Colombo crime family

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Colombo crime family
Josephcolombo.jpg
Joseph Colombo was boss of the family from 1963 to 1971.
Founding locationNew York City, USA
Years activec. 1928–present
TerritoryVarious neighborhoods in New York City, New York. Territory in Long Island, Massachusetts, South Florida, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles.
EthnicityPeople of Italian descent as "made men", and other ethnicities as "associates"
Membership40-50 (active) made members[1] (2011 estimate), unknown number of associates
Criminal activitiesArms trafficking, arson, assault, battery, bribery, burglary, cigarette smuggling, chop shop, conspiracy, contract killing, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, extortion, fencing, fraud, illegal gambling, larceny, loansharking, money laundering, murder, Racketeering, robbery, skimming, theft, truck hijacking, pornography, prostitution, tax evasion, and protection racket.
AlliesBonanno, Gambino, Lucchese, Genovese, Trafficante, DeCavalcante, Patriarca, Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, Philadelphia and Los Angeles crime families
RivalsVarious gangs over NYC including their allies
 
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Colombo crime family
Josephcolombo.jpg
Joseph Colombo was boss of the family from 1963 to 1971.
Founding locationNew York City, USA
Years activec. 1928–present
TerritoryVarious neighborhoods in New York City, New York. Territory in Long Island, Massachusetts, South Florida, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles.
EthnicityPeople of Italian descent as "made men", and other ethnicities as "associates"
Membership40-50 (active) made members[1] (2011 estimate), unknown number of associates
Criminal activitiesArms trafficking, arson, assault, battery, bribery, burglary, cigarette smuggling, chop shop, conspiracy, contract killing, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, extortion, fencing, fraud, illegal gambling, larceny, loansharking, money laundering, murder, Racketeering, robbery, skimming, theft, truck hijacking, pornography, prostitution, tax evasion, and protection racket.
AlliesBonanno, Gambino, Lucchese, Genovese, Trafficante, DeCavalcante, Patriarca, Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, Philadelphia and Los Angeles crime families
RivalsVarious gangs over NYC including their allies

The Colombo crime family is the youngest of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal organization known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra).

The family traces its roots to a bootlegging gang formed by Joseph Profaci in 1928. After the reorganization of the American Mafia in the Castellammarese War, Profaci's gang was recognized as the Profaci crime family. Profaci would rule his family without interruption or challenge until the late 1950s.[2][3] The family has been torn by three internal wars. The first war took place during the late 1950s when capo Joe Gallo revolted against Profaci. The first war lost momentum in the early 1960s when Gallo was arrested and Profaci died of cancer. The family was not reunited until the early 1960s under Joseph Colombo. In 1971, the second family war began after Gallo's release from prison and the shooting of Colombo. Colombo supporters led by Carmine Persico won the second war after the exiling of the Gallo crew to the Genovese family in 1975. The family would now enjoy over 15 years of peace under Persico and his string of acting bosses.

In 1991, the third and bloodiest war erupted when acting boss Victor Orena tried to seize power from the imprisoned Carmine Persico. The family split into factions loyal to Orena and Persico and two years of mayhem ensued. It ended in 1993 with 12 family members dead and Orena imprisoned, leaving Persico the winner more or less by default. He was left with a family decimated by war. Although Persico still runs the family today, it has never recovered. In the 2000s, the family was further crippled by multiple convictions in federal racketeering cases and numerous members becoming government witnesses. Most observers believe that the Colombo crime family is the weakest of the Five Families of New York City.[1]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

In September 1921, Joseph Profaci arrived in New York City from Villabate, Sicily, Italy.[2] After struggling in Chicago with his businesses, Profaci moved back to Brooklyn in 1925 and become a well known olive oil importer. On September 27, Profaci obtained his American citizenship.[2] With his olive oil importing business doing well, Profaci made deals with friends from his old town in Sicily and one of his largest buyers was Tampa mobster Ignazio Italiano. Profaci controlled a small criminal gang that operated mainly in Brooklyn. The dominant Cosa Nostra groups in Brooklyn were led by Salvatore D'Aquila, Frankie Yale, Giuseppe Masseria, and Nicola Schirò.

On July 1, 1928, Brooklyn mobster Frankie Yale was murdered by Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone's hit-men.[4] Capone murdered Yale because Yale refused to give Capone, a Neapolitan, control over the Unione Siciliana fraternal association.[4][5] Yale's murder allowed Profaci and his brother in-law Joseph Magliocco to gain territory for their small gang.[2] Profaci's gang gained territory in Bensonhurst, Bay Ridge, Red Hook and Carroll Gardens while the rest of Yale's group went to the Masseria family.

On October 10, 1928, the capo di tutti capi, Salvatore "Toto" D'Aquila, was murdered, resulting in a fight for D'Aquila's territory.[2] To prevent a gang war in Brooklyn, a Mafia meeting was called on December 5, 1928, at the Statler Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The site was chosen because it was neutral territory outside New York under Porrello crime family control and protection. The main topic was dividing D'Aquila's territory.[2] Attendees representing Brooklyn included Profaci, Magliocco, Vincent Mangano (who reported to D'Aqulia family boss Alfred "Al Mineo" Manfredi), Joseph Bonanno (who represented Salvatore Maranzano and the Castellammarese Clan), Chicago mobsters Joseph Guinta and Pasquale Lolordo, and Tampa mobster Ignazio Italiano.[2] At the end of the meeting, Profaci received a share of D'Aqulia's Brooklyn territory, with Magliocco as his second-in-command.

