Colombo

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Colombo
කොළඹ
கொழும்பு
Metropolis
Clockwise from top left: BOC Tower, Colombo Skyline, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), Colombo Skyline (Galle Face), Old Parliament, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), BOC Tower and WTC Twin Tower, Independence Square, WTC Twin Tower
Clockwise from top left: BOC Tower, Colombo Skyline, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), Colombo Skyline (Galle Face), Old Parliament, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), BOC Tower and WTC Twin Tower, Independence Square, WTC Twin Tower
Official seal of Colombo
Seal
Colombo is located in Sri Lanka
Colombo
Colombo
Location in Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 6°56′04″N 79°50′34″E / 6.93444°N 79.84278°E / 6.93444; 79.84278Coordinates: 6°56′04″N 79°50′34″E / 6.93444°N 79.84278°E / 6.93444; 79.84278
CountrySri Lanka
ProvinceWestern Province
DistrictColombo District
Government
 • Municipal CouncilColombo Municipal Council
 • HeadquartersTown Hall
 • MayorMohommad Muzammil (UNP)
Area
 • Metropolis37.31 km2 (14.4 sq mi)
Elevation1 m (3 ft)
Population (2011[1])
 • Metropolis752,993
 • Density17,344/km2 (44,920/sq mi)
 • Metro5.6 Million (2,001 Estimate)
Time zoneSLST (UTC+05:30)
Postal code0xxxx
Area code(s)011
Websitewww.cmc.lk
 
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Colombo
කොළඹ
கொழும்பு
Metropolis
Clockwise from top left: BOC Tower, Colombo Skyline, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), Colombo Skyline (Galle Face), Old Parliament, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), BOC Tower and WTC Twin Tower, Independence Square, WTC Twin Tower
Clockwise from top left: BOC Tower, Colombo Skyline, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), Colombo Skyline (Galle Face), Old Parliament, Colombo Skyline (Gangaramaya Temple), BOC Tower and WTC Twin Tower, Independence Square, WTC Twin Tower
Official seal of Colombo
Seal
Colombo is located in Sri Lanka
Colombo
Colombo
Location in Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 6°56′04″N 79°50′34″E / 6.93444°N 79.84278°E / 6.93444; 79.84278Coordinates: 6°56′04″N 79°50′34″E / 6.93444°N 79.84278°E / 6.93444; 79.84278
CountrySri Lanka
ProvinceWestern Province
DistrictColombo District
Government
 • Municipal CouncilColombo Municipal Council
 • HeadquartersTown Hall
 • MayorMohommad Muzammil (UNP)
Area
 • Metropolis37.31 km2 (14.4 sq mi)
Elevation1 m (3 ft)
Population (2011[1])
 • Metropolis752,993
 • Density17,344/km2 (44,920/sq mi)
 • Metro5.6 Million (2,001 Estimate)
Time zoneSLST (UTC+05:30)
Postal code0xxxx
Area code(s)011
Websitewww.cmc.lk

Colombo (Sinhala: කොළඹ, pronounced [ˈkolombo]; Tamil: கொழும்பு is the largest city and the commercial, industrial, cultural and defacto capital of Sri Lanka. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (which is the official capital of Sri Lanka) suburb or the parliament capital of Sri Lanka. Colombo is also the administrative capital of Western Province, Sri Lanka and the district capital of Colombo District. Colombo is often referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is a satellite city of Colombo. Colombo is a busy and vibrant place with a mixture of modern life and colonial buildings and ruins[2] with a population of about 752,993 in the city limits. It was the political capital of Sri Lanka, before Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.

Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago. It was made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815,[3] and its status as capital was retained when the nation became independent in 1948. In 1978, when administrative functions were moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.

Like many cities, Colombo's urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority, encompassing other municipal and urban councils such as Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Municipal Council, Dehiwala Mount Lavinia Municipal Council, Kolonnawa Urban Council and Kotikawatte Mulleriyawa Pradeshiya Sabha. The main city is home to a majority of Sri Lanka's corporate offices, restaurants and entertainment venues.[4] Famous landmarks in Colombo include the Galle Face Green, the Viharamahadevi Park, Mount Lavinia beach as well as the National Museum.

Etymology[edit]

Coat of arms of Colombo from the Dutch Ceylon era, depicting a mango tree.

The name "Colombo", first introduced by the Portuguese in 1505, is believed to be derived from the classical Sinhalese name කොලොන් තොට Kolon thota, meaning "port on the river Kelani".[5]

Another belief is that the name is derived from the Sinhalese name කොල-අඹ-තොට Kola-amba-thota which means "Harbour with leafy mango trees".[4]

The author of the oldest Sinhalese grammar, Sidatsangarava, written in the 13th century wrote about a category of words that exclusively belonged to early Sinhalese. It lists naramba (to see) and kolamba (ford or habor) as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba may also be the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo.[6][7]

History[edit]

