Coconut water

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Nuts, coconut water
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy79 kJ (19 kcal)
Carbohydrates3.71 g
- Sugars2.61 g
- Dietary fibre1.1 g
Fat0.2 g
Protein0.72 g
Water94.99 g
Vitamin A equiv.0 μg (0%)
- beta-carotene0 μg (0%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin0 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.03 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.057 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.08 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.043 mg (1%)
Vitamin B60.032 mg (2%)
Folate (vit. B9)3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C2.4 mg (3%)
Vitamin E0 mg (0%)
Vitamin K0 μg (0%)
Calcium24 mg (2%)
Iron0.29 mg (2%)
Magnesium25 mg (7%)
Phosphorus20 mg (3%)
Potassium250 mg (5%)
Zinc0.1 mg (1%)
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
 
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A young coconut, ready to drink, as sold in Pangandaran, Indonesia.
A green coconut vendor in Delhi, India, in summer.
Nuts, coconut water
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy79 kJ (19 kcal)
Carbohydrates3.71 g
- Sugars2.61 g
- Dietary fibre1.1 g
Fat0.2 g
Protein0.72 g
Water94.99 g
Vitamin A equiv.0 μg (0%)
- beta-carotene0 μg (0%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin0 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.03 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.057 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.08 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.043 mg (1%)
Vitamin B60.032 mg (2%)
Folate (vit. B9)3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C2.4 mg (3%)
Vitamin E0 mg (0%)
Vitamin K0 μg (0%)
Calcium24 mg (2%)
Iron0.29 mg (2%)
Magnesium25 mg (7%)
Phosphorus20 mg (3%)
Potassium250 mg (5%)
Zinc0.1 mg (1%)
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Coconut water is the clear liquid inside young green coconuts (fruits of the coconut palm). In early development, it serves as a suspension for the endosperm of the coconut during their nuclear phase of development. As growth continues, the endosperm mature into their cellular phase and deposit into the rind of the coconut meat.[1] Coconut water has long been a popular drink in the tropics, especially in India, Brazilian Coast, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, Africa, and the Caribbean, where it is available fresh, canned, or bottled. Coconuts for drinking are served fresh, chilled or packaged in many places. They are often sold by street vendors who cut them open with machetes or similar implements in front of customers. Coconut water can also be found in ordinary cans, tetra paks, or plastic bottles (sometimes with coconut pulp or coconut jelly included). Bottled coconut water has a shelf life of 24 months.[citation needed]

In recent years, coconut water has been marketed as a natural energy or sports drink due to its high potassium and mineral content. Marketers have also promoted coconut water for having low levels of fat, carbohydrates, and calories. However, marketing claims attributing tremendous health benefits to coconut water are largely unfounded.[2]

Unless the coconut has been damaged, it is likely sterile. There is a single documented case where coconut water has been used as an intravenous hydration fluid when where medical saline was unavailable.[3] Although this is not generally recommended by most physicians today, it was a common practice during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979.[4][5]

Composition[edit]

Coconut water is consumed in many areas where coconut palms grow. In Bahamian cuisine coconut water may be drunk by itself, or blended with condensed milk and gin to make a drink known as "Gully Wash" or "Sky Juice".

Coconut water has a high potassium content and contains antioxidants.[6] It also contains cytokinins[7] which promote plant cell division and growth. Other biologically active ingredients in coconut water include L-arginine, ascorbic acid and magnesium.

Harvesting[edit]

Fresh coconuts are typically harvested from the tree while they are green. A hole may be bored into the coconut to provide access to the liquid and meat. In young coconuts, the liquid and air may be under some pressure and may spray slightly when the inner husk is first penetrated. Coconuts which have fallen to the ground are susceptible to rot and damage from insects or animals.

Derivative products[edit]

Coconut water can be fermented to produce coconut vinegar. It is also used to make nata de coco, a jelly-like food.

Senicide[edit]

In India, coconut water is traditionally used in the senicide of elderly family members known as Thalaikoothal. In this custom, the elderly person is given an extensive oil-bath early in the morning and subsequently made to drink glasses of tender coconut water which results in renal failure, high fever, fits, and death within a day or two.[8] Renal failure is the principle outcome of untreated coconut water-induced hyperkalaemia. [9]

Medical use[edit]

It is said that coconut water is identical to human plasma and can be injected directly into the human bloodstream. The story has its origin from World War II where British and Japanese patients were given coconut water intravenously because saline solution was in short supply.[10] Doctors today say that they wouldn’t be inclined to set up a coconut water IV for dehydrated patients. It could possibly cause elevated calcium and potassium, which could be dangerous.[11] The Documentation Center of Cambodia has cited the practice of allowing untrained nurses to administer coconut water infusions in its list of medical practices for which the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia should be prosecuted for crimes against humanity.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paniappan S (December 12, 2002). "The Mystery Behind Coconut Water". The Hindu. Retrieved January 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Do Coconut Water Benefits Include Lowering Cholesterol?". CLevels. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  3. ^ Campbell-Falck D, Thomas T, Falck TM, Tutuo N, Clem K (2000). "The intravenous use of coconut water". Am J Emerg Med 18 (1): 108–11. doi:10.1016/S0735-6757(00)90062-7. PMID 10674546. 
  4. ^ Barclay, Eliza. "Coconut Water To The Rescue? Parsing The Medical Claims." NPR. NPR, 15 Aug. 2011. Web. 01 Oct. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/08/15/139638930/saved-by-the-coconut-water-parsing-coconut-waters-medical-claims>.
  5. ^ Short, Philip. Pol Pot: Anatomy of a Nightmare. Owl Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-8006-3. 
  6. ^ Conis, Elena. (March 6, 2011). Coconut water: A health drink that's all it's cracked up to be?. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  7. ^ Yong, J. W. H.; Ge, L.; Ng, Y. F.; Tan, S. N. (2009). "The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water". Molecules 14 (12): 5144–5164. doi:10.3390/molecules14125144. PMID 20032881.  edit
  8. ^ http://archive.tehelka.com/story_main47.asp?filename=Ne201110Maariyamma.asp
  9. ^ Rees, Richard; Barnett, Joe; Marks, Daniel; George, Marc (September 2012). British Journal of Hospital Medicine 73 (9): 534. PMID 23124410. 
  10. ^ Weimar, Carrie J. "UF Health CommunicationsUF Health Podcasts." UF Health Podcasts RSS. N.p., 07 Nov. 2011. Web. 01 Oct. 2013. <http://news.health.ufl.edu/2011/17811/multimedia/health-in-a-heartbeat/can-coconut-water-mimic-human-plasma/>.
  11. ^ Barclay, Eliza. "Coconut Water To The Rescue? Parsing The Medical Claims." NPR. NPR, 15 Aug. 2011. Web. 01 Oct. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/08/15/139638930/saved-by-the-coconut-water-parsing-coconut-waters-medical-claims>.
  12. ^ http://www.d.dccam.org/Tribunal/Analysis/pdf/Prosecuting_Khmer_Rouge_Medical_Practices_as_Crimes_against_Humanity.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Coconut water at Wikimedia Commons