million to take control of Ravelston and thereby, control of Toronto-based Argus. This arrangement resulted in accusations that Black had taken advantage of the widows of Ravelston Directors McDougald and Eric Phillips, though these accusations were never proven. Black, for his part, recorded that the widows “understood and approved every letter of every word of the agreement”.[9] Other observers admired Black for marshalling enough investor support to win control without committing a large block of personal assets.[21]

Some of the Argus assets were already troubled, and others did not fit Black's long-term vision. Black resigned as Chairman of Massey Ferguson company in 1979, after which Argus donated its shares to the employee's pension funds (both salaried and union).[23] Hollinger Mines was then turned into a holding company that initially focused on resource businesses.[21]

In 1981 Norcen Energy, one of his companies, acquired a minority position in Ohio-based Hanna Mining Co. A filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission stated that Norcen took "an investment position" in Hanna. The filing did not disclose that Norcen's board planned to seek majority control. Black subsequently was charged by the SEC with filing misleading public statements. These charges were later withdrawn.[24]

Dominion pension dispute[edit]

In 1984, Black withdrew for shareholders over $56 million from the Dominion workers' pension plan surplus without consulting plan members. The firm said it considered the surplus the rightful property of the employer (Dominion Stores Ltd.). The Dominion Union complained, a public outcry ensued, and the case went to court. The Supreme Court of Ontario ruled against the company, and ordered the company to return the money to the pension fund, claiming that though the most recent language in the plan suggested the employer had ownership of the surplus, the original intention was to keep the surplus in the plan to increase members' benefits.[25] Eventually, the pension dispute was settled in equal shares between the shareholders and the plan members.[9]

Industrial holdings shifted to publishing[edit]

Over time, Black focused formerly diverse activities of his companies on newspaper publishing. Argus Corporation, once Canada's most important conglomerate, divested itself of interests in manufacturing, mining, retailing, banking and broadcasting. Canadian writer John Ralston Saul argued in 2008, "Lord Black was never a real 'capitalist' because he never created wealth, only dismantled wealth. His career has been largely about stripping corporations. Destroying them."[26] Journalist and writer George Jonas, the former husband of Black's wife Barbara Amiel, contends that Hollinger made its “investors... billions [of dollars]”.[27]

Growth and divestment of press holdings[edit]

In 1985, Andrew Knight, then editor of The Economist, asked Black to invest in the ailing Telegraph Group, and Black was able to gain control of the Group for £30 million.[9] By this investment, Black made his first entry into British press ownership. Five years later, he bought The Jerusalem Post, and by 1990, his companies ran over 400 newspaper titles in North America, the majority of them small community papers. For a time from this date he headed the third-largest newspaper group in the world.[28]

Hollinger bought a 23% stake in the Southam newspaper chain in 1992[13] and acquired the Chicago Sun-Times in 1994. Hollinger International shares were listed on New York Stock Exchange in 1996, at which time the company boosted its stake in Southam to a control position.[20] Becoming a public company trading in the U.S. has been called "a fateful move, exposing Black's empire to America's more rigorous regulatory regime and its more aggressive institutional shareholders."[23]

Under Black, Hollinger launched the National Post in Toronto in 1998. From 1999 to 2000 Hollinger International sold several newspapers in five deals worth a total of US$679-million, a total that included millions of dollars in "non-compete agreements" for Hollinger insiders.[29] Later in the year, Hollinger International announced the sale of thirteen major Canadian newspapers, 126 community newspapers, internet properties and half of the National Post to CanWest Global Communications Corp. Hollinger International sold the rest of the National Post to CanWest in the summer of 2001.[citation needed]

Fate of Hollinger[edit]

The Hollinger group of companies was effectively dismantled as a result of criminal and civil lawsuits in relation to sales of papers and intellectual property to third parties, most alleging misrepresentation and some alleging false or deliberately misleading accounts having been presented. The costs incurred by Hollinger International through the investigation of Black and his associates climbed to US $200 million.[30] Black claims that a significant portion of the sums paid by Hollinger International went to Richard Breeden, the lead investigator.[20] After Black was forced to resign from the board of Hollinger, many of Hollinger International’s assets ended up being sold at prices significantly lower than those contemplated by incomplete talks while Black was with the company.[31] In the early 2000s, Black had accurately anticipated the decline in profitability of print media assets and sought to divest those types of assets held by Hollinger before their value was irrevocably diminished. The main criminal sanction on Black not overturned is specifically one of misleading investors.[31]

