Computer science

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Computer science (abbreviated CS or CompSci) is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical processes (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information, whether such information is encoded in bits and bytes in a computer memory or transcribed engines and protein structures in a human cell.[1] A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[2]

Its subfields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of Computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Still other fields focus on the challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, whilst the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human-computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.

large capital lambdaPlot of a quicksort algorithm
Utah teapot representing computer graphicsMicrosoft Tastenmaus mouse representing human-computer interaction
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations

Blaise Pascal designed and built the very first working mechanical calculator, Pascal's calculator, in 1642.[3] In 1673 Gottfried Leibniz shown an electronic mechanical calculator, known as the 'stepped reckoner'.[4] He might be considered the very first computer researcher and knowledge theorist, for, among some other reasons recording the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas p Colmar released the mechanical calculator industry[5] as he launched his simplified arithmometer, that was the very first calculating machine sufficiently strong and reliable enough for use daily within an office atmosphere. Charles Babbage began the style of the very first automatic mechanical calculator, his difference engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the thought of the very first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine.[6] He began developing this machine in 1834 and "in under 2 yrs he'd drew out most of the salient options that come with the current computer. An important step was the adoption of the smacked card system produced from the Jacquard loom"[7] which makes it infinitely prrr-rrrglable.[8] In 1843, throughout the translation of the French article around the analytical engine, Ada Lovelace authored, within the many notes she incorporated, an formula to compute the Bernoulli amounts, which is regarded as the very first software program.[9] Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulating machinestabulator which used smacked cards to process record information eventually his company grew to become a part of IBM. In 1937, a century after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, that was making a myriad of smacked card equipment and seemed to be within the calculator business[10] to build up his giant prrr-rrrglable calculator, the Harvard Mark IASCC/Harvard Mark I, according to Babbage's analytical engine, which itself used cards along with a central computing unit. Once the machine was finished, some praised it as being "Babbage's dream become a realityInch.[11]

Throughout the nineteen forties, as new and much more effective computing machines were developed, the word computer found make reference to the machines instead of their human forerunners.[12] Because it grew to become obvious that computer systems might be used in excess of just mathematical information, the area laptop or computer science extended to review computation generally. Information technology started to become established like a distinct academic discipline within the nineteen fifties and early sixties.[13][14] The earth's first information technology degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Information Technology, started in the College of Cambridge Cambridge Computer LabComputer Laboratory in 1953. The very first information technology degree enter in the U . s . States was created at Purdue College in 1962.[15] Since practical computer systems grew to become available, many programs of computing have grown to be distinct regions of study themselves.

Although a lot of initially thought it had been impossible that computer systems themselves could really be considered a scientific area of study, within the late fifties it progressively grew to become recognized one of the greater academic population.[16] It's the now well-known IBM brand that created area of the information technology revolution throughout this time around. IBM (short for Worldwide Business Machines) launched the IBM 704[17] and then the IBM 709[18] computer systems, that have been broadly used throughout the exploration duration of such products. "Still, dealing with the IBM [computer] was frustrating...should you have had misplaced around one letter in a single instruction, this program would crash, and you would need to start the entire process once againInch.[16] Throughout the late nineteen fifties, the pc science discipline was greatly in the developmental stages, and the like issues were commonplace.

The years have seen significant enhancements within the usability and effectiveness of computing technology. Society has witnessed a substantial change within the customers laptop or computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to some near-ubiquitous users list. Initially, computer systems were quite pricey, plus some amount of human aid was required for efficient use - simply from professional computer operators. As computer adoption grew to become more common and cost-effective, less human assistance was required for common usage.

Major accomplishments[edit]

[[File:Enigma.digitalthumbThe GermanyGerman military used the Enigma machine (proven here) throughout The Second World War for communication they regarded as secret. The big-scale decryption of Enigma traffic at Bletchley Park was a key point that led to Allied victory in World war 2.[19]]]

Despite its short history like a formal academic discipline, information technology makes numerous fundamental contributions to science and society - actually, together with electronics, it's a founding science of the present epoch of history known as the Information Age along with a driver from the Information Revolution, viewed as the 3rd major leap in human technological progress following the Industrial Revolution (1750-1850 CE) and also the Neolithic RevolutionFarming Revolution (8000-5000 BCE).

