Colonia del Sacramento

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Colonia del Sacramento
Capital city
Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento
Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento is located in Uruguay
Colonia del Sacramento
Coordinates: 34°28′17″S 57°50′39″W / 34.47139°S 57.84417°W / -34.47139; -57.84417Coordinates: 34°28′17″S 57°50′39″W / 34.47139°S 57.84417°W / -34.47139; -57.84417
Country Uruguay
DepartmentColonia Department
Founded1680
Founded byManuel Lobo
Elevation27 m (89 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total26,231
Time zoneUTC -3
Postal code70000
Dial plan+598 452 (+5 digits)
 
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Colonia del Sacramento
Capital city
Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento
Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento is located in Uruguay
Colonia del Sacramento
Coordinates: 34°28′17″S 57°50′39″W / 34.47139°S 57.84417°W / -34.47139; -57.84417Coordinates: 34°28′17″S 57°50′39″W / 34.47139°S 57.84417°W / -34.47139; -57.84417
Country Uruguay
DepartmentColonia Department
Founded1680
Founded byManuel Lobo
Elevation27 m (89 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total26,231
Time zoneUTC -3
Postal code70000
Dial plan+598 452 (+5 digits)

Colonia del Sacramento (formerly the Portuguese Colónia do Sacramento) is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is one of the oldest towns in Uruguay and capital of the Colonia Department. It has a population of around 27,000.

It is renowned for its historic quarter, a World Heritage Site. Modern Colonia del Sacramento produces textiles and has a free trade zone, in addition to a polytechnic centre and various government buildings.

History[edit]

Founded in 1680 by Portugal as Colónia do Sacramento, the colony was later disputed by the Spanish who settled on the opposite bank of the river at Buenos Aires. The colony was conquered by José de Garro in 1680, but returned to Portugal the next year. It was conquered again by the Spanish in March 1705 after a siege of five months, but given back in the Treaty of Utrecht. Another attack during the Spanish-Portuguese War, 1735-1737, failed.

It kept changing hands from crown to crown due to treaties such as the Treaty of Madrid in 1750 and the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, until it remained with the Spanish. It then transferred to Portuguese control again, being later incorporated into Brazil after 1816, when the entire Banda Oriental (Uruguay) was seized by the government of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and renamed the Cisplatina province.

On 10 January 1809, before the independence of Uruguay, it was designated as a "Villa" (town) and has since been elevated to the status of "Ciudad" (city).

Since independence Colonia del Sacramento has expanded to the north and east, but the original Barrio Histórico (historic quarter) retains its irregular, terrain-fitting street plan built by the Portuguese, contrasting with the wider, orthogonal calles in the newer Spanish area.

Timeline of rule[edit]

The rule from 1680 to present (with flag of the period) is:

FromToRuleReason for Handover
16801680Flag Portugal (1667).svg Portugal    conquered by José de Garro
16801681Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg   SpainProvisional Treaty of Lisbon
16811705Flag Portugal (1667).svg Portugalconquered in the War of Spanish Succession
17051713Bandera de Costas 1700-1771.png   SpainTreaty of Utrecht
17141762PortugueseFlag1750.png PortugalFirst Cevallos expedition
17621763Bandera de Costas 1700-1771.png   SpainTreaty of Paris (1763)
17631777PortugueseFlag1750.png PortugalSecond Cevallos expedition
17771811Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg   SpainRevolt led by José Gervasio Artigas   
18111817Flag of Artigas.svg Liga FederalLuso-Brazilian invasion
18171822Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svg PortugalBrazilian Declaration of Independence
18221828Flag of Empire of Brazil (1870-1889).svg BrazilCisplatine War
1828presentFlag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay

Population[edit]

In 2011 Colonia del Sacramento had a population of 26,231.[1]

YearPopulation
19088,021
196312,846
197517,046
198519,102
199622,200
200421,714
201126,231

Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay[2]

Climate[edit]

Colonia del Sacramento has a mild humid subtropical climate, described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. Summers are warm and winters are cool, with relatively frequent frosts and fog. The precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an average of 1,039 mm (40.91 in), and the annual average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F).