Talk show[edit]

It was announced January 29, 2013, that Black will co-host a weekly talk show, Zoomer, on Canadian television.[32]


Born to a rich family, Black acquired the family home and 7 acres (28,000 m2) of land in Toronto's exclusive Bridle Path neighbourhood after his father's death in 1976. Black and first wife Joanna Hishon maintained homes in Palm Beach, Toronto and London. After he married Barbara Amiel, he acquired a luxury Park Avenue apartment in New York. When sold in 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice seized net proceeds of $8.5 million, pending resolution of court actions.[33] His London townhouse in Kensington sold in 2005 for about US$25 million.[34] Black's Palm Beach mansion was listed for sale in 2004 at $36 million. In late April 2011 this Florida property was also sold by Black for approximately $30 million (USD).[35]

According to biographer Tom Bower, "They flaunted their wealth."[12] Black's critics, including former Daily Telegraph editor Charles Moore, suggested it was Black's second wife, Amiel, who pushed him towards a life of opulence, citing extravagant expenditures such as items billed to Hollinger expenses that included $2,463 (£1,272) on handbags, $2,785 in opera tickets, and $140 for Amiel's "jogging attire."[8]

Black was ranked 238th wealthiest in Britain by the Sunday Times Rich List 2003,[36] with an estimated wealth of £136m. He was dropped from the 2004 list.[37]

Black is a former Steering Committee member of the Bilderberg Group.[38]

Fraud conviction and Supreme Court review[edit]

Conrad Moffat Black
Conrad Black mug shot.jpg
Criminal charge
Mail fraud, obstruction of justice
Criminal penalty
Sentenced to 6½ years imprisonment. Reduced to 42 months following appeal and resentencing.
Criminal status
Served 29 months before being granted bail pending a Supreme Court ordered review of his case.[39] Reported to the Federal Correctional Institution, Miami on September 6, 2011[40] to serve an additional 13 months as a result of re-sentencing.[41] He was released on May 4, 2012, due to good conduct credits shortening his sentence by five months.[42]

Black was convicted in U.S. District Court in Chicago on July 13, 2007 and sentenced to serve 6.5 years in federal prison and pay Hollinger $6.1 million, in addition to a fine of US$125,000.[citation needed]

Black was found guilty of diverting funds for personal benefit from money due (to) Hollinger International, and of other irregularities. The embezzlement occurred when the company sold certain publishing assets. For example, in 2000, in an arrangement that came to be known as the "Lerner Exchange," Black personally acquired Chicago's Lerner Newspapers and sold it to Hollinger.[43] He also was found guilty of obstruction of justice.[44]

The Supreme Court of the United States heard an appeal of his case on December 8, 2009[45] and rendered a decision in June 2010. Black's application for bail was rejected by both the Supreme Court and the U.S. District Court judge who sentenced him.[46]

On June 24, 2010, the US Supreme Court ruled 9-0 that the definition of Honest Services Fraud used in the trial judge's charge to the jury in Black's case was too broad In June 2010, "unconstitutionally vague", ruling the law could apply only to cases where bribes and kickbacks had changed hands and ordered the US 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago to review three fraud convictions against Black in light of the Supreme Court's new definition. As ordered the Court reviewed Black's case and determined whether his fraud convictions stood or if there should be a new trial.[47] The Supreme Court upheld the jailed former media baron's obstruction-of-justice conviction, for which he was serving a concurrent 6½-year sentence.[48] Black's lawyers filed an application for bail pending the appeals court's review.[47] Prosecutors contested Black's bail request, arguing in court papers that Black's trial jury had proof that Black committed fraud.[49] The 7th Circuit Court of Appeals granted bail on July 19, 2010 under which Black was released pending retrial on a $2 million unsecured bond put up by conservative philanthropist Roger Hertog[50] and ordered to remain on bail in the continental United States until at least August 16, when his bail hearing was to resume,[50][51][52][53] and the date by which Black and the prosecution were ordered by the Court of Appeals to submit written arguments for that court's review of his case.[54][55]

Until July 21, 2010,[50] Black, Federal Bureau of Prisons #18330-424, was incarcerated at Federal Correctional Institution Low, Coleman, FL,[56] a part of the Coleman Federal Correctional Complex.[57][58][n 2]

