Common snook

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Common snook
Centropomus undecimalis1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Centropomidae
Genus:Centropomus
Species:C. undecimalis
Binomial name
Centropomus undecimalis
(Bloch, 1792)
 
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"Róbalo" redirects here. For the fish from southern South America, see Eleginopidae.
Common snook
Centropomus undecimalis1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Centropomidae
Genus:Centropomus
Species:C. undecimalis
Binomial name
Centropomus undecimalis
(Bloch, 1792)

The common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) is a species of marine fish in the family Centropomidae of the order Perciformes. The common snook is also known as the sergeant fish or robalo. It was originally assigned to the sciaenid genus Sciaena; Sciaena undecimradiatus and Centropomus undecimradiatus are obsolete synonyms for the species.

One of the largest snooks, Centropomus undecimalis grows to a maximum overall length of 140 centimetres (4.6 ft) but common length is 50 centimetres (1.6 ft).[1] Of typical centropomid form, it possesses drab coloration except for a distinctive black lateral line. It can also possess bright yellow pelvic and caudal fins, especially during spawn.[2]

General Ecology[edit]

Reproductive Ecology[edit]

Centropumis undecimalis is a protandric hermaphrodite fish species.[3] The common snook’s spawning season appears to span the months of April to October, with the peak spawning occurring during the months of July and August.[4] Spawning typically occurs in near-shore waters with high salinities.[5] Following the spawning period, the juveniles will then migrate to the brackish waters of the nearby estuarine environments.[5] When these juveniles mature they will then return to the higher salinity waters of the open ocean to join the breeding population.[5]

Habitat Ecology[edit]

The common snook is an estuarine-dependent fish species.[6] Within estuaries, juvenile common snook are most often found inhabiting areas such as coastal wetland ponds, island networks, and creeks.[7] Despite being a euryhaline species of fish, common snook do show a tendency to gravitate towards lower salinity conditions in the early stages of their life.[8] By being able to adapt and thrive in both high and low salinity conditions through osmoregulation, common snook display a high level of habitat plasticity.[9] Common snook are opportunistic predators whose feeding habits indicate that there is a positive relationship between their size and the size size of their prey, meaning that as the snook grows it feeds on larger and larger prey.[10] Common snook have been found to occasionally engage in cannibalistic activities, though this behavior is rare.[11] This usually occurs during the winter months when adult and juvenile common snook are in close proximity to one another within their estuarine habitats.[11] This form of cannibalism where the juveniles are fed on by the adults is referred to as intercohort cannibalism.[11] The adult common snook who do cannibalize juveniles most likely target them due to the fact that the juveniles may be the largest of the available prey, and are therefore more nutritionally efficient to prey upon.[11]

Physiological Ecology[edit]

Common snook, like many species of fish, are very in tune with their environment, meaning that even a slight change in their surroundings can have a significant impact on their behavior. For example, common snook are able to determine when to start and stop spawning based on the temperature and salinity of the water they inhabit, the amount of rainfall in the area and whether or not there is a full moon.[12][13] However, there are some cases in which disturbances in their environment can have very negative effects on the snook population. One example of this is the devastating results of a cold snap. Snook are very susceptible to cold temperatures, with the effects ranging from the complete halt of all feeding at a water temperature of 14.2˚C, to the loss of equilibrium at 12.7 ̊C, to death at a temperature of 12.5 ̊C.[14] Recently, a cold snap in January of 2010 resulted in a 41.88% decline in nominal abundance of the common snook population in Southwest Florida from the previous year and a 96-97% post-cold event decrease in apparent survival estimates.[15]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Centropomus undecimalis is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from the coast of the North Carolina to Brazil including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.[16] Occurring in shallow coastal waters (up to 20 metres (66 ft) depth), estuaries, and lagoons, the fish often enters fresh water. It is carnivorous, with a diet dominated by smaller fishes, and crustaceans such as shrimps, and occasionally crabs.[17]

Human interest[edit]

Considered an excellent food fish, the common snook is fished commercially and foreign caught fish are sold in the USA. It is also prized as a game fish, being known for their great fighting capabilities.[18]

Three United States Navy submarines have been named for this species, USS Robalo (SS-273) and USS Snook (SS-279) in the Second World War and USS Snook (SSN-592) in the 1950s.