The Castellammarese War[edit]

Main article: Castellammarese War

Months after the D'Aquila murder, Joe Masseria began a campaign to become capo di tutti capi ('boss of bosses') in the United States demanding tribute from the remaining three Mafia groups in New York City which included the Reina family, the Castellammarese Clan and the Profaci family.[6] Castellammarese Clan boss Salvatore Maranzano began his own campaign to become 'boss of bosses', this started the Castellammarese War. Masseria along with his allie Alfred Manfredi, the new boss of the D'Aquila family ordered the murder of Gaetano Reina. Masseria believed that Reina was going to support Maranzano to become the new 'boss of bosses'. On February 26, 1930, Gaetano Reina was murdered and Masseria appointed Joseph Pinzolo as the new boss of the Reina family. During the war Profaci remained neutral, while he secretly supported Maranzano.

The Castellammarese War ended when Charles "Lucky" Luciano, a Masseria lieutenant, betrayed him to Maranzano. Luciano set up the murder of Masseria on April 15, 1931.[6] Maranzano then became the new capo di tutti capi in the United States. Within a few months, Maranzano and Luciano were plotting to kill each other. On September 10, 1931, Luciano had Maranzano killed and created the Mafia Commission. Now there would be five independent Cosa Nostra families in New York City and twenty one additional families across the United States that were regulated by a supreme Commission in New York. Profaci and Magliocco were confirmed as boss and underboss, respectively, of what was now known as the Profaci crime family.[6]

First Family War (1960–1963)[edit]

Joseph Profaci in 1959.

Joseph Profaci had become a wealthy Mafia boss and was known as "the olive-oil and tomato paste king of America".[7] One of Profaci's most unpopular demands was a $25 monthly tribute from every soldier in his family. In the late 1950s, capo Frank "Frankie Shots" Abbatemarco became a problem for Joe Profaci. Abbatemarco controlled a lucrative policy game that earned him nearly $2.5 million a year with an average of $7,000 a day in Red Hook, Brooklyn.[7][8] In early 1959, Abbatemarco, with the support of Gallo brothers and the Garfield Boys, began refusing to pay tribute to Profaci.[8] By late 1959, Abbatemarco's debt had grown to $50,000 and Profaci allegedly ordered Joe Gallo to murder Abbatemarco. However, other versions of the story indicate that Gallo played no part in this murder.[8] In return for Abbatemarco's murder, Profaci allegedly agreed to give the Gallos control over Abbatemarco's policy game.[9] On November 4, 1959, Frank Abbatemarco walked out of his cousin's bar in Park Slope, Brooklyn and was shot and killed by Joseph Gioielli and another hitman.[8][10] Profaci then ordered the Gallos to hand over Abbatemaro's son Anthony. The Gallos refused and Profaci refused to give them the policy game. This was the start of the first family war.[8] The Gallo brothers and the Garfield boys (led by Carmine Persico) were aligned against Profaci and his loyalists.[7][9]

On February 27, 1961 the Gallos kidnapped four of Profaci's top men: underboss Magliocco, Frank Profaci (Joe Profaci's brother), capo Salvatore Musacchio and soldier John Scimone. Profaci himself eluded capture and flew to sanctuary in Florida.[7] While holding the hostages, Larry and Albert Gallo sent Joe Gallo to California. Profaci's consigliere Charles "the Sidge" LoCicero negotiated with the Gallos and all the hostages were released peacefully.[11] However, Profaci had no intention of honoring this peace agreement. On August 20, 1961 Joseph Profaci ordered the murder of Gallo members Joseph "Joe Jelly" Gioielli and Larry Gallo. Gunmen allegedly murdered Gioilli after inviting him to go deep sea fishing. Gallo survived a strangulation attempt in the Sahara club of East Flatbush by Carmine Persico and Salvatore "Sally" D'Ambrosio after a police officer intervened.[7][9] The Gallos then began calling Persico "The Snake"; he had betrayed them, the war continued on resulting in nine murders and three disappearances.[9]

In late November 1961, Joe Gallo was sentenced to seven-to-fourteen years in prison for murder.[12] In 1962, Joe Profaci died of cancer, leaving Joe Magliocco, his longtime underboss, as the new boss. The war continued on between the two factions. In 1963, Carmine Persico survived a car bombing and his enforcer Hugh McIntosh was shot in the groin as he attempted kill Larry Gallo.[12] On May 19, 1963, a Gallo hit team shot Carmine Persico multiple times, but Persico survived.[12]

In 1963, Magliocco and Bonanno boss Joseph Bonanno hatched an audacious plan to murder bosses Carlo Gambino, Tommy Lucchese, Stefano Magaddino and Frank DeSimone and take over the Mafia Commission.[13] Joseph Magliocco gave the murder contact to Joseph Colombo. Colombo either feared for his life, or sensed an opportunity for advancement, and instead reported the plot to The Commission. The Commission, realizing that Bonanno was the real mastermind, ordered both Magliocco and Bonanno to appear for a Mob trial. Bonanno went into hiding, but a badly shaken Magliocco appeared and confessed everything. He was fined $43,000 and forced into retirement.[13]

Colombo and Italian American Civil Rights League[edit]

The Commission rewarded Colombo for his loyalty by awarding him the Profaci family, which he renamed the Colombo family. The 41-year-old Colombo was the youngest boss in New York at the time, and the first New York Mafia boss to have been born and raised in the United States.