Following his release, coincidentally on his 18th wedding anniversary, Black wrote a column for Canada's National Post on his time in prison. Black described America's inmates as an "ostracized, voiceless legion of the walking dead."[59] Black was to appear once again in a Chicago court on August 16 to provide full and detailed financial information to the judge, who would then consider his request to be allowed to return to Canada while on bail.[60] In spite of his professed desire to return to his former home in Canada, Black's legal representatives advised the court that they would not provide the requisite accounting and would thus not be interested in petitioning the court further on the matter. Although many have cited this refusal to disclose as more deception on the part of Black,[citation needed] it is possible that the voluminous amounts of information that would have been required for complete disclosure could not be compiled in time or that his wealth would be unlikely to persuade the court to extend his bail conditions. He was under no compulsion to make this disclosure as he had initiated the appeal for a bail variation of his own volition. His next court appearance, where he might reapply for permission to return to Canada was set for September 20, 2010.[61]

On October 28, 2010, the US 7th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned two of the three mail fraud convictions. This left Black convicted of one count of mail fraud and one count of obstruction of justice. The court also ruled that he must be resentenced.[62] On December 17, 2010, Black lost an appeal as to fact and law on his remaining convictions for fraud and obstruction of justice. The three-person panel did not provide reasons. On May 31, 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States refused to grant Black leave to appeal (to it) his two remaining convictions without comment.[63]

The resentencing on the two remaining counts by the original trial judge occurred on June 24, 2011.[64] Black's lawyers recommended that he be sentenced to the 29 months he had already served while the prosecution argued for Black to complete his original 6½ year sentence. The probation officer's report recommended a sentence of between 33 and 41 months.[65] At the hearing, Judge St. Eve resentenced Black to a reduced term of 42 months and a fine of $125,000, returning him to prison on September 6, 2011[40] to serve the remaining 13 months of his sentence.[41]

On June 30, 2011, Black published an article for the National Review Online that provided his scathing view of the legal case, detailing it as a miscarriage of justice and an "unaccountable and often lawless prosecution."[66]

Seth Lipsky, in an opinion piece for the Wall Street Journal that ran on June 28, 2011, called the verdict against Black "head-scratching," noting that Black was found not guilty of the most serious charges brought against him. Lipsky also raised the issue of why Black was denied a retrial by jury as to whether he had committed pecuniary fraud after the Supreme Court unanimously found that Judge St. Eve's instructions to the jury were "incorrect," which led to two of the three fraud counts ultimately being vacated. In the end, the fraud conviction and the count of obstruction were allowed to stand.[67]

Black did not return to Coleman Federal Correctional Facility because two female guards at Coleman reported they feared for their safety if Black returned. Instead he was imprisoned on September 6, 2011 at the Federal Correctional Institution, Miami.[68] He was released from prison on May 4, 2012. Although he waived Canadian citizenship in 2001 in order to receive a British peerage, he has expressed desire to live in Canada after his prison term completed.[69] He was granted a one-year temporary resident permit to live in Canada in March 2012 when he was still serving his sentence. Critics claimed that Black received special treatment from the Canadian government but Stephen Harper, the Prime Minister, denied any political influence.[70] Upon his release from the prison, Black was immediately picked up by the U.S. Immigration officials and escorted to the Miami International Airport. He arrived at Toronto on the same afternoon and returned to his home for the first time in nearly five years.[71] He has been barred from entering the United States for 30 years.[72]

On June 5, 2012 lawyers for Black moved that the last remaining counts of conviction be vacated due to prosecutorial misconduct and his claim that he had been denied the right to have the defense counsel of his choice. Black's motion was dismissed on February 19, 2013 along with his request for an evidentiary hearing.[73]

On August 16, 2013, Black was fined $4.1 million and barred from becoming the director of a US company in a deal with regulators.[74]

SEC ruling[edit]

In October 2012, a US federal judge fined Black $6.1 million (in penalties) for securities law violations during his chairmanship of Hollinger International. The fine is related to a 2008 judgement against Black by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission which also banned Black from being a director of a publicly traded US company. The penalty ruling was delayed until appeals in Black's criminal case had been completed.[72]

Ontario Securities Commission[edit]

