Common reagents

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This is a list of common inorganic and organic reagents often used in chemistry.

Synopsis[edit]

Reagents are "substances or compounds that are added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction or are added to see if a reaction occurs."[1] Some reagents are just a single element. However, most processes require reagents made of chemical compounds. Some of the most common ones are listed below.

Reagent Compounds[edit]

NameGeneral Description
Acetic acidan organic acid; is one of the simplest carboxylic acids
Acetonean organic compound; simplest example of the ketones
Acetylenea hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne; widely used as a fuel and chemical building block
Ammoniainorganic; the precursor to most nitrogen-containing compounds; used to make fertilizer
Ammonium hydroxideaqueous ammonia; used in traditional qualitative inorganic analysis
Azobisisobutyronitrileorganic compound; often used as a foamer in plastics and rubber and as a radical initiator
Baeyer's reagentis an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate; used in organic chemistry as a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such as double bonds;
N-Bromosuccinimideused in radical substitution and electrophilic addition reactions in organic chemistry
Butanone (methyl ethyl ketone)organic compound; similar solvent properties to acetone but has a significantly slower evaporation rate
Butylated hydroxytoluenea fat-soluble organic compound that is primarily used as an antioxidant food additive
n-Butyllithiuman organolithium reagent; used as a polymerization initiator in the production of elastomers such as polybutadiene or styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)
Carbon disulfidea non-polar solvent; used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry
Carbon tetrachloridetoxic, and its dissolving power is low; consequently, it has been largely superseded by deuterated solvents
Carbonyldiimidazoleoften used for the coupling of amino acids for peptide synthesis and as a reagent in organic synthesis
Ceric ammonium nitratean inorganic compound; used as an oxidising agent in organic synthesis and as a standard oxidant in quantitative analysis
Chloroformorganic compound; a precursor to teflon
Chromic acida strong and corrosive oxidising agent; an intermediate in chromium plating
Chromium trioxidethe acidic anhydride of chromic acid; mainly used in chrome-plating
Collins reagentused to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to an aldehyde
Copper(I) iodideuseful in a variety of applications ranging from organic synthesis to cloud seeding
Dess–Martin periodinanechemical reagent used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones
Diboranethe central organic synthesis reagent for hydroboration
Dicyclohexylcarbodiimidean organic compound; primary use is to couple amino acids during artificial peptide synthesis
Diethyl azodicarboxylatea valuable reagent but also quite dangerous and explodes upon heating
Diethyl etherorganic compound; a common laboratory solvent
Dihydropyrana heterocyclic compound; used as a protecting group for alcohols in organic synthesiss.[2][3]
Diisobutylaluminium hydridean organoaluminium compound ; a reducing agent; converts esters and nitriles to aldehydes
Diisopropyl azodicarboxylatethe diisopropyl ester of azodicarboxylic acid; a reagent in the production of many organic compounds
Dimethyl etherthe simplest ether; a useful precursor to other organic compounds and an aerosol propellant
Dimethylformamideorganic compound; a common solvent for chemical reactions
Dimethylsulfideorganosulfur compound; used in petroleum refining and in petrochemical production processes; a reducing agent in ozonolysis reactions
Dimethyl sulfoxidean organosulfur compound; an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds
Dioxanea heterocyclic organic compound; classified as an ether
Ethanola powerful psychoactive drug; used in alcoholic beverages, in thermometers, as a solvent, and as a fuel
Fehling's reagentused to differentiate between water-soluble aldehyde and ketone functional groups
Fenton's reagenta solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters
Formaldehydethe simplest aldehyde; an important precursor to many other chemical compounds, such as polymers and polyfunctional alcohols
Formic acidthe simplest carboxylic acid; often used as a source of the hydride ion
Grignard reagentsthe most common application is for alkylation of aldehydes and ketones:[4]
Hexamethylphosphoramidea phosphoramide; useful polar aprotic solvent and additive in organic synthesis
Hydrazineused as a foaming agent in preparing polymer foams; also a precursor to polymerization catalysts and pharmaceuticals; also as an Oxygen scavenger in Power Plants
Hydrazoic acidused primarily for preservation of stock solutions, and as a reagent
Hydrochloric acida highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses
Hydrofluoric acidvalued source of fluorine, precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals; highly corrosive
Hydrogen peroxidean oxidizer commonly used as a bleach
Imidazolean organic compound; this aromatic heterocyclic is a diazole and is classified as an alkaloid
Isopropyl alcoholsimplest example of a secondary alcohol; dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds
Limeused in Flue Gas Desulphurisation in Power Plants
Limestoneused in Flue Gas Desulphurisation in Power Plants
Lithium aluminium hydridea reducing agent in organic synthesis; used to prepare main group and transition metal hydrides from the corresponding metal halides
Lithium diisopropylamidestrong base used in organic chemistry for the deprotonation of weakly acidic compounds
Manganese dioxideused as a pigment and as a precursor to other manganese compounds; used as a reagent in organic synthesis for the oxidation of allylic alcohols
Meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acidused as an oxidant in organic synthesis
Methyl tert-butyl ethera gasoline additive; also used in organic chemistry as a relatively inexpensive solvent
Millon's reagentan analytical reagent used to detect the presence of soluble proteins
Nitric acidhighly corrosive and toxic strong acid; used for the production of fertilizers, production of explosives, and as a component of aqua regia
Osmium tetroxidein organic synthesis, is widely used to oxidise alkenes to the vicinal diols
Oxalyl chlorideused in organic synthesis for the preparation of acid chlorides from the corresponding carboxylic acids
Palladium(II) acetatea catalyst for many organic reactions by combining with many common classes of organic compounds to form reactive adduct
Perchloric acida powerful oxidizing agent; readily forms explosive mixtures; mainly used in the production of rocket fuel
Phosphoric acida mineral acid with many industrial uses; commonly used in the laboratory preparation of hydrogen halides
Phosphorus pentachlorideone of the most important phosphorus chlorides; a chlorinating reagent
Phosphorus tribromideused for the conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides
Phosphorus trichloridemost important of the three phosphorus chlorides; used to manufacture organophosphorus compounds; used to convert primary and secondary alcohols into alkyl chlorides, or carboxylic acids into acyl chlorides
Phosphoryl chlorideused to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate
Potassium dichromatea common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications
Potassium hydroxidea strong base; precursor to most soft and liquid soaps as well as numerous potassium-containing chemicals
Potassium permanganatea strong oxidizing agent; can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidisable organic material in an aqueous sample; a reagent for the synthesis of organic compounds
Pyridinium chlorochromateused to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones
Pyridinium dichromate (Cornforth reagent)converts primary and secondary alcohols to ketones
Raney nickelan alternative catalyst for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils; in organic synthesis, used for desulfurization
Samarium(II) iodide (Kagan Reagent)a powerful reducing agent
Silver oxideused to prepare other silver compounds; in organic chemistry, used as a mild oxidizing agent
Silver nitrateprecursor to many other silver compounds; commonly used in inorganic chemistry to abstract halides
Sodium amideused in the industrial production of indigo, hydrazine, and sodium cyanide;[5] used for the drying of ammonia; used as a strong base in organic chemistry
Sodium azidegas-forming component in airbag systems; used in organic synthesis to introduce the azide functional group by displacement of halides
Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amidea strong base; deprotonates ketones and esters to generate enolate derivative
Sodium borohydridea versatile reducing agent; converts ketones and aldehydes to alcohols
Sodium chloritein organic synthesis, used for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids
Sodium hydridea strong base used in organic synthesis
Sodium hydroxidestrong base with many industrial uses; in the laboratory, used with acids to produce the corresponding salt, also used as an electrolyte
Sodium hypochloritefrequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent
Sodium nitriteused to convert amines into diazo compounds
Sulfuric acidstrong mineral acid; major industrial use is the production of phosphoric acid
tert-Butyl hydroperoxideused in a variety of oxidation processes; industrially, is used as a starter of radical polymerization
Tetrahydrofuranone of the most polar ethers; a useful solvent; its main use is as a precursor to polymers
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)a catalyst for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions
Tetramethylammonium hydroxidea quaternary ammonium salt; used as an anisotropic etchant of silicon; used as a basic solvent in the development of acidic photoresist in the photolithography process
Tetramethylsilanethe simplest tetraorganosilane; a building block in organometallic chemistry
Thionyl chloridean inorganic compound; used in chlorination reactions; converts carboxylic acids to acyl chlorides[6]
Thiophenolan organosulfur compound; the simplest aromatic thiol
Titanium tetrachloridean intermediate in the production of titanium metal and titanium dioxide
Tollens' reagenta chemical test most commonly used to determine whether a known carbonyl-containing compound is an aldehyde or a ketone
Triphenylphosphineused in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (1996) "Reactant".
  2. ^ R. A. Earl L. B. Townsend (1990), "Methyl 4-Hydroxy-2-butynoate", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 7: 334 
  3. ^ Arthur F. Kluge (1990), "Diethyl [(2-Tetrahydropyranyloxy)methyl]phosphonate", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 7: 160 
  4. ^ Haugan, Jarle André; Songe, Pål; Rømming, Christian; Rise, Frode; Hartshorn, Michael P.; Merchán, Manuela; Robinson, Ward T.; Roos, Björn O. et al. (1997), "Total Synthesis of C31-Methyl Ketone Apocarotenoids 2: The First Total Synthesis of (3R)-Triophaxanthin.", Acta Chemica Scandinavica 51: 1096–1103, doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.51-1096, retrieved 2009-11-26 
  5. ^ Budavari, Susan, ed. (1996), The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (12th ed.), Merck, ISBN 0911910123 
  6. ^ Allen, C. F. H.; Byers, Jr., J. R.; Humphlett, W. J. (1963), "Oleoyl chloride", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 4: 739 ; Rutenberg, M. W.; Horning, E. C. (1963), "1-Methyl-3-ethyloxindole", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 4: 620