As Colombo possesses a natural harbour, it was known to Indian, Greeks, Persians, Romans, Arabs, and Chinese traders over 2,000 years ago. Traveller Ibn Batuta who visited the island in the 14th century, referred to it as Kalanpu.[8] Muslim Moors whose prime interests were trade began to settle in Colombo around the 8th century AD mostly because the port helped their business and controlled much of the trade between the Sinhalese kingdoms and the outside world. Their descendants now comprise the local Sri Lankan Moor community.[3][9]

Ancient Era[edit]

The first ever mention of Sri Lanka is seen in the great Indian epic Ramayana and also Mahabharat,The fortress was situated on a plateau between three mountain peaks known as the Trikuta Mountains. The ancient City of Lankapura is thought to have been burnt down by Lord Hanuman. After the King Ravana was killed by Lord Rama with the help of the former's brother Vibhishana, Vibhishana was crowned King of Lankapura by Lord Rama after which he ruled the kingdom. The mythological Lankapuri or lanka is identified today as Sri Lanka.Lanka was originally ruled by a Rakshasa named Sumali (as per Ramayana). Later it was taken by Visarvana (Kubera) who was a Yaksha. From him, Rakshasa Ravana, took the rulership of Lanka. Rama killed Ravana and installed his brother Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka. According to both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Yaksha king Vaisravana alias Kubera was the ruler of Lanka. His capital was guarded by Rakshasas. His half-brother Ravana (son of the sage Vishravaya and Sumali's daughter) fought with Kubera in battle and obtained the sovereignty of Lanka from him. Ravana ruled Lanka as the king of Rakshasas. Having slain the king of the Rakshasas, viz Ravana, with his brother Kumbhakarna, and sons and kindred, Rama installed in the kingdom of Lanka the Rakshasa chief, Vibhishana, pious, and reverent, and kind to devoted dependents. The battle in Lanka is depicted in a famous bas-relief in the 12th century Khmer temple of Angkor Wat.

Portuguese Era[edit]

Portuguese explorers led by Dom Lourenço de Almeida first arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505. During their initial visit they made a treaty with the King of Kotte Parakramabahu VIII (1484–1508) enabling them to trade in the islands' crop of cinnamon, which lay along the coastal areas of the island, including in Colombo.[10] As part of the treaty, the Portuguese were given full authority over the coastline in exchange for the promise of guarding the coast against invaders. They were allowed to establish a trading post in Colombo.[10] Within a short time, however, they then expelled the Muslim inhabitants of Colombo and began to build a fort there in 1517.

The Portuguese soon realized that control of Sri Lanka was necessary for protection of their coastal establishments in India and they began to manipulate the rulers of the Kotte kingdom to gain control of the area. After skilfully exploiting rivalries within the royal family, they took control of a large area of the kingdom and the Sinhalese King Mayadunne established a new kingdom at Sitawaka, a domain in the Kotte kingdom.[10] Before long he annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and forced the Portuguese to retreat to Colombo, which was repeatedly besieged by Mayadunne and the later kings of Sitawaka, forcing them to seek reinforcement from their major base in Goa, India. Following the fall of the kingdom in 1593, the Portuguese were able to establish complete control over the coastal area, with Colombo as their capital.[10][11] This part of Colombo is still known as Fort and houses the presidential palace and the majority of Colombo's five star hotels. The area immediately outside Fort is known as Pettah (Sinhala පිට කොටුව piṭa koṭuva, "outer fort") and is a commercial hub.

Dutch Era[edit]

Dutch engraving of Colombo in about 1680

In 1638 the Dutch signed a treaty with King Rajasinha II of Kandy which assured the king assistance in his war against the Portuguese in exchange for a monopoly of the island's major trade goods. The Portuguese resisted the Dutch and the Kandyans but were gradually defeated in their strongholds beginning in 1639.[12] The Dutch captured Colombo in 1656 after an epic siege, at the end of which a mere 93 Portuguese survivors were given safe conduct out of the fort. Although the Dutch (e.g., Rijcklof van Goens) initially restored the captured area back to the Sinhalese kings, they later refused to turn them over and gained control over the island's richest cinnamon lands including Colombo which then served as the capital of the Dutch maritime provinces under the control of the Dutch East India Company until 1796.[12][13]

British era[edit]

Colombo street scene in the early 20th century with a tramcar

Although the British captured Colombo in 1796, it remained a British military outpost until the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to them in 1815 and they made Colombo the capital of their newly created crown colony of British Ceylon. Unlike the Portuguese and Dutch before them, whose primary use of Colombo was as a military fort, the British began constructing houses and other civilian structures around the fort, giving rise to the current City of Colombo.[3]

Initially, they placed the administration of the city under a "Collector", and John Macdowell of the Madras Service was the first to hold the office. Then, in 1833, the Government Agent of the Western Province was charged with the administration of the city. Centuries of colonial rule had meant a decline of indigenous administration of Colombo, and in 1865 the British conceived a Municipal Council as a means of training the local population in self-governance. The Legislative Council of Ceylon constituted the Colombo Municipal Council in 1865 and the Council met for the first time on the January 16, 1866. At the time, the population of the region was around 80,000.[3]

During the time they were in control of the Colombo, the British were responsible for much of the planning of the present city. In some parts of the city tram car tracks and granite flooring laid during the era are still visible today.[13][14]

After independence[edit]

The formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule at Independence Square.

