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The Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle or CUCV Program was instituted to provide the United States military with a cheaper Light Utility Vehicle to augment the purpose-built, but expensive, Gama Goats and M151 series "Jeeps" approaching the end of their service life. It initially provided Dodge D Series and then Chevrolet C/Ks with several military modifications. All were phased out sooner than expected due to their inability to survive the hardships that the purpose built vehicles could endure. The vehicle has five basic configurations; cargo, utility, ambulance, shelter carrier, and chassis. The vehicles were purchased in the late 1970s and early 1980s from Chrysler Corporation, Dodge Division, and in the mid 1980s from General Motors Chevrolet, and GMC Truck divisions.
The M880 Series had 12 volt electrical systems and were powered with the 318 cubic inch gasoline engine. The M880s were an attempt by the U.S. military to use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) vehicles with minor modifications in non-combat roles. They were intended to replace the M37 Cargo Trucks and the M715 Cargo Trucks and related variants.
Around 1973, Dodge began developing the M880 series trucks, which were militarized adaptations of their current model 4×4s. These trucks weren't known as CUCVs at the time, but were in use for many years. They had several failings: a gasoline powerplant, 12-volt electrical systems.( 24 volt kit was available) and no power steering. The electrical system was addressed by upgrades where needed, but the gasoline engine proved a fatal flaw as the military moved increasingly to diesel engines. The lack of power steering in the military vehicles was a great hindrance in off road and close quarters work (although many civilian and air force models had power steering). Around 44,000 M880s were produced during the 1975 through 1978 model years, and served for the Army and Air Force until the early 1990s.
The GM CUCVs were produced in the 1983-86 time period (model years were 1984-87 and mostly 1984) and were powered by 6.2L Detroit Diesel V8 engine. The GM CUCVs were assembled mostly from the heaviest duty bits and pieces from the light commercial truck lines. The CUCVs came in three basic body styles, a pickup, a utility and an ambulance body. A chassis cab fitted with a service body could be called a fourth. The M1008 was the basic cargo truck, the M1010 was the ambulance and the M1009 ¾-ton utility rig, which was a stripped Blazer uprated to 3/4-ton capacity. With the exception of the M1009, the trucks were all rated as 1¼ ton (commonly called a “five-quarter”), even though some of them had payloads in excess of that. In the truck lines there were some heavy duty variants, to include the M1028, M1028A1, M1028A2 and M1028A3 shelter carriers, the shelter being a mobile command, communications or intelligence operations enclosure. The M1031 was the chassis cab which was most commonly found in the two door version. These latter trucks were all rated for heavier 3,600 or 3,900 pound loads, vs. the M1008s 2,900 pound load capacity. The M1028A2 and A3 models had dual rear wheels. Many M1028s were upgraded at the company level to M1028A2 and A3 specs. The Dual wheel rear end was a result of incidents where the M10128 flipped on its side because of the high center of gravity when carrying the equipment shelters.--
All the CUCVs were powered by GM’s 6.2L J-series Detroit Diesel V8 engine non-emissions diesel. These were rated at 155 hp (116 kW) and 240 lb·ft (325 N·m), which was 5 hp (3.7 kW) more than the emissions diesel engine of the time. They were all equipped with the TH-400 automatic. All but the M1028A1 and M1031 used the NP-208 chain drive transfer case. The M1028A1 and M1031 units had a slip-yoke rear output version of the NP-205, which was specified mainly for its PTO capacity.
The M1009 Blazer used 10-bolt axles (front and rear) featuring 3.08:1 gears. The rear axle was equipped with an Eaton Locker (“Gov-Lok”) with the front being a standard open differential. The M1008 trucks used open Dana 60 front axles, with the M1028 and M1031 variations often having a Trac-Lok limited slip. In the rear, the M1008s used the GM 10.5-inch (270 mm) 10.5" Corporate 14 Bolt Differential with No-Spin lockers (the commercial trade name for the Detroit Locker). Though the M1028A2 and A3 duallies have Dana 70 HD axles. Axle gear ratios were 4.56:1.
As with other military vehicles, the CUCVs used a 24-volt electrical system. It was actually a hybrid 12/24-volt system that used 24-volts under the hood, complete with dual 100 amp alternators, the mandatory NATO slave receptacle for jump starting any NATO vehicle, and hookups for military radios. The rest of the truck was 12-volt.
GM produced some 70,000 from 1983 to 1986 most for the military. For the past several years, GM Defense has been working over the newest GM trucks as CUCV-II and CUCV-III units for a new generation. The older Dodge M880s were used on the battlefield in some of the brush wars of the early 1980s and the results were reported to be “disastrous.” Likewise, the GM CUCVs saw combat time in Desert Storm and as one unit commander said, the results were “less than desirable.”As a result most CUCV's were replaced by the same HMMWV's they were to augment.
The GM CUCV may not have made the grade as a battlefield vehicle, but it served well enough in its original role as a dollar-saving bridge between out-and-out tactical vehicles and off-the-shelf civilian vehicles. Like the rear echelon human troops, they provide support for the frontline forces. CUCVs of all generations are still in US service, though there are also many that have passed through military surplus sales into civilian ownership. In US military service, CUCVs have been removed from MTOE-based organizations in the Army and Marines, but are still in use as base / garrison support vehicles for organizations like Range Control, Base Facilities and Engineering, and other TDA[?] uses.
Model years: '84-'87 GM M1008 CUCV
Chevrolet had been building a few CUCVs since the 1986 model year, mainly in low numbers to accommodate military markets that need replacements or other units that need this style of vehicle. In 1996 Chevrolet decided to start building a new generation of a CUCV to try and regain their marketplace in this niche. Mostly the US Air Force was occasionally buying small batches of these units and then GM dubbed them as the CUCV II generation. These were produced through 2001 and were civilian units sent to another plant for "militarization" on special order. They are basic 3500 SRW trucks that were originally built as white in color with gray vinyl interiors. After the usual 383 green CARC paint jobs, the bumpers and grill were the next to get customized with pintle and towing/loading shackles, extra leaf springs installed to give them a 5/4 ton rating and a host of other small changes. All CUCVs have a 24volt dual battery starting system, The rest of the truck is 12 volt with resistors on the firewall to bring it down to 12 volts. All heavy duty items are used and they are very similar to the early CUCVs.
In 2002, GM introduced the CUCV III with the new body shell. Both the II and III come with AM-FM stereo and Air Conditioning. They also come with available options such as: Brushguard, Air Compressor, On Board Navigation System, 120 VAC Inverter, front or rear winch and runflat tires.
Light Service Support Vehicle (LSSV) (Formerly Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle - CUCV II AND III) and is known in Canadian service as the Light Utility Vehicle Wheeled (LUVW), 4×4, MIL COTS. The LSSV is a GM-built Silverado 2500 HD and is powered by a Duramax 6.6 liter turbo diesel engine. The LSSV is available in a crew cab or standard cab. It can also be equipped with the Enhanced Mobility Package which adds underbody protection, a tire pressure monitoring system, and other upgrades. All LSSVs are produced by AM General, a unit of MacAndrews and Forbes Holdings.
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