In July 2013, the Ontario Securities Commission restarted its case against Black and two other former Hollinger executives, John Boultbee and Peter Atkinson, alleging violations of the Securities Act (Ontario). The case had been postponed pending the exhaustion of Black's appeals of his U.S. fraud convictions. The securities case alleges that Black and his two fellow directors created a scheme was to use the sale of several Hollinger newspapers in order to “divert certain proceeds from [Hollinger International] to themselves through contrived ‘non-competition’ payments”. An OSC hearing took place on August 16, 2013 in the absence of Black, and the parties scheduled a confidential pre-hearing conference to be held on October 21, 2013.[75]

Canada Revenue Agency[edit]

In early 2014, the Tax Court of Canada ruled that Black owed the Canadian government taxes on $5.1-million of income accrued since 2002.[76]

Peerage controversy and citizenship[edit]

In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair advised Queen Elizabeth II to confer on Black the dignity of a life peerage with the title of Baron Black[n 3][77] Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien gave the opinion to his government's nationality department that a Canadian citizen should not receive a British titular honour, citing the 1919 Nickle Resolution. Black at the time held both Canadian and British citizenship. After the Federal Court of Canada ruled against Black in his suit against Chrétien, Black renounced his Canadian citizenship in 2001, remaining a citizen of the UK. In a May 2012 interview with Peter Mansbridge, Black said he will consider applying for Canadian citizenship “within a year or two” when he hoped the matter would no longer be controversial and he could “make an application like any other person who has been a temporary resident.”[78] The decision to grant or reject his application would be at the discretion of the federal Cabinet.[79] He has been on Leave of Absence from the House of Lords since June 2012.[80][81]

His full life peer style is Baron Black of Crossharbour in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

Order of Canada and Queen's Privy Council for Canada[edit]

Black was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1990. In September 2011, after Black returned to prison due to the failure of his appeal, Rideau Hall, the seat of the Chancellery of Honours, confirmed that the honour accorded to Black was under review by the order's Advisory Council, which has the power to recommend "the termination of a person's appointment to the Order of Canada if the person has been convicted of a criminal offence."[82] Once the review process started, Black submitted a written application in defense of keeping his place in the Order of Canada, but failed in his efforts to persuade the Advisory Council he should appear before them to defend his case orally. Black then took the matter to the Federal Court of Canada, which ruled that the council had no obligation to change its regular review process (which allows for written submissions only) simply to accommodate Black.[83] Black attempted to appeal the court's decision.[84]

In an October 2012 interview, Black intimated that he would rather resign from the order than be removed: "I would not wait for giving these junior officials the evidently almost aphrodisiacal pleasure of throwing me out. I would withdraw," he told CBC's Susan Ormiston. "In fact, I wouldn't be interested in serving."[85]

On January 31, 2014, Governor General David Johnston announced that he had accepted a recommendation from the Advisory Council of the Order of Canada to remove Black from the order.[86] On the same day, the Governor General, acting on the recommendation of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, also expelled Black from the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, to which he had been appointed in 1992.[87] As a result, Black may no longer employ the post-nominal initials OC and PC.[88]

Books and other publications[edit]

Black has written an autobiography and three substantial biographies of controversial 20th-century figures.[citation needed]