This era of colonialism ended peacefully in 1948 when Ceylon gained independence from Britain.[15] Due to the tremendous impact this caused on the city's inhabitants and on the country as a whole, the changes that resulted at the end of the colonial period were drastic. An entire new culture took root. Changes in laws and customs, clothing styles, religions and proper names were a significant result of the colonial era.[15] These cultural changes were followed by the strengthening of the island's economy. Even today, the influence of the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British is clearly visible in Colombo's architecture, names, clothing, food, language and attitudes. Buildings from all three eras stand as reminders of the turbulent past of Colombo. The city and its people show an interesting mix of European clothing and lifestyles together with local customs.[15]

Historically, Colombo referred to the area around the Fort and Pettah Market which is famous for the variety of products available as well as the Khan Clock Tower, a local landmark. At present, it refers to the city limits of the Colombo Municipal Council.[16] More often, the name is used for the Conurbation known as Greater Colombo, which encompasses several Municipal councils including Kotte, Dehiwela and Colombo.

Although Colombo lost its status as the capital of Sri Lanka in the 1980s, it continues to be the island's commercial centre. Despite the official capital of Sri Lanka moving to the adjacent Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte, most countries still maintain their diplomatic missions in Colombo.[17]

Geography and climate[edit]

The Beira Lake at night

Colombo's geography is a mix of land and water. The city has many canals and, in the heart of the city, the 65-hectare (160-acre) Beira Lake.[18] The lake is one of the most distinctive landmarks of Colombo, and was used for centuries by colonists to defend the city.[18] It remains a popular attraction, hosting regattas,[19] and theatrical events on its shores. The Northern and North-Eastern border of the city of Colombo is formed by the Kelani River, which meets the sea in a part of the city known as the Modera (mōdara in Sinhala) which means river delta.

Colombo features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification, falling just short of a tropical rainforest climate. Colombo's climate is fairly temperate all throughout the year. From March to April the temperature averages around 31 degrees Celsius (88 degrees Fahrenheit) maximum.[20] The only major change in the Colombo weather occurs during the monsoon seasons from May to August and October to January. This is the time of year where heavy rains can be expected. Colombo sees little relative diurnal range of temperature, although this is more marked in the drier winter months, where minimum temperatures average 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit). Rainfall in the city averages around 2,400 millimetres (94 in) a year.[21]

Climate data for Colombo, Sri Lanka
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.2
(95.4)
35.6
(96.1)
36.0
(96.8)
35.2
(95.4)
32.8
(91)
33.5
(92.3)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
33.6
(92.5)
34.0
(93.2)
34.2
(93.6)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F)30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.7
(89.1)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88)
30.4
(86.7)
30.0
(86)
30.0
(86)
30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86)
30.1
(86.2)
30.3
(86.5)
30.64
(87.16)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
27.7
(81.9)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
27.38
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F)22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
23.7
(74.7)
24.6
(76.3)
25.5
(77.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
24.11
(75.4)
Record low °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
18.9
(66)
17.7
(63.9)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
18.6
(65.5)
18.1
(64.6)
16.4
(61.5)
Precipitation mm (inches)58.2
(2.291)
72.7
(2.862)
128.0
(5.039)
245.6
(9.669)
392.4
(15.449)
184.9
(7.28)
121.9
(4.799)
119.5
(4.705)
245.4
(9.661)
365.4
(14.386)
414.4
(16.315)
175.3
(6.902)
2,523.7
(99.358)
Avg. precipitation days559141616121115171510145
 % humidity69697175787978777878767375
Mean monthly sunshine hours248.0248.6275.9234.0201.5195.0201.5201.5189.0201.5210.0217.02,623.5
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[22] Hong Kong Observatory[23]
Source #2: NOAA[24]

Attractions[edit]

Galle Face Green is a ribbon of green space located in the heart of the city along the Indian Ocean coast, and is a popular destination for tourists and residents alike. The Galle Face Hotel is a historic landmark on the southern edge of this promenade.

Gangaramaya Temple is one of the most important temples in Colombo. The temple's architecture demonstrates an eclectic mix of Sri Lankan, Thai, Indian, and Chinese architecture.

The Viharamahadevi Park (formerly Victoria Park) is an urban park located next to the National Museum of Colombo and the Town Hall. It is the oldest and largest park in Colombo and features a large Buddha statue.