These contributions include:


A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics.[25] Peter Denning's working group argued that they are theory, abstraction (modeling), and design.[26] Amnon H. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" (which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning), the "technocratic paradigm" (which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering), and the "scientific paradigm" (which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences, identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence).[27]

Name of the field[edit]

The term "computer science" appears in a 1959 article in Communications of the ACM,[28] in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in 1921,[29] justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline.[30] His efforts, and those of others such as numerical analyst George Forsythe, were rewarded: universities went on to create such programs, starting with Purdue in 1962.[31] Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed.[32] Certain departments of major universities prefer the term computing science, to emphasize precisely that difference. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy,[33] to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACMturingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist.[34] Three months later in the same journal, comptologist was suggested, followed next year by hypologist.[35] The term computics has also been suggested.[36] In Europe, terms derived from contracted translations of the expression "automatic information" (e.g. "informazione automatica" in Italian) or "information and mathematics" are often used, e.g. informatique (French), Informatik (German), informatica (Italy, The Netherlands), informática (Spain, Portugal), informatika (Slavic languages) or pliroforiki (πληροφορική, which means informatics) in Greek. Similar words have also been adopted in the UK (as in the School of Informatics of the University of Edinburgh).[37]

A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—Edsger Dijkstra, states that "computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."[note 1] The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering, while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, statistics, and logic.

Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science.[13] Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing, and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as mathematical logic, category theory, domain theory, and algebra.

The relationship between computer science and software engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "software engineering" means, and how computer science is defined.[38] David Parnas, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines.[39]

The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.

Areas of computer science[edit]

As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software.[40][41] CSAB, formerly called Computing Sciences Accreditation Board – which is made up of representatives of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE-CS)[42] – identifies four areas that it considers crucial to the discipline of computer science: theory of computation, algorithms and data structures, programming methodology and languages, and computer elements and architecture. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, computer-human interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science.[40]

Theoretical computer science[edit]

The broader field of theoretical computer science encompasses both the classical theory of computation and a wide range of other topics that focus on the more abstract, logical, and mathematical aspects of computing.

Theory of computation[edit]

According to Peter J. Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be (efficiently) automated?"[13] The study of the theory of computation is focused on answering fundamental questions about what can be computed and what amount of resources are required to perform those computations. In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation. The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory, which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems.

The famous "P=NP?" problem, one of the Millennium Prize Problems,[43] is an open problem in the theory of computation.

DFAexample.svgWang tiles.pngP = NP ?GNITIRW-TERCESBlochsphere.svg
Automata theoryComputability theoryComputational complexity theoryCryptographyQuantum computing theory

Information and coding theory[edit]

Information theory is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.[44] Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes (systems for converting information from one form to another) and their fitness for a specific application. Codes are used for data compression, cryptography, error detection and correction, and more recently also for network coding. Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods.

Algorithms and data structures[edit]

O(n^{2})Sorting quicksort anim.gifSingly linked list.pngSimplexRangeSearching.png
Analysis of algorithmsAlgorithmsData structuresComputational geometry

Programming language theory[edit]

Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics, software engineering and linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals.

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Type theoryCompiler designProgramming languages

Formal methods[edit]

Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems. The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems, where safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languages, automata theory, and program semantics, but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.

Applied computer science[edit]

Applied Computer Science aims at identifying certain Computer Science concepts that can be used directly in solving real world problems.

Artificial intelligence[edit]

This branch of computer science aims to or is required to synthesise goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning and communication which are found in humans and animals. From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence (AI) research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence. AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development, but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development which require computational understanding and modeling such as finance and economics, data mining and the physical sciences. The starting-point in the late 1940s was Alan Turing's question "Can computers think?", and the question remains effectively unanswered although the "Turing Test" is still used to assess computer output on the scale of human intelligence. But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data.

Nicolas P. Rougier's rendering of the human brain.pngHuman eye, rendered from Eye.svg.pngCorner.pngKnnClassification.svg
Machine learningComputer visionImage processingPattern recognition
Cognitive scienceData miningEvolutionary computationInformation retrieval
Neuron.svgEnglish.pngHONDA ASIMO.jpgMeningiomaMRISegmentation.png
Knowledge representationNatural language processingRoboticsMedical Image Computing

Computer architecture and engineering[edit]

Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.[45] The field often involves disciplines of computer engineering and electrical engineering, selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance, and cost goals.