Along with former Gallo crew member Nicholas Bianco and New England family boss Raymond Patriarca, Colombo was able to end the war.[7] As a reward for his loyalty, Bianco was made into the Colombo family.[14] As boss, Colombo brought peace and stability to the broken crime family. However, some Cosa Nostra bosses viewed Colombo as Carlo Gambino's "puppet boss" and felt he never deserved the title.[7] Colombo's leadership was never challenged due to his support from Carlo Gambino. In 1968, Gallo crew leader Larry Gallo died of cancer.[7]

In 1969, Colombo founded the Italian-American Civil Rights League, dedicated to fighting discrimination against Italian-Americans. Many mobsters disapproved of the League because it brought unwanted public attention to the Cosa Nostra.[7] Colombo ignored their concerns and continued gaining support for his league. On July 28, 1970, Colombo held the first league demonstration, a big success.[7] In 1971, months before the second demonstration, the other New York bosses ordered their men to stay away from the demonstration and not support Colombo's cause. In a sign that the New York bosses had turned on Colombo, the league's chief organizer, chief organizer Gambino family capo Joseph DeCicco, resigned ostensibly due to ill health.[7] In 1971, Joe Gallo was also released from prison. At the time of his release, Gallo said the 1963 peace agreement did not apply to him because he was in prison when it was negotiation.[15]

Second Family War (1971–1975)[edit]

On June 28, 1971, Colombo held the second League demonstration at Columbus Circle in Manhattan.[7] As Colombo prepared to speak, an African-American man, Jerome Johnson, walked up to Colombo and shot him in the back of the head three times; seconds later, Colombo's bodyguards shot Johnson to death.[7] The shooting did not kill Colombo but left him paralyzed and permanently incapacitated for the last seven years of his life; he died of natural causes on May 22, 1978.[16] Although many in the Colombo family blamed Joe Gallo for the shooting, the police eventually concluded that Johnson was a lone gunman.[15] Regardless, the Colombo shooting triggered the Second Colombo war.

Colombo's consigliere Joseph Yacovelli became the family acting boss, and he directed a new campaign to murder Joe Gallo and his crew.[16] On April 7, 1972, acting on a quick tip, four gunmen walked into Umberto's Clam House in Little Italy and killed Joe Gallo as he was dining with his family.[16] Looking for revenge, Albert Gallo sent a gunman from Las Vegas to the Neapolitan Noodle restaurant in Manhattan, where Yacovelli, Alphonse Persico, and Langella were dining one day. However, the gunman did not recognize the mobsters and shot four innocent diners instead, killing two of them.[17] After this assassination attempt, Yacovelli fled New York, leaving Carmine Persico as the new boss.[18]

The Second Colombo war continued on and off for the next several years. In 1975, the Gallo faction itself split into two groups that started fighting each other. To finally resolve the conflict, the New York families negotiated an agreement in which Albert Gallo and his remaining crew left the Colombo family and peacefully joined the Genovese family. The Gallo wars were finally over.[19]

The family under Persico[edit]

Carmine Persico

Following the high-profile media exposure of Joseph Colombo and the murderous excesses of Joe Gallo, the Colombo family entered a period of comparative calm and stability. With Colombo in a coma, the family leadership went to Thomas DiBella, a man adept at evading the authorities since his sole bootlegging conviction in 1932. However, DiBella was unable to prevent the Gambino family from chipping away at Colombo rackets, and the Colombos declined in power.[20] Poor health forced DiBella to retire in 1977, and Colombo died in 1978. The Colombo family was facing another power vacuum.

Gennaro "Jerry Lang" Langella

During the 1970s, Carmine Persico had grown in stature within the family and was considered to be the clear successor as boss. However, Persico had spent much of this time in prison, and it was unclear if he could effectively rule the family from prison. Nevertheless, Persico took control, designating Gennaro "Jerry Lang" Langella as his street boss until his release in 1979. In 1986, both men were convicted on massive Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) charges in the Mafia Commission Trial and sentenced to 100 years. In a separate RICO trial related only to the Colombos, Persico was convicted with several other family heavyweights and sentenced to 39 years in prison.