Demographics[edit]

The Seema Malakaya of the Gangarama Temple in the Beira Lake in the Slave Island area, is one of many religious structures in Colombo

Colombo is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural city. The population of Colombo is a mix of numerous ethnic groups, mainly Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Moors, and Tamils. There are also small communities of people with Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Malay, and Indian origins living in the city, as well as numerous European expatriates. Colombo is the most populous city in Sri Lanka, with 642,163 people living within the city limits.[25] In 1866 the city had a population of around 80,000.[26] According to the census of 2001 the demographics of urban Colombo by ethnicity is as follows.[25]

NoEthnicityPopulation% Of Total
1Sinhalese265,65741.36
2Sri Lankan Tamils185,67228.91
3Sri Lankan Moors153,29923.87
4Indian Tamils13,9682.17
5Sri Lankan Malays11,1491.73
6Burghers5,2730.82
7Sri Lankan Chetty7400.11
8Bharatha4710.07
9Other5,9340.96
10Total642,163100

Government and politics[edit]

Local government[edit]

Colombo is a charter city, with a Mayor Council form of government. Colombo's mayor and the council members are elected through local government elections held once in five years. For the past 50 years the city had been ruled by the United National Party (UNP), a right leaning party, whose business friendly policies resonate with the population of Colombo. However the UNP nomination list for the 2006 Municipal elections was rejected,[27] and an Independent Group supported by the UNP won the elections.[28] Uvais Mohamed Imitiyas was subsequently appointed Mayor of Colombo.[29]

The city government provides sewer, road management and waste management services, in case of water, electricity and telephone utility services the council liaises with the water supply and drainage board, the Ceylon electricity board and telephone service providers.

Official vision and mission

Vision:

Colombo being a model city in Asia, a caring organization looking after interests of citizens and users with an efficient quality service for creation of safe, healthy and wealthy life.[30]

Mission

Organization achieving excellence in providing citizen centred services to the public / customer, optimizing the use of available resources through a competent, motivated and dedicated team.[30]

National capital[edit]

Colombo was the capital of the coastal areas controlled by the Portuguese, Dutch and the British from the 1700s to the 1815 when the British gained control of the entire island following the Kandian convention. From then until the 1980s the national capital of the island was Colombo. During the 1980s plans were made to move the administrative capital to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte and thus move all governmental institutions out of Colombo to make way for commercial activities. As a primary step the Parliament was moved to a new complex in Kotte and several ministries and departments were also moved. However the move was never completed. Today many governmental institutions still remain in Colombo. These include the President's House, Presidential Secretariat, Prime Minister's House (Temple Trees), Prime Minister's Office, the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka, important government ministries and departments; such as Finance (Treasury), Defence, Public Administration & Home affairs, Foreign affairs, Justice and the Military headquarters, Naval headquarters (SLNS Parakrama), Air Force headquarters (SLAF Colombo) and Police national and field force headquarters.[31][32]

City limits[edit]

Colombo is divided into 15 numbered areas for the purposes of postal services. Within these areas are the suburbs with their corresponding post office.

Map of Colombo showing its administrative districts.
Postal numberZone
Colombo 1Fort
Colombo 2Slave Island, Union Place
Colombo 3Kollupitiya
Colombo 4Bambalapitiya
Colombo 5Havelock Town, Kirilapone
Colombo 6Wellawatte, Pamankada, Narahenpita
Colombo 7Cinnamon Gardens
Colombo 8Borella
Colombo 9Dematagoda
Colombo 10Maradana, Panchikawatte
Colombo 11Pettah
Colombo 12Hultsdorf
Colombo 13Kotahena, Bloemendhal
Colombo 14Grandpass
Colombo 15Mutwal, Modera, Mattakkuliya, Madampitiya

Suburbs[edit]

Economy[edit]

Colombo is the hub of Sri Lanka's economic activity, with many major events taking place around the Galle Face Green

The great majority of Sri Lankan corporations have their head offices in Colombo including Aitken Spence,Ceylinco Corporation, Stassen group of companies, John Keells Holdings, Hemas Holdings and Akbar Brothers. Some of the industries include chemicals, textiles, glass, cement, leather goods, furniture, and jewellery. In the city centre is located The World Trade Centre. The 40 story Twin Tower complex is the centre of important commercial establishments, situated in the Fort district, the city's nerve center. Right outside the Fort area is Pettah which is derived from the Sinhalese word pita which means out or outside as it is outside the Fort.[33]

The Colombo Metropolitan area has a GDP of $35 Billion dollars making it the core of the Sri Lankan economy. The per capita income of Colombo Metro area stood at USD $5358 and purchasing power per capita of $10,000, making it one of the most prosperous regions in South Asia.[34]

The Colombo Metropolitan (CM) area is the most important industrial, commercial and administrative centre in Sri Lanka. A major share of the country’s export oriented manufacturing takes place in the Colombo Metropolitan area which is the engine of growth for Sri Lanka. The Western province contributes more than 50% to the GDP and about 80% of industrial value additions although it accounts for only 5.7% of the country’s geographic area. Given its importance as the primary international gateway for Sri Lanka and as the main economic driver of the country, the Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) has launched an ambitious program to transform Colombo and its metropolitan area into a metropolis of international standards. A number of bottlenecks are preventing the Colombo metropolitan area from realizing its full economic potential. In order to facilitate the transformation of Colombo, the government has to address these bottlenecks which have for long been obstructing economic and physical urban regeneration of the city.[35]