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Digital logicMicroarchitectureMultiprocessing
Operating system placement.svgNETWORK-Library-LAN.pngEmp Tables (Database).PNGPadlock.svg
Operating systemsComputer networksDatabasesInformation security
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Ubiquitous computingSystems architectureCompiler designProgramming languages

Computer graphics and visualization[edit]

Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents, and involves synthese and manipulations of image data. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision, image processing, and computational geometry, and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games.

Computer security and cryptography[edit]

Computer security is a branch of computer technology, whose objective includes protection of information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users. Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding (encryption) and therefore deciphering (decryption) information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity.

Computational science[edit]

Computational science (or scientific computing) is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems. In practical use, it is typically the application of computer simulation and other forms of computation to problems in various scientific disciplines.

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Numerical analysisComputational physicsComputational chemistryBioinformatics

Computer Networks[edit]

This branch of computer science aims to manage networks between computers worldwide.

Concurrent, parallel and distributed systems[edit]

Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets, process calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model. A distributed system extends the idea of concurrency onto multiple computers connected through a network. Computers within the same distributed system have their own private memory, and information is often exchanged amongst themselves to achieve a common goal.

Databases and information retrieval[edit]

A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages.

Health Informatics[edit]

Health Informatics in computer science deals with computational techniques for solving problems in health care.

Information science[edit]

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Information retrievalKnowledge representationNatural language processingHuman–computer interaction

Software engineering[edit]

Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software. Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software— it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal maintenance and arrangement. Both computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the fastest growing occupations from 2008 and 2018.

The great insights of computer science[edit]

The philosopher of computing Bill Rapaport noted three Great Insights of Computer Science [46]

All the information about any computable problem can be represented using only 0 & 1 (or any other bistable pair that can flip-flop between two easily distinguishable states,such as "on"/"off", "magnetized/de-magnetized", "high-voltage/low-voltage", etc.).
Every algorithm can be expressed in a language for a computer consisting of only 5 basic instructions:
* move left one location
* move right one location
* print 0 at current-location
* print 1 at current-location
* erase current-location[citation needed]
Only 3 rules are needed to combine any set of basic instructions into more complex ones:
first do this; then do that
selection :
IF such-&-such is the case,
THEN do this
ELSE do that
WHILE such & such is the case DO this

Note that the 3 rules of Boehm's and Jacopini's insight can be further simplified with the use of goto (which means it's more elementary than structured programming.)



Conferences are strategic events of the Academic Research in computer science. During those conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Proceedings of these conferences are an important part of the computer science literature.



Some universities teach computer science as a theoretical study of computation and algorithmic reasoning. These programs often feature the theory of computation, analysis of algorithms, formal methods, concurrency theory, databases, computer graphics, and systems analysis, among others. They typically also teach computer programming, but treat it as a vessel for the support of other fields of computer science rather than a central focus of high-level study. The ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Curriculum Task Force "Computing Curriculum 2005" (and 2008 update) [47] gives a guideline for university curriculum.

Other colleges and universities, as well as secondary schools and vocational programs that teach computer science, emphasize the practice of advanced programming rather than the theory of algorithms and computation in their computer science curricula. Such curricula tend to focus on those skills that are important to workers entering the software industry. The process aspects of computer programming are often referred to as software engineering.

While computer science professions increasingly drive the U.S. economy, computer science education is absent in most American K-12 curricula. A report entitled "Running on Empty: The Failure to Teach K-12 Computer Science in the Digital Age" was released in October 2010 by Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA), and revealed that only 14 states have adopted significant education standards for high school computer science. The report also found that only nine states count high school computer science courses as a core academic subject in their graduation requirements. In tandem with "Running on Empty", a new non-partisan advocacy coalition - Computing in the Core (CinC) - was founded to influence federal and state policy, such as the Computer Science Education Act, which calls for grants to states to develop plans for improving computer science education and supporting computer science teachers.