Mafia historian and New York Times organized-crime reporter Selwyn Raab later wrote that the Colombos suffered more long-term damage than any other family as a result of the Commission Trial. Raab pointed out that although Persico had been in charge of the family for 14 years prior to his conviction, he was only 53 years old at the time and "at the peak of his abilities." In contrast, the other New York bosses were in their seventies and likely would have ceded power to mafiosi of Persico's generation in any event.[6] Knowing that there was virtually no chance that he'd ever be free again, Persico named his older brother, Alphonse "Ally Boy" Persico, as acting boss to ensure the family's ill-gotten profits would still flow to him. However, Allie Boy skipped bail on loansharking charges a year later. Persico wanted to name his son, Alphonse "Little Allie Boy" Persico, as acting boss, but Little Allie Boy had also been convicted in the 1986 "Colombo Trial." Instead, Persico named the capo of Little Allie Boy's former crew, Victor "Little Vic" Orena, as acting boss. Although Persico granted Orena the power to induct new members and order hits on his own authority—powers rarely granted to an acting boss—it was understood that he was merely keeping the chair warm until Little Allie Boy's parole.

Third Family War (1991–1993)[edit]

Orena was initially content with serving as acting boss. By 1990, however, Orena had come to believe Persico was out of touch and causing the family to miss out on lucrative opportunities. He was also alarmed at Persico's plans for a made-for-television biography, fearing that prosecutors could use it as evidence in the same way they had used Joe Bonanno's tell-all book as evidence in the Commission Trial. He therefore decided to take over the family himself.[6] Using his strong ties to Gambino boss John Gotti, Orena petitioned the Mafia Commission to recognize him as boss. Unwilling to cause more conflict, the Commission refused. Orena then instructed consigliere Carmine Sessa to poll the capos on whether Orena should replace Persico. Instead, Sessa alerted Persico that Orena was staging a palace coup. An enraged Persico ordered a hit on Orena. On June 21, 1991, when Orena arrived at his home in Cedarhurst on Long Island, he found gunmen under Sessa's leadership waiting for him. However, Orena managed to escape before the gunmen could strike. The third Colombo war had begun.[20]

Twelve people, including three innocent bystanders, died in this gang war.[21] More than 80 made members and associates from both sides of the Colombo family were convicted, jailed or indicted. These included Persico's brother Theodore "Teddy" Persico and his son Alphonse Persico, DeRoss, and Orena's two sons, Victor, Jr. Orena and John Orena. While both sides appealed to the Commission for help, the war continued. On November 1991, Gregory Scarpa, a Persico loyalist, was driving his daughter and granddaughter home when several Orena gunmen ambushed them. Scarpa and his relatives managed to escape.

The war continued until 1992, when Orena was convicted on massive RICO charges and sentenced to 100 years in prison. As it turned out, the real winners in the war were federal prosecutors. They had initially made little headway in their efforts to undermine the gang. As the war raged, though, at least 12 members turned informer, mostly to save their lives. The highest-profile member to flip was the consigliere, Sessa. With their help, 58 soldiers and associates—42 from the Persico faction and 16 from the Orena faction—were sent to prison. George Stamboulidis, who prosecuted most of the cases arising from the war, later said that the two years of bloodletting helped prosecutors destroy the family from within. He credited the large number of informers with helping them to build big cases sooner than they would have otherwise been able to. Raab later wrote that Persico's attempts to keep control of the family from prison nearly destroyed it.[6]

While the Colombo war raged, the Commission refused to allow any Colombo member to sit on the Commission[22] and considered dissolving the family. Lucchese underboss Anthony Casso proposed to merge the family with his own to end the war,[23] while in 2000 plans were proposed to split its manpower and resources among the remaining families.[24] In 2002, with the help of Bonanno family boss Joseph Massino, the other families finally allowed the Colombos to rejoin the Commission.

The family after Third Colombo War[edit]

Mugshot of Ralph DeLeo

With Orena out of the picture, the way was clear for "Little Allie Boy" to become acting boss after his 1995 parole. However, he didn't rule for long. In 1999, he was arrested in Fort Lauderdale after being caught in possession of a pistol and shotgun; as a convicted felon he was barred from carrying guns. Shortly afterward, he ordered the murder of underboss William "Wild Bill" Cutolo, an Orena supporter during the Third Colombo War. Cutolo's son, vowing revenge, offered to wear a wire and pose as a prospective Colombo associate. Based on evidence from this wire, Little Allie Boy was indicted on RICO charges. Realizing he stood no chance of acquittal, he pleaded guilty to the state charges in February 2000 and to the RICO charges in December 2001. In 2004, Alphonse Persico and underboss John "Jackie" DeRoss were indicted for the Cutolo murder. In December 2007, both men were convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Family consigliere Joel "Joe Waverly" Cacace took over running the family until 2003 when he was imprisoned on murder and racketeering charges.

The family then came under the influence of Thomas "Tommy Shots" Gioeli, who took over as street boss. In June 2008, Gioeli, underboss John "Sonny" Franzese, former consigliere Joel Cacace, captain Dino Calabro, soldier Dino Saracino and several other members and associates were indicted on multiple racketeering charges which included loan sharking, extortion and three murders dating back to the Colombo Wars.[25][26][27] If convicted, they are all facing life sentences.

After Gioeli was imprisoned, Ralph F. DeLeo, who operated from Boston, Massachusetts, became the family's street boss. On December 17, 2009, the FBI charged DeLeo and Colombo family members with drug trafficking, extortion and loansharking in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Florida and Arkansas.[28][29][30][31]

With DeLeo's imprisoned, Andrew "Andy Mush" Russo, once again took control of the family. On January 20, 2011, street boss Andrew Russo, acting underboss Benjamin Castellazzo, consigliere Richard Fusco, and others were charged with murder, narcotics trafficking, and labor racketeering.[32][33][34] In September 2011, Castellazzo and Fusco pleaded guilty to reduced charges.[35] In December 2011, it was revealed that capo Reynold Maragni wore a wire for the FBI and gained information about Thomas Gioeli's role in the 1999 murder of William Cutolo.[36]

Historical leadership[edit]

Boss (official and acting)[edit]

Street boss[edit]

Underboss (official and acting)[edit]

Consigliere (official and acting)[edit]

Factions of the third war[edit]

The Colombo crime family divided into two factions during the third family war (1991 to 1993).

The Persico faction[82]

The Orena faction[84]

Current family members[edit]

Administration[edit]

Caporegimes[edit]

Brooklyn/Staten Island faction

Queens faction

Long Island faction

Other territories

Soldiers[edit]

Associates[edit]

Family crews[edit]

Controlled unions[edit]

Former members and associates[edit]

Associates

Government informants and witnesses[edit]