Pettah is more crowded than the fort area. Pettah's roads are always packed and pavements are full of small stalls selling from delicious Sherbat to Shirts. Main Street consists mostly of clothes shops and the cross roads, which are literally known as Cross Streets where each of the five streets specializes in a specific business. For example the First Cross Street is mostly electronic goods shops, the Second, cellular phones and fancy goods. Most of these businesses in Pettah are dominated by Muslim traders. At the end of the main street further away from Fort is the Sea Street, Sri Lanka's Gold market – dominated by Tamil interests. This mile-long street is full of jewellery shops.[33]

At one time Air Lanka (now SriLankan Airlines) had its head office in Colombo.[36]

Law enforcement and crime[edit]

The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is located in Colombo

The Sri Lanka Police the main law enforcement agency of the island liaise with the municipal council, but is under the control of the Ministry of Defence of the central government.[37] Policing in Colombo and its suburbs falls within the Metropolitan Range headed by the Deputy Inspector General of Police (Metropolitan), this also includes the Colombo Crime Division.[38] As with most Sri Lankan cities, the magistrate court handles felony crimes, the district court handles civil cases.

As in other large cities around the world, Colombo experiences certain levels of street crime and bribery. Indeed the corruption extends to the very top, US reports show. In addition, in the period from the 1980s to 2009 there have been a number of major terrorist attacks.[39][40] The LTTE has been linked to most of the bombings and assassinations in the city.[41] Welikada Prison is situated in Colombo and it is one of the largest maximum-security prisons in the country.[42]

Infrastructure[edit]

Colombo has most of the amenities that a modern city has. Compared to other parts of the country, Colombo has the highest degree of infrastructure. Electricity, water and transport to street lamps, phone booths and etc. have a considerably good standard. The majority of the major shopping malls in Sri Lanka are in the city, of which all are wi-fi enabled. Apart from that, many luxurious hotels, clubs and restaurants are in the city. In recent times there's been an outpour of high rise condominiums, mainly due to the very high land prices.[43]

Harbour[edit]

Container handling at Colombo Port.

Colombo Harbour is the largest and one of the busiest ports in Sri Lanka. Colombo was established primarily as a port city during the colonial era, with an artificial harbour that has been expanded over the years. The Sri Lanka Navy maintains a naval base, SLNS Rangalla, within the harbour.

The Port of Colombo handled 3.75 million twenty-foot equivalent units in 2008, 10.6% up on 2007 (which itself was 9.7% up on 2006), bucking the global economic trend. Of those, 817,000 were local shipments with the rest transshipments. Currently with a capacity of 4.1 million TEUs and a dredged depth of over 15 m (49 ft),[2] the Colombo Harbour is one of the busiest ports in the world, and ranks among the top 35 ports.

Transport[edit]

Bus 
City buses in Colombo

Colombo has an extensive public transport system based on buses operated both by private operators and the government owned Sri Lanka Transport Board (SLTB). The three primary bus terminals — Bastian Mawatha, Central, and the Gunasinghapura Bus Terminals — are in Pettah. Bastian Mawatha handles long distance services whereas Gunasinghapura and Central handle local services.

Rail 
Commuter Rail within the city

Train transport in the city is limited since most trains are meant for transport to and from the city rather than within it and are often overcrowded. However, the Central Bus Stand and Fort Railway Station function as the island's primary hub for bus and rail transport respectively. Up until the 1970s the city had tram services, which were discontinued. Other means of transport includes auto rickshaws (commonly called "three wheelers") and taxicabs. Three wheelers are entirely operated by individuals and hardly regulated whilst cab services are run by private companies and are metered.

Advanced stages of feasibility investigations into the Colombo Metro Rail, a Mass Rapid Transit railway system has begun. The project was established to control the excessive traffic. The project is carried out by NEB Rapid Infrastructure Projects Pvt. Ltd., an Indian and Singaporean collaboration.[45][46]

Roads 

Post-war development in the Colombo area also involves the construction of numerous expressway grade arterial road routes. The first of these constructed is the Southern Expressway, which goes from Kottawa, a southern suburb of Colombo, to Matara in the south of the country. Expressways under construction in the Colombo metropolitan area include the Colombo–Katunayake Expressway which was opened in October 2013 and the Colombo orbital bypass Outer Circular Highway (Arthur C. Clarke Expressway) which is due to be opened in 2014.[47][48]

Ferry 

An international ferry liner, the Scotia Prince, is conducting a ferry service to Tuticorin, India. Ferry services between the two countries have been revived after more than 20 years.[49]

Air 

Bandaranaike International Airport and Ratmalana Airport are the city's airports. Bandaranaike Airport serves the city for most international flights, while the Ratmalana Airport primarily serves local flights.

The historical Cargills & Millers building

Landmarks[edit]

The World Trade Centre towers

The two World Trade Centre towers used to be the most recognized landmarks of the city. Before they were completed in 1997, the adjacent Bank of Ceylon tower was the tallest structure and the most prominent city landmark. Before the skyscrapers were built it was the Old Parliament Building that stood majestically in the Fort district with the Old Colombo Lighthouse close to it. Another important landmark is the Independence Hall at Independence Square in Cinnamon Gardens.