Biographies and portrayal in popular culture[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ In the USA a felony is a larger conviction than a misdemeanor, sentenced and convicted in senior rather than junior criminal courts. The UK and Canadian equivalent is an indictable offence.
  2. ^ Prior to being granted bail, his scheduled release date was October 30, 2013.[56]
  3. ^ With, not part of the main title, the territorial designation, of Crossharbour [see Wapping] in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. This entitles him to the standard official style of "Lord Black".
  1. ^
  2. ^ " Vanity Fair, October, 2011
  3. ^ Financial Post: "Conrad Black moves to end Hollinger CCAA"
  4. ^ The Star (Toronto). 11 March 2007 |url= missing title (help). 
  5. ^ "Black guilty on 4 charges, including obstruction", CTV, July 13, 2007.
  6. ^ BBC News "Conrad Black ordered back to prison" June 24, 2011.
  7. ^ "Conrad Black freed, but faces citizenship issues". CBC News. May 4, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c Clark, Andrew: "At some level, he's still asking the same question as he was when he was seven or eight – who am I?" The Guardian, March 16, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Black, C. (1993). A Life in Progress. Key Porter Books. ISBN 1-55013-520-1.
  10. ^ "Remembering my older brother Mario Monte", National Post, October 22, 2011.
  11. ^ Time Magazine: "Headline Maker"
  12. ^ a b c Bower, Tom: Conrad & Lady Black – Dancing on the Edge (London: HarperPress, 2006),
  13. ^ a b CBC News: "Conrad Black: Timeline" Updated June 5, 2008.
  14. ^ a b Newman, P. (1983). The Establishment Man. Seal Books. ISBN 0-7704-1839-2.
  15. ^ - Main Page
  16. ^ "Nineteen years with my perfect Valentine", National Post, February 12, 2011.
  17. ^ "How I woke up from spiritual slumber and inched at a snail's pace to Rome", The Catholic Herald, September 11, 2009.
  18. ^ "A dear, wise, constant friend", Catholic Education Resource Centre, April 12, 2003.
  19. ^ a b "Conrad Black: I have found serenity through Catholicism in jail", The Daily Telegraph. September 10, 2009.
  20. ^ a b c Black, C. (2011). A Matter of Principle. McCelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-1670-7.
  21. ^ a b c Francis, D. (1986). Controlling Interest – Who Owns Canada. Macmillan of Canada. ISBN 0-7715-9744-4.
  22. ^ [1], CIBC Annual Report 1999
  23. ^ a b Olive, David "A Conrad Black timeline", Toronto Star, March 11, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
  24. ^ "Gale Directory of Company Histories: M. A. Hanna Company". "The situation was exacerbated when, in 1981, Canadian financier Conrad Black of Norcen Energy Resources, Ltd., initiated a year-long takeover battle. Black's purchase of a large block of Hanna stock in October 1981 quickly captured the attention of Hanna chairman Robert F. Anderson and other members of the board. After a relatively brief, but heated federal hearing, Black and Hanna made a standstill agreement that gave Black 20 percent of Hanna in exchange for $90 million. Black became a director, and the last descendant of an M. A. Hanna & Company partner, George M. Humphrey II, resigned from his position as senior vice president by 1984." 
  25. ^ "Canadian Labour Congress: Dominion Food Stores". Retrieved June 18, 2010. 
  26. ^ Gessell, Paul "Saul's Ottawa 'Truths'" The Ottawa Citizen, September 18, 2008.
  27. ^ "Conrad Black, a cheese-eating Labrador and countless vituperative flights of fancy", National Post, June 24, 2010.
  28. ^ BBC News "Conrad Black: Where did it all go wrong" February 27, 2004.
  29. ^ Jason Kirby; John Intini. "The Black Trial: The deal breakers". Maclean's. 
  30. ^ "Corporate Scandals: Black shadows", The Economist, March 15, 2007
  31. ^ a b "Auto Da Fé: Conrad Black, Corporate Governance, and the End of Economic Man", Books in Canada, December 2006.
  32. ^ "Conrad Black to host talkshow on Canadian TV". London: The Telegraph. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  33. ^ U.S.D.O.J. "Press Release" December 15, 2005.
  34. ^ Timmons, Heather: "Conrad Black sells London townhouse" International Herald Tribune, May 20, 2005.
  35. ^ CBC News: "Conrad Black charged . . . ". CBC News. November 17, 2005.
  36. ^ Hosking, Patrick; Wighton, David. "The Sunday Times Rich List 2003". The Times. Retrieved June 18, 2010. 
  37. ^ Hosking, Patrick; Wighton, David. "The Sunday Times Rich List 2004". The Times. Retrieved June 18, 2010. 
  38. ^ Former Steering Committee Members | Bilderberg Meetings
  39. ^ Conrad Black gets bail, review of case | CTV News
  40. ^ a b "Conrad Black to report back to prison in September", Globe and Mail, July 11, 2011.
  41. ^ a b "Black sent back to jail for 13 months", Globe and Mail, June 24, 2011.
  42. ^ Alamenciak, Tim (April 29, 2012). "Conrad Black set to be released from prison this week". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 1, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Hollinger International Inc – 8-K – EX-99.2". SEC Info. August 30, 2004. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  44. ^ BBC News Business: "Conrad Black convicted of fraud" July 13, 2007.
  45. ^ McQuillen, William. "Conrad Black: Conviction Questioned by High Court",, December 8, 2009.
  46. ^ "Conrad Black denied bail", Toronto Star, July 15, 2009.
  47. ^ a b "Conrad Black seeks bail", Globe and Mail, July 7, 2010.
  48. ^ Conrad Black Fraud Convictions Set Aside
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