Protection in Florida Gulf Coast[edit]

"At the June 2012 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) meeting, Commissioners voted to keep the recreational harvest of snook in Gulf of Mexico waters closed through Aug. 31, 2013. This closure will offer the species additional protection after a 2010 cold kill detrimentally affected the population. Snook closed to harvest in Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic waters in January 2010 after a severe cold kill affected snook population number."[19]

This means that all Snook are "Catch and Release" only in the Gulf of Mexico until August 31, 2013. At that time the FWC can choose to open or close Snook harvest for another season. The commercial harvest or sale of Snook is prohibited by the same regulations.

Update: At the June 2013 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) meeting, Commissioners voted to let the recreational harvest of snook in Gulf of Mexico waters reopen to harvest Sept. 1st. The next stock assessment for snook is scheduled for 2015.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/345
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/205157/details#diagnostic_description
  3. ^ Perera-García, M.A.; Mendoza-Carranza, M.; Contreras-Sánchez, W.M.; Huerta-Ortíz, M.; Pérez-Sánchez, E. (2011). "Reproductive biology of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Perciformes: Centropomidae) in two tropical habitats". Revista de Biología Tropical 59 (2): 669–681. 
  4. ^ Tucker, J.W.; Campbell, S.W. (1988). "Spawning season of common snook along the east central Florida coast". Florida Scientist 51 (1): 1–6. 
  5. ^ a b c Gracia-Lopez, V.; Rosas-Vazquez, C.; Brito-Perez, R. (2006). "Effects of salinity on physiological conditions in juvenile common snook Centropomus undecimalis". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 145 (3): 340–345. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.07.008. 
  6. ^ Taylor, R.G.; Grier, H.J.; Whittington, J.A. (1998). "Spawning rhythms of common snook in Florida". Journal of Fish Biology 53 (3): 502–520. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1998.tb00998.x. 
  7. ^ Stevens, P.W.; Blewett, D.A.; Poulakis, G.R. (2007). "Variable habitat use by juvenile common snook, Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae): applying a life-history model in a southwest Florida estuary". Bulletin of Marine Science 80 (1): 93–108. 
  8. ^ Peterson, M.S.; Gilmore, G.R. (1991). "Eco-Physiology of Juvenile Snook Centropomus Undecimalis (Bloch): Life-History Implications". Bulletin of Marine Science 48 (1): 46–57. 
  9. ^ Rhody, N.R.; Nassif, N.A.; Main, K.L. (2010). "Sarasota, FL, USA, p. 30. Rhody, N. R., Nassif, N. A., and Main, K. L. 2010. Effects of salinity on growth and survival of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792) larvae". Aquaculture Research 41 (9): 357–360. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2010.02511.x. 
  10. ^ Blewett, N.R.; Hensley, R.A.; Stevens, P.W. (2006). "Feeding habits of common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, in Charlotte Harbor, Florida". Gulf and Caribbean Research 18: 1. 
  11. ^ a b c d Adams, A.J.; Wolfe, R.K. (2006). "Cannibalism of juveniles by adult common snook (Centropomus undecimalis)". Gulf of Mexico Science 24 (1/2): 11. 
  12. ^ Peters, K.M.; Matheson Jr., R.E.; Taylor, R.G. (1998). "Reproduction and early life history of common snook, Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch), in Florida". Bulletin of Marine Science 62 (2): 509–529. 
  13. ^ Aliaume, C.; Zerbi, A.; Miller, J.M. (2005). "Juvenile snook species in Puerto Rico estuaries: Distribution, abundance and habitat description". Proc. Gulf Carib. Fish. Institute 47: 499–519. 
  14. ^ Shafland, P.L.; Foote, K.J. (1983). "A lower lethal temperature for fingerling snook (Centropomus undecimalis)". Northeast Gulf Science 6: 175–177. 
  15. ^ Adams, A.J.; Hill, J.E.; Barbour, A.B. (2012). "Effects of a severe cold event on the subtropical, estuarine-dependent common snook, Centropomus undecimalis". Gulf and Caribbean Research 24: 13–21. 
  16. ^ http://eol.org/pages/205157/details#distribution
  17. ^ http://eol.org/pages/205157/details#trophic_strategy
  18. ^ http://eol.org/pages/205157/details#benefits
  19. ^ http://myfwc.com/fishing/saltwater/recreational/snook/
  20. ^ http://myfwc.com/news/news-releases/2013/june/12/snook-season/

Bibliography[edit]