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Colloquialism is a word, phrase or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms are sometimes referenced collectively as "colloquial language". A colloquial name is a word or term used for identification that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing.
Colloquialisms include words, phrases (such as "raining cats and dogs" and "dead as a doornail") and aphorisms (such as "There's more than one way to skin a cat"). Most colloquialisms are to not be taken literally.
Generally, colloquialisms are specific to a geographical region. They are used in everyday conversation and, increasingly, through informal online interactions. An example of the regional specificity of colloquialisms is the term used when referring to soft drinks. In the Upper Midwestern United States and Canada, soft drinks are called "pop", whilst in other areas, notably the Northeastern and far Western United States, they are referred to as "soda". In some areas of Scotland, the term "ginger" is used. In the Southern United States, particularly Georgia, the term "coke" (short for Coca-Cola) is widely applied to cola tasting sodas, including drinks like Coke's rival Pepsi.
Words that have a formal meaning can also have a colloquial meaning. For example, "kid" can mean "young goat" in formal usage and "child" in colloquial usage.
Auxiliary languages are sometimes assumed to lack colloquialisms, but this varies from one language to another. In Interlingua, the same standards of eligibility apply to colloquialisms as to other terms. Thus, any widely used, international colloquialism may be used in Interlingua. Expressions such as en las manos de... ("in the hands of...") and Que pasa? ("What's going on?") are not uncommon.
An example of a colloquialism and how it migrates to other areas is the Indian phrase, "Please do the needful", meaning, "Please do what is implied and/or expected". As the global workplace expands, this once regional phrase is now being used outside the area in which it originated.
"Slang refers to informal (and often transient) lexical items used by a specific social group, for instance teenagers, soldiers, prisoners, or surfers. Slang is not considered the same as colloquial (speech), which is informal, relaxed speech used on occasion by any speaker; this might include contractions such as you’re, as well as colloquialisms. A colloquialism is a lexical item used in informal speech; whilst the broadest sense of the term colloquialism might include slangism, its narrow sense does not. Slangisms are often used in colloquial speech but not all colloquialisms are slangisms. One method of distinguishing between a slangism and a colloquialism is to ask whether most native speakers know the word (and use it); if they do, it is a colloquialism. However, the problem is that this is not a discrete, quantized system but a continuum. Although the majority of slangisms are ephemeral and often supplanted by new ones, some gain non-slang colloquial status (e.g. English silly – cf. German selig ‘blessed’, Middle High German sælde ‘bliss, luck’, and Zelda, a Middle Eastern female first name) and even formal status (e.g. English mob)."
Jargon is terminology that is especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession or group. The term refers to the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest. Much like slang, it is a kind of shorthand used to express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group, though it can also be developed deliberately using chosen terms. Whilst a standard term may be given a more precise or unique usage amongst practitioners of relevant disciplines, it is often reported that jargon is a barrier to communication for those people unfamiliar with the respective field.
The term dialect has two distinct meanings in linguistics. The first usage refers to a variation of a language that is characteristic of a particular group who speak the language. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class. A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a "sociolect" and a regional dialect may be termed a "regiolect" or "topolect". The second usage refers to a language socially subordinate to a regional or national standard language, often historically cognate to the standard but not a variation of it or in any other sense derived from it. A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
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