Even before the parliament was built some claim that the Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque was recognized as the landmark of Colombo by sailors approaching the port. The mosque is still one of the most visited tourist sites in Colombo.

Another landmark is St.Paul's Church Milagiriya, one of the oldest churches in Sri Lanka, first built by the Portuguese and re-built by the British in 1848.

The Fort district has the famous Cargills & Millers complex that is protected by a special government law from demolition. This is done mainly to preserve the historic beauty of the Fort area.

The Galle Face Green is the city's largest and most elegant promenade. Lined with palm trees and adjacent to the coast, this mile-long stretch in the heart of the city is a constant beehive of activity. The green is especially busy on Fridays and Saturdays. In the evenings it plays host to families and children playing sports and flying kites, lovers embracing under umbrellas and health enthusiasts taking their evening walks. There are numerous small food stalls and a small stretch of beach. The green was recently[when?] given a makeover and since then has been even more popular with the local community. The Green frequently hosts international and local concerts and performances, such as the recently concluded World Drum Festival.

Cannons that were once mounted on the rampart of the old fort of Colombo laid out for observance and prestige at the Green, giving a colonial touch to the city. The famous colonial styled Galle Face Hotel, known as Asia's Emerald on the Green since 1864, is adjacent to Galle Face Green. The hotel has played host to distinguished guests including the British Royal Family and other royal guests and celebrities. After a stayed at the hotel, Princess Alexandra of Denmark commented that "the peacefulness and generosity encountered at the Galle Face Hotel cannot be matched."[50] Also facing Galle Face Green is the Ceylon Inter-Continental Hotel, Sri Lanka's first five-star hotel. Around the corner from Galle Face are prominent coffee bars, chic bars and boutiques.

Education[edit]

Royal College Colombo, the oldest public school in the city.

Education institutions in Colombo have a long history. Colombo has many of the prominent public schools in the country, some of them government-owned and others private. Most of the prominent schools in the city date back to the 1800s when they were established during the British colonial rule,[51] such as the Royal College Colombo established in 1835. Certain urban schools of Sri Lanka have some religious alignment; this is partly due to the influence of British who established Christian missionary schools.[52][53] These include the Anglican, Bishop's College(1875); the Methodist, Wesley College Colombo (1874); the Buddhist, Ananda College (1886); the Muslim, Zahira College (1892); the Catholic, St. Joseph's College (1896). The religious alignments do not affect the curriculum of the school except for the demographics of the student population.[52] Colombo has many International Schools that have come up in the recent years.

Higher education in the city has a long history, beginning with the establishment of the Colombo Medical School (1870), the Colombo Law College (1875), School of Agriculture (1884) and the Government Technical College (1893). The first step in the creation of a University in Colombo was taken in 1913 with the establishment of the University College Colombo which prepared students for the external examinations of the University of London. This was followed by the establishment of the University of Ceylon in Colombo.[54] Today the University of Colombo and the University of the Visual & Performing Arts are state universities in the city. The Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology has a metropolitan campus in the city centre. There are several private higher education institutions in the city.

Architecture[edit]

The Murugan Hindu temple in slave island area

Colombo has wildly varying architecture that span centuries and depict many styles. Colonial buildings influenced by the Portuguese, Dutch and British exist alongside structures built in Buddhist, Hindu, Islamic, Indian and Contemporary architectural styles. No other place is this more evident in the Fort area. Here one may find new towering skyscrapers as well as historic buildings dating far back as the 1700s.[55][56]

Colombo Fort[edit]

The Portuguese were the first colonists to settle in Colombo; establishing a small trading post, they had laid the foundations for a small fort which in time became the largest colonial fort in the island. The Dutch expanded the fort thus creating a well old fortified harbour. This came into the possession of the British in the late 1700s and by the late 19th century the seeing no threat to the Colombo Harbour, began demolishing the ramparts to make way for the development of the city. Although now there is nothing left of the fortifications, the area which was once the fort is still referred to as Fort. The area outside is Pettah or pita-koutuwa in Sinhalese which means outer fort.[55][56]

Dutch-era buildings[edit]

The VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) logo of Dutch East India Company on the gates of Wolvendaal church

There are none of the buildings of the Portuguese era and only a few from the Dutch period. These include the oldest building in the fort area, the former Dutch Hospital, the Dutch House which is now the Colombo Dutch Museum and several churches. The President's House (formerly the Queen's House)was originally the Dutch governor's house, and successive British governors made it their office and residence. However, it has undergone much change since the Dutch period. Adjoining the President's House are the Gordon Gardens, now off limits to the public.[55][56][57]

British-era buildings[edit]

The Sirimathipaya Mansion of Sir Ernest de Silva which is now the Prime Minister's Office is an example of architecture of the British era.

