medicine, colitis ( pl. colitides) refers to an inflammation of the colon and is often used to describe an inflammation of the large intestine (colon, caecum and rectum).
Colitides may be
acute and self-limited or chronic, i.e. persistent, and broadly fits into the category of digestive diseases.
In a medical context, the label
colitis (without qualification) is used if: The aetiology of the inflammation in the colon is undetermined; for example, colitis may be applied to at a time when the Crohn's disease diagnosis is unknown, or The context is clear; for example, an individual with ulcerative colitis is talking about their disease with a physician who knows the diagnosis. Signs and symptoms [edit ]
signs and symptoms of colitides are quite variable and dependent on the etiology (or cause) of the given colitis and factors that modify its course and severity.
Symptoms of colitis may include:
abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fatigue, bloody diarrhea, mucus in the stool, cramping, urgency and [1 ] bloating.
Signs may include: abdominal tenderness, weight loss, changes in bowel habits (increased frequency),
fever, bleeding (overt or occult)/bloody stools, diarrhea, and distension.
Signs seen on colonoscopy include: colonic mucosal
erythema (redness of the inner surface of the colon), ulcers, bleeding. Diagnosis [edit ]
Symptoms suggestive of colitis are worked-up by obtaining the
medical history, a physical examination and laboratory tests ( CBC, electrolytes, stool culture and sensitivity, stool ova and parasites etcetera). Additional tests may include medical imaging (e.g. abdominal computed tomography, abdominal X-rays) and an examination with a camera inserted into the rectum ( sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy). Types [edit ]
There are many types of colitis. They are usually classified by the etiology.
Types of colitis include:
Autoimmune [edit ] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic colitides. Ulcerative colitis - a chronic colitis that affects the large intestine. Crohn's disease - a type of IBD often leads to a colitis. Idiopathic [edit ] Microscopic colitis - a colitis is diagnosed by microscopic examination of colonic tissue; macroscopically it is normal appearing. Iatrogenic [edit ] Vascular disease [edit ] Infectious [edit ]
A well-known subtype of infectious colitis is
Clostridium difficile colitis, which is informally abbreviated as "c diff colitis". It classically forms pseudomembranes and is often referred to as [2 ] , which is its (non-specific) pseudomembranous colitis histomorphologic description.
hemorrhagic colitis may be caused by Shiga toxin in or Shigella dysenteriae Shigatoxigenic group of (STEC), which includes Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli. [3 ] Parasitic infections, like those caused by Entamoeba histolytica, can also cause colitis. Unclassifiable colitides [edit ] Indeterminate colitis is the classification for colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease. [4 ] [5 ] Atypical colitis is a phrase that is occasionally used by physicians for a colitis that does not conform to criteria for accepted types of colitis. It is not an accepted diagnosis and, as such, a colitis that cannot be definitively classified. per se See also [edit ] Notes [edit ] ^ "Inflamatory Bowel Disease - What Can Cause Mucus in the Stool?". About.com . Retrieved 2014-02-06. ^ "Clostridium Difficile Colitis - Overview". WebMD, LLC . Retrieved 2006-09-15. ^ Beutin L (2006). "Emerging enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causes and effects of the rise of a human pathogen". J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53 (7): 299–305. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00968.x. PMID 16930272. ^ Romano, C.; Famiani, A.; Gallizzi, R.; Comito, D.; Ferrau', V.; Rossi, P. (Dec 2008). "Indeterminate colitis: a distinctive clinical pattern of inflammatory bowel disease in children.". Pediatrics 122 (6): e1278–81. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2306. PMID 19047226. ^ Melton, GB.; Kiran, RP.; Fazio, VW.; He, J.; Shen, B.; Goldblum, JR.; Achkar, JP.; Lavery, IC.; Remzi, FH. (Jul 2009). "Do preoperative factors predict subsequent diagnosis of Crohn's disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative or indeterminate colitis?". Colorectal Dis 12 (10): 1026–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02014.x. PMID 19624520. External links [edit ]