Within the United States a gender gap in computer science education has been observed as well. Research conducted by the WGBH Educational Foundation and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) revealed that more than twice as many high school boys considered computer science to be a “very good” or “good” college major than high school girls.[48] In addition, the high school Advanced Placement (AP) exam for computer science has displayed a disparity in gender. Compared to other AP subjects it has the lowest number of female participants, with a composition of about 15 percent women.[49] This gender gap in computer science is further witnessed at the college level, where 31 percent of undergraduate computer science degrees are earned by women and only 8 percent of computer science faculty consists of women.[50] According to an article published by the Epistemic Games Group in August 2012, the number of women graduates in the computer science field has declined to 13 percent.[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See the entry "Computer science" on Wikiquote for the history of this quotation.


  1. ^
  2. ^ "WordNet Search - 3.1". Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  3. ^ title=Blaise Pascalworld wide kingdom/Biographies/Pascal.htmlwriter=School of Mathematics and Statistics College of St Andrews, Scotland
  4. ^ title=A Brief History of Computing
  5. ^ In 1851
  6. ^ url=http://world wide kingdom/on-line/babbage/index.asp title=Science Museum - Summary of Babbage accessdate=2006-09-24 archiveurl= wide kingdom/on-line/babbage/index.asp archivedate=2006-09-08
  7. ^ Anthony Hyman, Charles Babbage, pioneer from the computer, 1982
  8. ^ "The development of smacked cards in to the new engine was important not just like a easier type of control compared to drums, or because programs could certainly be of limitless extent, and is saved and repeated without the possibility of presenting errors in setting the device manually it was vital also since it offered to crystallize Babbage's feeling he had invented something really new, something even more than a classy calculating machine." #COLLIERBruce Collier, 1970
  9. ^ url=http://world wide title=A Variety and Adaptation From Ada's Notes present in "Ada, The Enchantress of Amounts," by Betty Alexandra Toole Erectile dysfunction.D. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, CA accessdate=2006-05-04
  10. ^ "Within this sense Aiken needed IBM, whose technology incorporated using smacked cards, the buildup of statistical data, and also the change in statistical data in one register to a differentInch, #AIKENBernard Cohen, p.44 (2000)
  11. ^ #RootsJohn Randell, p.187, 1975
  12. ^ The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) began in 1947.
  13. ^ a b c Denning, P.J. (2000). "Computer Science: The Discipline" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Archived from the original on 2006-05-25. 
  14. ^ url=http://world wide kingdom/conference/EDSAC99/statistics.html title=Some EDSAC statistics kingdom date= accessdate=2011-11-19
  15. ^ wide Information technology pioneer Samuel D. Conte dies at 85 This summer 1, 2002
  16. ^ a b authorlink=Steven Levy Cyber-terrorist: Heroes from the Computer Revolution]] year=1984 isbn=-385-19195-2 writer=Doubleday
  17. ^ url=http://world wide title=IBM 704 Electronic Information Systems System - CHM Revolution date= accessdate=2013-07-07
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b David Kahn (author)David Kahn, The Codebreakers, 1967, ISBN -684-83130-9.
  20. ^ a b http://world wide slides/bgu.pdf
  21. ^ author=Constable, R.L. world wide title=Information Technology: Accomplishments and Challenges circa 2000 format=PDFdate=This summer 2013
  22. ^ last=Abelson Software edition=second writer=Durch Press isbn=-262-01153- quote=The pc revolution is really a revolution in the manner we believe and in the manner we express our opinion. The essence of the change may be the emergence of the items might best be known as procedural epistemology - study regarding the dwelling of understanding from crucial perspective, instead of the greater declarative perspective taken by classical mathematical subjects.
  23. ^ wide kingdom/money/primary.jhtml?xml=/money/2006/08/27/ccsoft27.xml Black box traders take presctiption the march The Telegraph, August 26, 2006
  24. ^ url= Buying and selling with an Electronic Market doi=10.2139/ssrn.1686004 date= accessdate=2012-05-14
  25. ^ Wegner, P. (October 13–15, 1976). "Research paradigms in computer science". Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on Software Engineering. San Francisco, California, United States: IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA. 
  26. ^ Denning, P. J.; Comer, D. E.; Gries, D.; Mulder, M. C.; Tucker, A.; Turner, A. J.; Young, P. R. (Jan 1989). "Computing as a discipline". Communications of the ACM 32: 9–23. doi:10.1145/63238.63239.  edit
  27. ^ Eden, A. H. (2007). "Three Paradigms of Computer Science". Minds and Machines 17 (2): 135–167. doi:10.1007/s11023-007-9060-8.  edit
  28. ^ Louis Fine (1959). "The Role of the University in Computers, Data Processing, and Related Fields". Communications of the ACM 2 (9): 7–14. doi:10.1145/368424.368427. 
  29. ^ "Stanford University Oral History". Stanford University. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  30. ^ id., p. 11
  31. ^ Donald Knuth (1972). "George Forsythe and the Development of Computer Science". Comms. ACM.
  32. ^ Matti Tedre (2006). The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective, p.260
  33. ^ Peter Naur (1966). "The science of datalogy". Communications of the ACM 9 (7): 485. doi:10.1145/365719.366510. 
  34. ^ Communications of the ACM 1(4):p.6
  35. ^ Communications of the ACM 2(1):p.4
  36. ^ IEEE Computer 28(12):p.136
  37. ^ P. Mounier-Kuhn, L’Informatique en France, de la seconde guerre mondiale au Plan Calcul. L’émergence d’une science, Paris, PUPS, 2010, ch. 3 & 4.
  38. ^ Tedre, M. (2011). "Computing as a Science: A Survey of Competing Viewpoints". Minds and Machines 21 (3): 361–387. doi:10.1007/s11023-011-9240-4.  edit
  39. ^ Parnas, D. L. (1998). Annals of Software Engineering 6: 19–37. doi:10.1023/A:1018949113292.  edit, p. 19: "Rather than treat software engineering as a subfield of computer science, I treat it as an element of the set, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, [...]"
  40. ^ a b Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (28 May 1997). "Computer Science as a Profession". Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  41. ^ Committee on the Fundamentals of Computer Science: Challenges and Opportunities, National Research Council (2004). Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09301-9. 
  42. ^ "Csab, Inc". 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  43. ^ Clay Mathematics Institute P=NP
  44. ^ P. Collins, Graham. "Claude E. Shannon: Founder of Information Theory". Scientific American, Inc. 
  45. ^ A. Thisted, Ronald. "COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE". The University of Chicago. Retrieved 7 April 1997. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "ACM Curricula Recommendations". Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  48. ^
  49. ^ Gilbert, Alorie. "Newsmaker: Computer science's gender gap". CNET News. 
  50. ^ Dovzan, Nicole. "Examining the Gender Gap in Technology". University of Michigan. 
  51. ^ "Encouraging the next generation of women in computing". Microsoft Research Connections Team. Retrieved 3 Sep 2013. 

"Computer Software Engineer." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tucker, Allen B. (2004). Computer Science Handbook (2nd ed.). Chapman and Hall/CRC. ISBN 1-58488-360-X. 
    • "Within more than 70 chapters, every one new or significantly revised, one can find any kind of information and references about computer science one can imagine. [...] all in all, there is absolute nothing about Computer Science that can not be found in the 2.5 kilogram-encyclopaedia with its 110 survey articles [...]." (Christoph Meinel, Zentralblatt MATH)
  • van Leeuwen, Jan (1994). Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-72020-5. 
    • "[...] this set is the most unique and possibly the most useful to the [theoretical computer science] community, in support both of teaching and research [...]. The books can be used by anyone wanting simply to gain an understanding of one of these areas, or by someone desiring to be in research in a topic, or by instructors wishing to find timely information on a subject they are teaching outside their major areas of expertise." (Rocky Ross, SIGACT News)
  • Ralston, Anthony; Reilly, Edwin D.; Hemmendinger, David (2000). Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th ed.). Grove's Dictionaries. ISBN 1-56159-248-X. 
    • "Since 1976, this has been the definitive reference work on computer, computing, and computer science. [...] Alphabetically arranged and classified into broad subject areas, the entries cover hardware, computer systems, information and data, software, the mathematics of computing, theory of computation, methodologies, applications, and computing milieu. The editors have done a commendable job of blending historical perspective and practical reference information. The encyclopedia remains essential for most public and academic library reference collections." (Joe Accardin, Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago)
  • Edwin D. Reilly (2003). Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-521-9. 
Selected papers
    • "Covering a period from 1966 to 1993, its interest lies not only in the content of each of these papers — still timely today — but also in their being put together so that ideas expressed at different times complement each other nicely." (N. Bernard, Zentralblatt MATH)
Curriculum and classification

External links[edit]

Bibliography and academic search engines
Professional organizations