Much of the old buildings of the fort area and in other parts of the city date back to the British times, these include governmental, commercial buildings and private houses. Some of the notable government building of British colonial architecture includes; the old Parliament building which is now the Presidential Secretariat, the Republic Building which houses the Ministry of Foreign affairs, but once housed the Ceylon Legislative council, the General Treasury Building, the old General Post Office an Edwardian style building opposite the President's House, the Prime Minister's Office, the Central Telegraph Office, the Mathematics department of the University of Colombo (formally the Royal College, Colombo).[58] Notable commercial buildings of the British era include the Galle Face Hotel, Cargills & Millers' complex, and Grand Oriental Hotel.[55][56]

Culture[edit]

Annual cultural events and fairs[edit]

Colombo's most beautiful festival is the celebration of Buddha's birth, enlightenment and death all falling on the same day.[59] In Sinhala this is known as Vesak.[59] During this festival, much of the city is decorated with lanterns, lights and special displays of light (known as thoran). The festival falls in mid May and lasts a week. Many Sri Lankans visit the city to see the lantern competitions and decorations. During this week people distribute, rice, drinks and other food items for free in dunsal which means charity place. These dunsal are popular amongst visitors from the suburbs.

Since there is a large number of Muslims in Colombo. Eid Ul Fitr and Eid Ul Adha are two Islamic festivals that are celebrated in Colombo. Many businesses flourish during the eventual countdown for Eid Ul Fitr which is a major Islamic festival celebrated by Muslims after a month long fasting. Colombo is generally very busy during the eve of the festivals as people do their last minute shopping.

Christmas is another major festival. Although Sri Lanka's Christians make up only just over 7% of the population, Christmas is one of the island's biggest festivals. Most streets and commercial buildings light up from the beginning of December and festive sales begin at all shopping centres and department stores. Caroling and nativity plays are frequent sights during the season.

The Sinhala and Hindu Aluth Awurudda' is a cultural event that takes place on 13 and 14 April. This is the celebration of the Sinhala and Hindu new year. The festivities include many events and traditions that display a great deal of Sri Lankan culture.

Several old clubs of the city gives a glimpse of the British equestrian life style, these include the Colombo Club, Orient Club, the 80 Club, the Colombo Cricket Club.

Performing arts[edit]

The Nelum Pokuna Mahinda Rajapaksa Theatre

Colombo has several performing arts centers which are popular for their musical and theatrical performances. The most famous performing arts centers are the Lionel Wendt Theatre, the Elphinstone, and Tower Hall, all of which have a very rich history and made for western style productions. The Navarangahala found in the city is the country's first national theatre designed and build for Asian and local style musical and theatrical productions.

The Nelum Pokuna Mahinda Rajapaksa Theatre is a world-class theatre that opened in December 2011.[60] Designed in the form of the Lotus Pond in Polonnaruwa, the theatre is a major theatre destination.[61][62]

Museums and art collections[edit]

The National Museum of Colombo, established on 1 January 1877 during the tenure of the British Colonial Governor Sir William Henry Gregory, is in the Cinnamon Gardens area.[63] The museum houses the crown jewels and throne of the last king of the kingdom of Kandy, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha.[63]

There is also the Colombo Dutch Museum detailing the Dutch colonial history of the country. Colombo does not boast a very big art gallery. There is a small collection of Sri Lankan masterpieces at the Art Gallery in Green Path; next to it is the Natural History Museum.

Sports[edit]

A match taking place at the R Premadasa Stadium

Undoubtedly the most popular sport in Sri Lanka is cricket. The country emerged as champions of the 1996 Cricket World Cup and became runners up in 2007 and 2011. In the ICC World Twenty20 they became runners up again in 2009 as well as in 2012. The sport is played in parks, playgrounds, beaches and even in the streets. Colombo is the home for two of the country's most popular international cricket stadiums, Sinhalese Sports Club's cricket stadium and R. Premadasa Stadium (named after late president Premadasa).

Colombo has the distinction of being the only city in the world to have four cricket test venues in the past: Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu Stadium, Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, Colombo Cricket Club Ground and Ranasinghe Premadasa Stadium. The Sugathadasa Stadium is an international standard stadium for athletics, swimming and football, also held the South Asian Games in 1991 and 2006. Situated in Colombo the Royal Colombo Golf Club is one of the oldest in Asia. Other sporting clubs in Colombo include Colombo Swimming Club, Colombo Rowing Club and the Yachting Association of Sri Lanka.

Rugby is also a popular sport at the club and school level. Colombo has its own local football team Colombo FC and the sport is being developed as a part of the FIFA Goal program.

The Colombo Port City is to include a new Formula One track, constructed in the vicinity of the Colombo Harbour. According to Dr. Priyath Wickrama, the Chairman of the Sri Lanka Ports Authority, says an eight lane F1 track will “definitely” be a part of the New Port City.This would host The Sri Lankan Grand Prix.