Members

Associates

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hamilton, Brad (2011-01-30). "The brutal rise and bloody fall of the Colombos". The New York Post. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Critchley, David. The origins of organized crime in America: the New York City mafia, 1891-1931. 2009. Routlege Publishing. (p160-164g.) [1]
  3. ^ Robbins, Michael W. and Palitz, Wendy. Brooklyn: a state of mind. 2001. Workman Publishing. (page 104) [2]
  4. ^ a b Newton, Michael. The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes. (pg.408)
  5. ^ Nash, Jay Robert. The Great Pictorial History of World Crime. (pg.535)
  6. ^ a b c d e f Raab, Selwyn. The Five Families: The Rise, Decline & Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empire. New York: St. Martins Press, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cage, Nicholas. "Part II The Mafia at War". New York Magazine. July 17, 1972 (pg.27-36)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Frankie Abbatemarco is the opening casualty in the Profaci family civil war by David J. Krajicek (September 19, 2010) New York Daily News
  9. ^ a b c d Raab, Selwyn. The Five Families: The Rise, Decline & Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empire. New York: St. Martins Press, 2005. (pg. 321-324)
  10. ^ Organized Crime by Howard Abadinsky (1985) pg.121
  11. ^ a b c Jerry Capeci The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia (pg. 303)
  12. ^ a b c Capeci, Jerry. The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia p. 305
  13. ^ a b The Mob: How Joe Bonanno Schemed to kill – and lost. Life Magazine Vol. 63, No.9 (September 1, 1967) pg. 15-21
  14. ^ The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia by Jerry Capeci (pg. 40)
  15. ^ a b Gage, Nicholas (April 8, 1972). "Grudges with Gallo Date to War with Profaci". New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c d Raab, Selwyn. Five Families pg.197-200
  17. ^ "Tozzi Knew All Three of the Gallo Brothers". LocalNewsOnly.com. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  18. ^ Capeci, Jerry The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia pg. 306
  19. ^ Gage, Nicholas (November 7, 1976). "A 'Family Quarrel', Mafia Style". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "The Colombo/Persico/Orena Family" La Cosa Nostra – State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation 1989 Report
  21. ^ "The Colombo Family: Junior's War" By Anthony Bruno TruTV Crime Library
  22. ^ "FUHGEDDABOUD THE OLD MOB After Gotti, Mafia ordered to clean house" by MICHELE MCPHEE New York Daily News July 7, 2002
  23. ^ Raab, pp. 495-496
  24. ^ Destefano, Anthony. King of the Godfathers 2006. Kensington Publishing Corp. New York City. pg. 203-204
  25. ^ "COLOMBO ORGANIZED CRIME FAMILY ACTING BOSS, UNDERBOSS, AND TEN OTHER MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES INDICTED" Department of Justice Press Release
  26. ^ a b "Nine Are Arrested in Sweeping Organized Crime Crackdown" by The Associated Press (June 5, 3008) The New York Times
  27. ^ "11 Years After Officer’s Slaying, Reputed Mob Figures Are Indicted" by MICHAEL WILSON and WILLIAM K. RASHBAUM New York Times December 18, 2008
  28. ^ a b "Four charged with membership in Mafia-connected crew" Boston.com December 17, 2009
  29. ^ "Colombo Family Street Boss Indicted" Crime Family - Boston.com December 19, 2009
  30. ^ a b c "Colombo crime family boss Ralph DeLeo indicted on racketeering charges" by John Marzulli New York Daily News December 18, 2009
  31. ^ "FBI alleges ‘crime boss’ DeLeo ran crew in Greater Boston" by Shelley Murphy Boston Globe January 17, 2010
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h William K. Rashbaum "Nearly 125 Arrested in Sweeping Mob Roundup" (January 20, 2011) New York Times
  33. ^ a b c d e f The Mafia family tree: FBI flowchart reveals 127 'mobsters' arrested in biggest ever blitz on New York's crime empires (January 20, 2011) The Daily Mail
  34. ^ "Jerry Capeci: Nephew of Top Mobster Aids in Colombo Family Takedown". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 
  35. ^ a b c d Maddux, Mitchel (September 30, 2011). "Co-paying for mob crimes". New York Post. 
  36. ^ a b Mob capo Reynold Maragni turns rat, wears wire for feds to bust Colombos by John Marzulli (December 15, 2011) New York Daily News
  37. ^ a b c d e f DeVico, Peter J. The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra (pg. 174) Tate Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-60247-254-8
  38. ^ a b American Mafia.com New York by Mario Machi
  39. ^ a b c MafiaNJ.com La Cosa Nostra State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation 1989 Report. pg.17
  40. ^ "THE CITY; Persico Trial Put Off On Bribery Charges" (Jan. 6 1981) New York Times
  41. ^ "PERSICO RANK RANKLES AS HE IS GIVEN 5 YEARS" by Joseph P. Fried (November 10, 1981) New York Times
  42. ^ a b Peter Maas Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano's Story of Life in the Mafia. (pg. 191-192)
  43. ^ a b c d "Alphonse Persico, 61, Is Dead; Leader of Colombo Crime Family". September 13, 1989. 'New York Times
  44. ^ "Colombo Figure Given 25 Years On '80 Charges" by Leonard Buder (December 19, 1987) New York Times
  45. ^ Peter Maas Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano's Story of Life in the Mafia. (pg. 155)
  46. ^ Selwyn Raab. Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful (pg.332-333)
  47. ^ "Even to the 5 Families, the Fighting Colombos Have Been Black Sheep" by SELWYN RAAB New York Times December 10, 1991
  48. ^ a b Capeci, Jerry (August 5, 1999). "MOB BOSS RIPS JURY-TAMPERING SENTENCE". New York Daily News. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  49. ^ a b c United States District Judge John F. Keenan Case 1:97-cv-08591-JFK (May 22, 2006)
  50. ^ Marzulli, John (March 1, 2009). "Alphonse Persico life sentence may end control of Colombo crime family". New York Daily News. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  51. ^ a b c Updated Colombo Family Leadership being revealed?
  52. ^ a b c Colombo Organized Crime Family Acting Boss Alphonse T. Persico and Administration Member John J. Deross Sentenced to Life Imprisonment for the Murder of William "Wild Bill" Cutolo and Related Witness Tampering (February 27, 2009)
  53. ^ a b c Colombo crime family 1987 Oct. 15, 2007. Getty Images
  54. ^ Capeci, Jerry (July 31, 1998). "NEWLYWEDS LEAD FEDS TO REPUTED MOB FIGURE". New York Daily News. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  55. ^ a b "Colombo boss Thomas (Tommy Shots) Gioeli charged with '97 slay of cop" by John Marzulli (July 15, 2010) New York Daily News
  56. ^ Kenny Gallo, Matthew Randazzo Breakshot: A Life in the 21st Century American Mafia (pg. 493-494)
  57. ^ John Marzulli "'Godfather star James Caan, furio from 'The Sopranos' go to bat for Colombo crime boss" January 26, 2011. New York Daily News
  58. ^ My life in the Mafia by Vincent Charles Teresa and Thomas C. Renner 1973, (pg. 82)
  59. ^ "Franzese Is Said to Have Killed '30 or 40 or 50' Persons" by Sidney E. Zion (March 04, 1967) New York Times
  60. ^ a b "A Family Business: Hijacking, Bookmaking, Policy, Dice Games Loan-sharking and Special Contracts; A family business" by Fred J. Cook (June 04, 1972) New York Times
  61. ^ Colombo: The New Look in the Mafia; Joseph Colombo: The Head of a New Generation Family of Mafia Members by Nicholas Gage (May 3, 1971) New York Times
  62. ^ "6 Alleged Mafiosi Indicted in Nassau" by Roy R. Silver (January 28, 1970) New York Times
  63. ^ "Alleged Mob Figure Balking at Inquiry" (October 16, 1974) New York Times
  64. ^ "Hijacker of Truck Loses His Freedom Because of Cohorts" (November 6, 1976) New York Times
  65. ^ "ews Summary; International National Metropolitan" (June 5, 1977) New York Times
  66. ^ Michael Franzese I'll Make You an Offer You Can't Refuse (page 75)
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  68. ^ "Reputed Crime Leader Disappears On Day for a Hearing on Sentence" by: Unknown (June 24, 1980)
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  71. ^ "Bond by Honor: A Mafioso's Story" by Bill Bonanno (Page 24)
  72. ^ The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia by Jerry Capeci (view)
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  74. ^ a b Hearings (1969) United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary (pg.126)
  75. ^ Peter J. Devico The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra (pg. 74)
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  77. ^ "The mafia encyclopedia" by Carl Sifakis (pg.355)
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  79. ^ Colombo crime family 1984 Oct. 15, 2007. Getty Images
  80. ^ Mafia Son: The Scarpa Mob Family, the FBI, and a Story of Betrayal by Sandra Harmon (pg. 221)
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  82. ^ a b c d e f Colombo crime family Persico faction Oct. 15, 2007. Getty Images
  83. ^ US of American v. Joseph Monteleone, Sr., Joseph Russo and Anthony Russo 257 F.3d 210 (2nd Cir. 2001)
  84. ^ a b c d Colombo crime family Orena faction Oct.15, 2007. Getty Images
  85. ^ a b Raab, Selwyn. The Five Families: The Rise, Decline & Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empire pg.344-349
  86. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons inmate Carmine Persico
  87. ^ "Alphonse Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  88. ^ Raab, Selwyn Five Families pg.329
  89. ^ Judge limits jail time for former Colombo crime boss so the 78-year-old can rejoin Brooklyn family by John Marzulli (March 22, 2013) New York Daily News
  90. ^ "Andrew Russo". Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  91. ^ "John Franzese". Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  92. ^ 'The Claw' is headed to prison: Federal judge rejects 'poorfella' argument by reputed Colombo underboss Benjamin Castellazzo, sentences him to 63 months by John Marzulli (January 30, 2013) New York Daily News
  93. ^ Colombo underboss gets 63 months in jail by Mitchel Maddux (January 30, 2013) New York Post
  94. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator: Benjamin Castellazzo (Release date 08-16-2015)
  95. ^ a b c d e Lebowitz, Larry (May 19, 1998). "Mafia Figure On Way Back To Jail: Ex-convict Pleads Guilty To Money Laundering". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  96. ^ a b c "Feds bust Colombo big for money laundering" by Mitchel Maddux (January 6, 2012) New York Post
  97. ^ Travel-Weary Colombo Wiseguy Gets Out of Town" by Jerry Capeci (March 22, 2012) Gang Lang News
  98. ^ Judge allows mob lawyers to inspect informant's wristwatch that contained secret recording device by John Marzulli (September 17, 2012) New York Daily News
  99. ^ Colombo consigliere acquitted, associate convicted on money laundering charges by Mitchel Maddux (December 1, 2012) New York Post
  100. ^ Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator: Thomas Ralph Farese (Released)
  101. ^ a b c d 2012 Colombo crime family chart, 2012
  102. ^ One mobster refuses plea deal, leaving four other wiseguys in the lurch, Daily News, 2012
  103. ^ Indictment Unsealed Charging Colombo Family Administration Member Theodore Persico and Seven Others (March 09, 2010)
  104. ^ "Colombo Mobsters Charged with Extortion, Theft of Teamster Benefits" by Carl Horowitz (March 1, 2010) National Legal and Policy Center.com
  105. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator: Joseph Baudanza (Released Feb. 18, 2011)
  106. ^ Born to the Mob: The True-life Story of the Only Man to Work for All Five of New York's Mafia Families. Frankie Saggio and Fred Rosen. Running Press, 2004. pp.87
  107. ^ Late Guilty Plea for Green Eyes by Jerry Capeci (January 11, 2007) New York Sun
  108. ^ SOPRANOS MADE MOB SCENE FBI spotted actors at '99 Colombo fete by Greg Smith (August 26, 2001) New York Daily News
  109. ^ "Theodore Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  110. ^ "Turncoat Turns 'Mob Justice' Into Federal Justice" by Jerry Capeci New York Sun (September 13, 2007)
  111. ^ "Reputed Colombo Crime Family Capo, Michael Uvino, Gets 10 Years in Prison". The Chicago Syndicate (July 12, 2009)
  112. ^ "Michael Uvino". Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  113. ^ United States Court of Appeals "United States of America v. Vincent Aloi" (Decided Jan. 31, 1975)
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  115. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons: Ralph Lombardo
  116. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (July 30, 2004). "Convention Diary: Bing does the decent thing by Democrats". The Independent. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  117. ^ "John DeRoss" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  118. ^ "Mistrial Is Declared in Mob Murder Case" NEW YORK TIMES November 4, 2006
  119. ^ "F.B.I. Resumes Search for Mob Graves" By WILLIAM K. RASHBAUM New York Times March 9, 2009
  120. ^ "Theodore Jr. Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  121. ^ by Bob Ingle, Sandy McClure. (page 263)
  122. ^ "Daniel Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  123. ^ "Vincent Langella" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
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  125. ^ Marzulli, John (December 18, 2009). "Colombo crime family boss Ralph DeLeo indicted on racketeering charges". New York Daily News. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  126. ^ Ralph Francis DeLeo Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  127. ^ United States v. Vincent DeMartino Find Law
  128. ^ "Two Found Guilty In Botched Coney Island Mob Hit" Brooklyn Daily Eagle May 14, 2004
  129. ^ "Echoes of Mob War Reverberate 15 Years Later" New York Sun July 20, 2006
  130. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator Website
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  132. ^ Marzulli, John (November 17, 2010). "Colombo capo Michael Catapano's 'black sheep' bid to cut his sentence is rejected by judge". New York Daily News. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  133. ^ "Michael Catapano". Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  134. ^ Robbins, Tom. "Analyze This A Deadly Mobster's Pleading Letter for His Son". Village Voice. Jan 20, 2004 [4]
  135. ^ "Lawrence Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
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  137. ^ Capeci, Jerry. "Mob Boss Tied To 1999 Murders Of Stock Swindlers In NJ Mansion". New York Huffington Post. November 23, 2009
  138. ^ Selwyn Raab. Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. (pg. 322)
  139. ^ Mobsters, Unions, and feds: the mafia and the American labor movement by James B. Jacobs (page 191)
  140. ^ Gotham Unbound: How New York City was liberated from the grip of organized crime by: James B. Jacobs, Coleen Friel and Robert Radick (page 293)
  141. ^ "Colombo gangster Richard Fusco admits trying to shake down rival Gambinos" (September 30, 2011) John Marzulli. New York Daily News
  142. ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator: Richard Fusco (Release date)
  143. ^ Richie Nerves Fusco Checks Out After Funeral For His Brother-In-Law by Jerry Capeci (September 19, 2013)GanglandNews
  144. ^ "Ex-mobster shows ‘transformation is possible for anyone’" Mafia Today
  145. ^ "Pyrrhic Victory: Judge Grants a Hearing, Cancer Cancels It" by Jerry Capeci The Sun (New York) August 2, 2007
  146. ^ "Umberto’s Clam House Opens For Business, And Bullets, Again" by John William Tuohy and Ed Becker (June 5, 2000) Rick Porrello's AmericanMafia.com
  147. ^ Capeci, Jerry. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Mafia. Alpha, 2001. (view)
  148. ^ Masters of paradise: organized crime and the Internal Revenue Service in the Bahamas by Alan A. Block pg. 90
  149. ^ James, George (October 22, 1993). "Man Tied to Crime Family Is Shot to Death in Queens". New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  150. ^ Marzulli, John (2013-10-15). "Mobster Ralph Scopo Jr. ducks jail with heart failure". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  151. ^ Sicilian Blood, Time, September 3, 1956
  152. ^ "Benedetto Aloi" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
  153. ^ "Ex-mafia kingpin: G-man helped me beat the system" by Jerry Capeci (April 21, 2011) This Week In Gang Land
  154. ^ Capeci, Jerry. The Sun (New York). "Mob Obituaries: Boobie, Redbird, and the Brain" December 14, 2006
  155. ^ "Frank Persico" Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
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  157. ^ a b c d e Capeci, Jerry. Jerry Capeci's Gang Land view
  158. ^ Paddy Whacked: The Untold Story of the Irish American Gangster by T. J. English read
  159. ^ "Nicholas Bianco; Crime Family Figure, 62". New York Times. November 16, 1994. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
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  161. ^ "What’s Left of the Mob" by Jerry Capeci New York Magazine May 21, 2005
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  163. ^ Mob Snitch's Daughters Sue FBI for House by Adam Klasfeld (January 23, 2012) Courthouse News Service
  164. ^ Capeci, Jerry (August 19, 1995). "Mob Plea Deal No Steal". New York Daily News. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
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  166. ^ Marzulli, John (December 19, 2008). "Former Colombo family boss indicted in 1997 murder of NYPD cop Ralph Dols". New York Daily News. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  167. ^ "Prosecutors to seek death penalty against ex-Colombo mob boss Joel Cacace for murder of NYPD cop" by John Marzulli (February 10, 2011) New York Daily News
  168. ^ "Two Found Guilty In Botched Coney Island Mob Hit" by John Doyle (May 14, 2004) Brooklyn Daily Eagle
  169. ^ "Former Colombo family boss indicted in 1997 murder of NYPD cop Ralph Dols" by John Marzulli (December 19, 2008) New York Daily News
  170. ^ "Corpse found at Long Island mob dig may be Wild Bill Cutolo" by John Marzulli and Leo Standora (October 6, 2008) New York Daily News
  171. ^ "127 charged in federal mob crackdown" by Michael LaForgia The Palm Beach Post News (Jan. 20, 2011)
  172. ^ Marzulli, John (2012-11-20). "Mob captain gets fired as government rat". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  173. ^ a b Capeci, Jerry (January 20, 1997). "Mob Canary Hears Birds Singing Picked Wrong Foe For Prison Fight". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  174. ^ Dannen, Fredric (December 16, 1996). "The G-man and the Hit Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  175. ^ "Gregory Scarpa, Sr.". NNDB. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
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  177. ^ Marzulli, John (July 20, 2010). "Colombo mobster Michael (Mickey) Souza, The Don of Screwups, now begging for witness protection". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  178. ^ "Colombo mobster Michael (Mickey) Souza, The Don of Screwups, now begging for witness protection" Mafia Today July 20, 2010
  179. ^ "Could another Colombo Family Persico be targeted by the Fed's". MafiaNewsToday. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  180. ^ "Made Men Who Attended College". Sho Nuff Mob. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  181. ^ Marzulli, John (2010-06-16). "Nod Father's son John Franzese Jr. sought to turn real life into reel life". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  182. ^ "93-Year-Old Crime Boss Gets 12-Year Sentence". CBSnews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-10-05. 
  183. ^ Breakshot: A Life in the 21st Century American Mafia by Kenny Gallo, Matthew Randazzo pg.8
  184. ^ a b c d "Picks and Pans Review: Sins of the Father" by Nick Taylor (October 23, 1989) People.com

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