Climate data for Colonia del Sacramento , Uruguay
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)39.6
(103.3)
35.8
(96.4)
34.9
(94.8)
31.6
(88.9)
30.9
(87.6)
25.8
(78.4)
30.6
(87.1)
28.8
(83.8)
30.6
(87.1)
32.8
(91)
36.4
(97.5)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F)27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81)
25.4
(77.7)
21.7
(71.1)
18.3
(64.9)
14.9
(58.8)
14.6
(58.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
26.7
(80.1)
21.2
(70.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)23.7
(74.7)
22.9
(73.2)
21.2
(70.2)
17.9
(64.2)
14.8
(58.6)
11.7
(53.1)
11.4
(52.5)
12.2
(54)
14.1
(57.4)
16.8
(62.2)
19.5
(67.1)
22.3
(72.1)
17.4
(63.3)
Average low °C (°F)19.2
(66.6)
18.8
(65.8)
17.2
(63)
14.3
(57.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.7
(47.7)
8.1
(46.6)
8.9
(48)
10.3
(50.5)
12.8
(55)
15.0
(59)
17.6
(63.7)
13.5
(56.3)
Record low °C (°F)10.1
(50.2)
10.3
(50.5)
8.1
(46.6)
5.1
(41.2)
0.2
(32.4)
0.0
(32)
−0.7
(30.7)
0.4
(32.7)
1.5
(34.7)
4.7
(40.5)
4.1
(39.4)
8.8
(47.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
Precipitation mm (inches)92
(3.62)
116
(4.57)
125
(4.92)
91
(3.58)
78
(3.07)
66
(2.6)
69
(2.72)
76
(2.99)
80
(3.15)
113
(4.45)
108
(4.25)
87
(3.43)
1,099
(43.27)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)66665555677670
 % humidity70737477798179787574726975
Mean monthly sunshine hours285.6223.1228.5182.9166.1137.0142.6168.1194.6232.2240.9270.02,471.6
Source: Dirección Nacional de Meteorología [3]

Urban fabric[edit]

The city was developed on a peninsula that protrudes into the Río de la Plata. The 16 hectare "Barrio Histórico", or Portuguese Old City, was enclosed by a fortification wall across the peninsula in the site of present day Calle Ituzaingó.[4] Most of the fortification wall was removed in 1777 and the remaining parts in 1859. The Portuguese part of the city has an irregular street network.

Outside the wall, the historical part of the city was planned in Spanish colonial style and in the characteristic checkerboard layout.

Points of interest[edit]

The Barrio Histórico (historic quarter) section of Colonia del Sacramento is designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is a popular tourist attraction for visitors from Buenos Aires, and there is frequent ferry service across the Río de la Plata between the two cities, with fast ferries completing the journey in just 50 minutes. The historical section of Colonia, which has some cobblestone streets built by the Portuguese in the 17th century, is within walking distance of the ferry terminal. Among the notable tourist attractions around the tree-lined Plaza Mayor (main square) are:

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
TypeCultural
Criteriaiv
Reference747
UNESCO regionLatin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription1995 (19th Session)

Gallery[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Colonia del Sacramento is served by three ferry boat lines from Buenos Aires, Argentina: "Buquebus", "Seacat Colonia" and "Colonia Express".

Two principal highways end in Colonia: Route 1 connects Colonia to Montevideo and points east; Route 21 connects to points north, including the Aarón de Anchorena National Park, 30 kilometres (19 mi) distant, and Fray Bentos. There is also a local airport for small planes. There is a project in process to lengthen the runway and begin commercial flights to Buenos Aires (this was done in the past) and other cities within Uruguay.

The city is served by Laguna de los Patos International Airport located 17km from Colonia along Route 1.

Consular representation[edit]

Argentina maintains a consulate in Colonia del Sacramento.

Twin town/sister city[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Censos 2011 Cuadros Colonia". INE. 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  2. ^ "Statistics of urban localities (1963–2004)" (PDF). INE. 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "Estadísticas climatológicas" (in Spanish). Dirección Nacional de Meteorología. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  4. ^ "Colonia del Sacramento Old Town". Wondermondo. 
  5. ^ (Portuguese) Cidades-irmãs de Pelotas terão espaço na Fenadoce, Prefeitura Municipal de Pelotas - accessed on June 4, 2007.

External links[edit]