Media[edit]

Almost all major media businesses in Sri Lanka operate from Colombo. The state media has its offices in Bullers Road and does carry out regional transmission from there. This includes the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC), formerly known as Radio Ceylon and the Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation. The SLBC is the oldest radio station in South Asia and the second oldest in the world. Many of the private broadcasting companies have their offices and transmission stations in or around Colombo. As with most metro areas, radio bands are highly utilised for radio communications. Some of the prominent radio stations broadcasting in the Colombo area are Sirasa FM, FM Derana, Hiru FM, Shakthi FM, Vettri FM, Sooriyan FM, Kiss FM, Lite FM, Yes FM, Gold FM, and many more.

Television networks operating in the Colombo metro area include the state-owned television broadcasting networks which are broadcast from the Rupavahini Corporation of Sri Lanka, broadcasting television in the official languages Sinhala and Tamil. English language television is also broadcast, more targeted to the demographics of the English speaking Sri Lankans, expatriate communities and tourists. There are as well several private operators. It is often that many of the privately run television stations networks were based upon operational expansions of pre-existing commercial radio networks and broadcast infrastructure. Terrestrial broadcasting networks in the Colombo area consist of -

Sinhalese 
Tamil 
English 

In addition to terrestrial television broadcasting, services, such as Dialog TV, Multivision and other providers, output satellite and pay-TV services throughout.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

CountryCityState / RegionSince
 RussiaCoat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).png Saint PetersburgFlag of Russia.svg Northwestern Federal District1997
 ChinaNational Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg ShanghaiFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Municipality2003
 United KingdomLeedscitycouncil.png LeedsFlag of England.svg West Yorkshire2008
 MongoliaMn coa ulaanbaatar.png Ulan Bator2012
 MaldivesCoat of Arms of Maldives.svg MaléFlag of Maldives.svg Kaafu Atoll2013

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

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  2. ^ Jayewarden+-e, Mr. "How Colombo Derived its Name". Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
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  4. ^ a b World Executive Colombo Hotels and City Guide
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  6. ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 70
  7. ^ Gair 1998, p. 5
  8. ^ John, Still (1996). Index to the Mahawansa:Together with Chronological Table of Wars and Genealogical Trees. AES. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-206-1203-7. 
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  11. ^ Ross,, Russell R.; Savada, Andrea Matles (1990-08-14). Sri Lanka: A Country Study. Defence Dept., Army. pp. 360p. ISBN 978-0-16-024055-3. 
  12. ^ a b "European Encroachment and Dominance:The Dutch". Sri Lanka: A Country study. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  13. ^ a b Ross,, Russell R.; Savada, Andrea Matles (1990-08-14). Sri Lanka: A Country Study. Defense Dept., Army. pp. 360p. ISBN 978-0-16-024055-3. 
  14. ^ "European Encroachment and Dominance:The British Replace the Dutch". Sri Lanka: A Country study. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  15. ^ a b c Adrian, Wijemanne (03/1/96). War and Peace in Post-Colonial Ceylon 1948–1991. Orient Longman. pp. 111p. ISBN 978-81-250-0364-9. 
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  17. ^ GoAbroad.com, Embassies located in Sri Lanka
  18. ^ a b The lake in the middle of Colombo, Lanka Library
  19. ^ 35th boat race and 31st Regatta: Oarsmen of Royal and S. Thomas' clash on Beira waters, Daily News, October 10, 2003
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  21. ^ Lowest temperature recorded was 15 degrees Celsius.Weatherbase
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  37. ^ Organizational Structure, Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka
  38. ^ The drama behind the arrest of Sepala Eknayake, by Edward Gunawardena Retd. Senior Deputy Inspector General of Police. Island.lk. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
  39. ^ Major Conventional Terrorist Incidents 1980s to 2000[dead link]
  40. ^ Travel Warning, United States Department of State[dead link]
  41. ^ Jane's Sentinel examines the success of the LTTE in resisting the Sri Lankan forces[dead link]
  42. ^ President orders SB`s release, LankaNewspapers.com, February 16, 2006
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  49. ^ Tuticorin-Colombo ferry sets sail – Times Of India. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2011-06-14). Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
  50. ^ Galle Face, Hotel. "Princess Alexandra's Visit". Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  51. ^ Historical Overview of Education in Sri Lanka, The British Period: (1796–1948)[dead link]
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  53. ^ Harsha, Aturupane; Paul Glewwe, Wisniewski Suzanne (February 2005). "Treasures of the Education System in Sri Lanka: Restoring Performance, Expanding Opportunities and Enhancing Prospects" (PDF). World Bank Report (Colombo: World Bank). ISBN 978-955-8908-14-3. Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  54. ^ History of the University of Colombo[dead link]
  55. ^ a b c d Colombo Fort. Kermeey.blogspot.com (2006-02-19). Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
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  58. ^ Our History, University of Colombo[dead link]
  59. ^ a b Venerable Mahinda. "Significance of Vesak". www.buddhanet.net. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  60. ^ Alwis, Harsha. "Nelum Pokuna Performing Arts Theatre Opens Today". DM Graphics Desk. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
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  62. ^ Prins, Stephen. "A National Treasure". Retrieved 2010-05-17. 
  63. ^ a b "History of Colombo National Museum". Retrieved 2007-02-02. 

Further reading[edit]

The following books contain major components on Colombo: