Clearwater, Florida

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Clearwater
City
City of Clearwater
Old Pinellas County Courthouse
Old Pinellas County Courthouse
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Clearwater is located in USA
Clearwater
Clearwater
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 27°58′25″N 82°45′51″W / 27.97361°N 82.76417°W / 27.97361; -82.76417Coordinates: 27°58′25″N 82°45′51″W / 27.97361°N 82.76417°W / 27.97361; -82.76417
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPinellas
First incorporation1891
Second incorporationMay 27, 1915[1]
Government
 • MayorGeorge N. Cretekos
Area
 • City39.2 sq mi (101.6 km2)
 • Land25.6 sq mi (66.2 km2)
 • Water13.7 sq mi (35.4 km2)
Elevation30 ft (9 m)
Population (2010)
 • City107,685
 • Density2,700/sq mi (1,100/km2)
 • Metro2,783,243 (shared with Tampa and St. Petersburg)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)727
FIPS code12-12875[2]
GNIS feature ID0280543[3]
Websitewww.clearwater-fl.com
 
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Clearwater
City
City of Clearwater
Old Pinellas County Courthouse
Old Pinellas County Courthouse
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Clearwater is located in USA
Clearwater
Clearwater
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 27°58′25″N 82°45′51″W / 27.97361°N 82.76417°W / 27.97361; -82.76417Coordinates: 27°58′25″N 82°45′51″W / 27.97361°N 82.76417°W / 27.97361; -82.76417
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPinellas
First incorporation1891
Second incorporationMay 27, 1915[1]
Government
 • MayorGeorge N. Cretekos
Area
 • City39.2 sq mi (101.6 km2)
 • Land25.6 sq mi (66.2 km2)
 • Water13.7 sq mi (35.4 km2)
Elevation30 ft (9 m)
Population (2010)
 • City107,685
 • Density2,700/sq mi (1,100/km2)
 • Metro2,783,243 (shared with Tampa and St. Petersburg)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)727
FIPS code12-12875[2]
GNIS feature ID0280543[3]
Websitewww.clearwater-fl.com

Clearwater is a city located in Pinellas County, Florida, United States, nearly due west of Tampa and northwest of St. Petersburg. To the west of Clearwater lies the Gulf of Mexico and to the east lies Tampa Bay. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 107,685.[4] It is the county seat of Pinellas County.[5] Clearwater is the smallest of the three principal cities in the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater metropolitan area, most commonly referred to as the Tampa Bay Area. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Clearwater holds the record for most consecutive days of sunshine in a single year, with 361 days.[6]

The city is an active center for Scientologists. Cleveland Street is one of the city's historic avenues and the city includes Bright House Field and Coachman Park. The city is separated by the Intracoastal Waterway from Clearwater Beach.

History[edit]

Clearwater at daybreak, as seen from Clearwater Beach

Present-day Clearwater was originally the home of the Tocobaga people. Around 1835, the United States Army began construction of Fort Harrison, named after William Henry Harrison, as an outpost during the Seminole Wars. The fort was located on a bluff overlooking Clearwater Harbor, which later became part of an early 20th-century residential development called Harbor Oaks. University of South Florida archaeologists excavated the site in 1962 after Mark Wyllie discovered an under ground ammunition bunker while planting a tree in his yard.

The area's population grew after the Federal Armed Occupation Act of 1842 offered 160 acres (0.65 km2) to anyone who would bear arms and cultivate the land. Early settlers included the Stevens, Stevenson and McMullen families, who claimed and farmed large tracts of land. Prior to 1906, the area was known as Clear Water Harbor. The name "Clear Water" is thought to have come from a fresh water spring flowing from near where the City Hall building is located today. There were many other freshwater springs that dotted the bluff, many in the bay or harbor itself.

View north from Sand Key toward Clearwater Beach

Originally part of Hillsborough County, the first road joining Clearwater and Tampa was built in 1849, which dramatically reduced the prior day-long commute between the cities.

During the American Civil War, Union gunboats repeatedly raided the city's supplies, as most of the able-bodied men were away fighting for the Confederate Army. The town began developing in the late nineteenth century, prompted by Peter Demens' completion of the first passenger railroad line into the city in 1888. Clearwater was incorporated in 1891, with James E. Crane becoming the first mayor.[7] The area's popularity as a vacation destination grew after railroad magnate Henry B. Plant built a sprawling Victorian resort hotel named Belleview Biltmore just south of Clearwater in 1897.

Pinellas County Courthouse in Clearwater

By the early 1900s, Clearwater's population had grown to around 400, ballooning to nearly 1,000 in the winter. Clearwater's oldest existing newspaper, the Clearwater Sun, was first published on March 14, 1914.[8] Clearwater was reincorporated, this time as a city, on May 27, 1915, and was designated the county seat for Pinellas County, which broke from Hillsborough County in 1912. In 1915, a bridge was built across Clearwater Harbor, joining the city with Clearwater Beach to the west. Clearwater Beach, although located on a separate barrier island, belongs to the city of Clearwater and fronts the Gulf of Mexico. A new, much higher bridge now arcs over the bay, replacing the former drawbridge; the connecting road is part of State Road 60 and is called Clearwater Memorial Causeway.

During World War II, Clearwater became a major training base for US troops destined for Europe and the Pacific. Virtually every hotel in the area, including the Belleview Biltmore and the Fort Harrison Hotel, was used as a barracks for new recruits. Vehicle traffic was regularly stopped for companies of soldiers marching through downtown, and nighttime blackouts to confuse potential enemy bombers were common practice. The remote and isolated Dan's Island, now the highrise-dominated Sand Key, was used as a target by U.S. Army Air Corps fighter-bombers for strafing and bombing practice.

Geography and climate[edit]

Clearwater
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.2
 
72
50
 
 
3.1
 
73
52
 
 
3.9
 
77
56
 
 
2
 
81
61
 
 
3
 
87
67
 
 
5.8
 
90
72
 
 
7.1
 
91
74
 
 
8.5
 
92
73
 
 
7.3
 
90
72
 
 
3.4
 
85
65
 
 
2.4
 
79
58
 
 
3
 
74
52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com / NWS

Clearwater is located at 27°58′25″N 82°45′51″W / 27.973644°N 82.764271°W / 27.973644; -82.764271.[9]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.2 square miles (101.6 km2). 25.6 square miles (66.2 km2) of it is land and 13.7 square miles (35.4 km2) of it (34.86%) is water.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900383
19101,171205.7%
19202,427107.3%
19307,607213.4%
194010,13633.2%
195015,58153.7%
196034,653122.4%
197052,07450.3%
198085,17063.6%
199098,66915.8%
2000108,78710.3%
2010107,685−1.0%
Source:1900-2010[11]
Clearwater Demographics
2010 CensusClearwaterPinellas CountyFlorida
Total population107,685916,54218,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010-1.0%-0.5%+17.6%
Population density4,212.8/sq mi3,347.5/sq mi350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)79.8%82.1%75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)71.1%76.9%57.9%
Black or African-American10.9%10.3%16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)14.2%8.0%22.5%
Asian2.1%3.0%2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan0.5%0.3%0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian0.1%0.1%0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)2.4%2.2%2.5%
Some Other Race4.2%2.0%3.6%

As of 2010, there were 59,156 households out of which 19.5% were vacant. As of 2000, 21.7% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.4% were non-families. 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.79.

In 2000, the city's population was spread out with 19.1% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $36,494, and the median income for a family was $46,228. Males had a median income of $31,067 versus $25,066 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,786. About 8.4% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Languages[edit]

As of 2000, speakers of English as their first language were 84.43% of residents, Spanish as a mother tongue was 8.55%, Greek accounted for 1.15%, French made up 1.00% of speakers, German at 0.97%, and Italian speakers comprised 0.85% of the population.[12]

Government[edit]

Clearwater City Hall looking up and east from the foot of the bluff toward the rear of the building

The City of Clearwater is administered by a council-manager form of government, and the city manager serves as the chief executive and administrative officer of the city.[13]

The Clearwater City Council comprises the mayor and four council members, each of whom serves a four-year term. The council is responsible for setting policies and making decisions on local government issues including tax rates, annexations, property code variances and large contract awards.

The city manager and city council are supported by the various city departments.

Annual events[edit]

Clearwater Beach sunset

Transportation[edit]

View east along SR 580 approaching Summerdale Drive at Westfield Countryside mall

Airline service[edit]

Tampa International Airport serves Clearwater and the rest of the Tampa Bay Area as the primary means of air travel. St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport has also seen its usage increase. The city owns Clearwater Air Park.

Public transportation[edit]

The Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) bus service is currently Pinellas County's only general public transit. The service offers approximately 35 local routes, two express routes which cross Tampa Bay to the east, and a beach trolley that runs north and south along the county's roughly 25-mile-long (40 km) chain of barrier islands.[16]

One of PSTA's transfer hubs, Park Street Terminal, is located in downtown Clearwater.

Plans are in the making for a future regional transit system, the Tampa Bay Area Regional Transportation Authority (TBARTA). Presently, the Tampa/Hillsborough County area has a separate transit system, Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HART), which has an express bus route connecting Clearwater with Tampa.

Major roads[edit]

The major street arterial system in Clearwater is essentially an east-west, north-south oriented grid pattern. Gulf to Bay Boulevard (State Road 60) is the east-west backbone of the city, ending at Clearwater Beach on its west end and progressing over the Courtney Campbell Causeway on its east end en route to Tampa. SR 580, Sunset Point Road, Drew Street, Lakeview Road, and Belleair Road are the other heavily traveled east-west arterials in Clearwater. Major north-south routes include U.S. Route 19 Alternate, Myrtle Avenue, Missouri Avenue, Highland Avenue, Keene Road, Hercules Avenue, Belcher Road, and McMullen-Booth Road.

U.S. Route 19 is by far the area's most heavily traveled road, some parts of it carrying nearly 100,000 vehicles per day. It is a limited-access highway for a majority of its length in Clearwater, with an exception being the portion between Druid Road and Haines Bayshore Road. Plans are underway to develop this piece to freeway standards, however.[17]

Economy[edit]

Major employers include Morton Plant Hospital, Tech Data, and Honeywell.[18]

Art and culture[edit]

Clearwater Beach, looking south from Pier 60

In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS Money Watch.[19]

Pier 60 in Clearwater Beach, April 2013

Clearwater Public Art and Design Program[edit]

The Clearwater Public Art and Design Program,[20] adopted by City Council in 2005, is funded through a 1% allocation on all city capital improvement projects valued at more than $500,000 and includes a similar, citywide requirement on all private development projects valued in excess of $5,000,000. Eligible private developers have two options to satisfy the Public Art Ordinance:[21] dedicate 1% of the project's aggregate job value toward the installation of on-site public art; or contribute 0.75% of the project's aggregate job value to the city's Public Art Discretionary Fund, to be used to supplement and initiate public art projects throughout the city. The Public Art and Design Program is overseen by a seven-member board, appointed by City Council and composed of local arts supporters and administrators, design professionals and private citizens, Christopher Hubbard is the Public Art Specialist for the city. The program seeks to "enhance Clearwater for those who visit and live within the city and to contribute to a legacy for generations to come" through the commission of unique, public artworks that enhance the city's diversity, character and heritage.

Sightseeing and fishing boats docked at the Clearwater Marina

Capitol/Royalty Theatre[edit]

The Capitol Theatre opened March 21, 1921. It was built by Senator-elect John Stansel Taylor. The theater's architect was Lester Avery and the contractor was John D. Phillipoff.[22][23] Avery is known for his architecture in Miami. Philipoff also built the Coachman Building (1916), the Donald Roebling Estate in Belleair (added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979),[24] the old Pinellas County Courthouse (added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992),[24] other historical homes which have been saved,[25] and did work at the Belleview Hotel.[26]

Groundbreaking was December 6, 1920.[27] The "New Capitol Theatre" was damaged in a storm on October 26, 1921 (so it had been completed).[28] A Robert Morton Wicks Opus 415 organ was installed in 1922.

Donald Roebling was a frequent patron, having his own double seat installed at the theatre.[29]

The theatre was managed by various movie companies (EJ Sparks, Paramount, ABC-Southeastern Theatres, and Plitt Southern) and played the most recent movies of the day. The theatre also offered vaudeville on Friday nights in the 1930s. Headliners included Sally Rand, Fred Stone and his daughter, and Lum and Abner (of radio).[29] The theatre was renovated in 1962.[30] The Robert Morton Wicks Opus 415 was most likely removed during this renovation. When Plitt Southern did not renew their contract in 1979, Bill Neville and Jerry Strain tried to save the theatre with film classics and reduced prices. However, the theatre closed its doors on October 28, 1980.

Royalty Theater Company signed leases with the Taylor family in February 1981 when it then became known as the Royalty Theater (Clearwater, Florida). The building was renovated with Ron Winter of Winter Associates as the contractor[31] and Scott Musheff as the architect.[32]

During the renovations, Bill Neville's murdered body was found in the balcony.[citation needed]

The theatre remained in the Taylor family estate until it was sold in 1996. In July 2008 the building went into foreclosure.[33]

In January 2009, the City of Clearwater and Ruth Eckerd Hall joined forces to purchase the theater (renamed Capitol Theater) as well as the neighboring Pat Lokey building. They plan to renovate and revitalize the historic Capitol Theater.[34]

Clearwater Public Library System[edit]

In 1911, the city of Clearwater witnessed a vast population increase as well as acquiring telephones, electricity, paved streets, and an ice factory.[35] It is during this time that the Clearwater Library Association opened a subscription library on the second floor of the local People’s Bank.[35] Its popularity and support led to the request of $10,000 from the Carnegie Foundation to build a public library.[35] Support for the building of cultural institutions, the library in particular, had the strong backing of the Clearwater community. A January 8, 1914 editorial in the Clearwater News illustrates the sentiment of the local community towards its new library: "Support the Library...One of the finest assets a town can possibly have is a good library...None will help make for a successful and happy community in the future as a good library. Already started is a collection of books, which could be made to serve as a nucleus for a larger and free public library - one owned by the town...(It is) a matter of civic pride. A public library, free to all the home people, ministering to their special wants and needs, is no longer considered a luxury, it is fast becoming a necessity to all progressive communities, and Clearwater should not be behind her sister towns; it can and should become a leader."[36] This request was approved.[35] The city of Clearwater only had to provide a location and continued maintenance for this facility.[35] In May 1915, a referendum was approved by City Ordinance 154 to provide for the creation and maintenance of a public library.[35] The city of Clearwater’s Mayor and Town Council approved “Clearwater Public Library” and accepted the donation.[35] The building was designed by Tampa architect F.J. Kennard.[35] In its first year, the library had over 1,277 visitors and 2,792 books borrowed.[35] As a vacation town, the library provided free access to materials for all residents and winter visitors.[35]

From the CPL website, "The balance of the Carnegie grant was used for furnishings, screens, and a Remington typewriter. The Women's Club arranged the dedicatory reception, and the Library Board hosted the festivities on September 14, 1916. Miss Margaret Duncan was appointed Librarian at a salary of $50 per month, with a possible increase during the winter season. Temporary residents, as well as taxpayers, had free use of the Library, providing a merchant signed their card application or a two dollar deposit was made. Miss Duncan was Pinellas County Director for the American Library Association in the United War Campaign during World War I. She spent her vacations enrolled in classes in Library Science and attended professional meetings. She resigned in 1918 to become Head of Children's Work at Jacksonville Public Library. Her apprentice, Constance Chase, was the only staff member and depended on volunteer help to continue the Children's Hour. Grace Mease was appointed the new Library Director in 1920. A telephone was installed. 1,246 of 2,427 residents were card members. The Library Board commenced the encouragement and support of the professional development of the library staff. Patrons began a tradition of donations to augment the small book budget. Notices were placed in all the hotels, and winter visitors expanded the ranks of readers. Library administration in 1925 hired additional personnel: two assistants, a part-time employee for the workroom, and a janitor. The Board received petitions for more card files and a heating system. The impact of the Depression on the Clearwater Public Library was similar to the effect on libraries across the nation: less money and more patrons. The budget was cut necessarily and repeatedly. The building, now over 14 years old, needed repairs. When the City Manager turned down the lowest available bid of $40 to fix a damaged ceiling, the Librarian bought the materials and hired laborers to fix it for $13.65. The City Manager reimbursed her. An emergency arose in 1932: faced with a sudden budget cut of $1000, the Board unanimously approved the dismissal of Mease as the most expedient measure. Annie Owen, formerly an assistant, was promoted to Library Director at her same salary".'[37]

During the Depression, the Clearwater Public Library faced many of the same threats seen at other libraries seen throughout the United States.[35] This includes increased patron usage and dwindling budget.[35]

In the 1940s, the Clearwater library increased its staff from just three assistants to five assistants.[35] The library’s collection also grew from 18,047 to over 100,000.[35] To account for this great increase, the Librarian and Board President Traver Bayly made an appeal to the City Commission for additional space.[35] This appeal was approved and the library extended to include a drive-through, museum, and increased collections.[35]

As a result of segregation, the Clearwater Public Library was for white patrons only from its founding in 1911 to the mid-twentieth century.[35] In 1950, the City Commission agreed to the building of the North Greenwood library.[35] Designed by Architect Eugene Beach, the new library access to many information sources to the city’s African Americans population.[35] This library was renovated in 1984.[35] Clearwater Main library was rebuilt in 2000.

As the population continued to increase throughout the late twentieth century, the library system continued to grow.[35] The Clearwater Public Library System now includes five libraries: Clearwater Main, Countryside, North Greenwood, Beach, and East.[35] In recent years, the Clearwater Public Library System has become increasingly digital providing patrons with access to computers, online databases, and an online library catalog.[35] This was made possible by the Greater Clearwater Public Library Foundation, Inc. which formed in 1984.[35]

The current director of the Clearwater Public Library System is Barbara Pickell.[35] This system of libraries is part of the Pinellas Public Library Cooperative which seeks to provide all patrons with access to information and programs to benefit the community.[38]

Downtown[edit]

Clearwater's downtown has been undergoing major redevelopment in recent years. General beautification has been done along with completion of several high-rise condos and a large marina.[39][40] New bars, restaurants and other amenities are coming to the area, renamed the "Cleveland Street District".[41][42] Royalty Theatre is also slated to be renovated.[43][44][45] Another feature is Coachman Park which hosts events throughout the year.[46] The downtown core is approximately 2 miles (3 km) from Clearwater Beach and 6 miles (10 km) from downtown Dunedin. The drive to both places, and many parts of downtown itself, feature views of the water and the Clearwater Memorial Causeway.

Sports[edit]

Bright House Field in Clearwater is the spring training home of Major League Baseball's Philadelphia Phillies, as well as their High-A affiliate, the Clearwater Threshers.

Aquatics[edit]

The City of Clearwater contains five pools: Ross Norton, North Greenwood, Morningside, the Longcenter, and Clearwater Beach.[47] Swim lessons are offered throughout the year to patrons, and the pools have both a recreation summer pool league and the Clearwater Aquatics Team. These pools have participated in the World's Largest Swim Lesson.

Scientology[edit]

Church of Scientology Clearwater headquarters, the Super Power Building

Beginning in the 1970s under the code-name Project Normandy, Scientology began targeting Clearwater in order to "establish area control" of the city and county. The operations were exposed in a Pulitzer Prize winning series of articles in the Clearwater Sun.[48]

Gabe Cazares, who was the mayor of Clearwater at the time, went so far as to call it "the occupation of Clearwater.” [49] and later characterized it as a "paramilitary operation by a terrorist group."[50]

Scientology headquarters are located in downtown Clearwater and there remains ongoing controversy over the church's influence.

Colleges[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Clearwater has city partnerships with the following cities:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Clearwater-fl.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Clearwater city, Florida". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved May 4, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ http://www.hiltonclearwaterbeach.com/map-and-directions.html
  7. ^ Clearwater Roars Into the 1900s- Freedom Magazine Presents The History of Clearwater Part III
  8. ^ Clearwater Sun
  9. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  10. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Clearwater city, Florida". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved May 4, 2012. 
  11. ^ United States Census Bureau
  12. ^ "Data Center Results – Clearwater, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  13. ^ http://www.myclearwater.com/gov/
  14. ^ http://www.flstrawberryfestival.com/index.html
  15. ^ Ironman 70.3 - IRONMAN.com
  16. ^ "PSTA Historical Fact". Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority. Retrieved 2008-11-27. [dead link]
  17. ^ "2007 Annual Average Daily Traffic Report" (PDF). Florida Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  18. ^ Employment in the Clearwater Region
  19. ^ The 10 Best Places to Retire
  20. ^ "de beste bron van informatie over clearwaterartsfoundation. Deze website is te koop!". clearwaterartsfoundation.org. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  21. ^ St. Petersburg Times, (State Edition), January 8, 2007, p. 2
  22. ^ "Ivan Phillipoff, Contractor" (obituary), St. Petersburg Times. March 19, 1985.
  23. ^ New Capitol Theatre Finished and Opened, The Cleawater News, March 24, 1921
  24. ^ a b "National Register of Historical Places - FLORIDA (FL), Pinellas County". Nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  25. ^ "Old Homes May Find Place In History", St. Petersburg Times. June 16, 1975.
  26. ^ Personals. The Evening Independent. December 26, 1923
  27. ^ "Invitation", The Evening Independent. December 7, 1920.
  28. ^ "Clearwater Swept By Fury of Storm", St. Petersburg Times. October 27, 1921.
  29. ^ a b "Old Days: Movie Houses Were King", St. Petersburg Times. April 8, 1981.
  30. ^ "Two More Shops Open Along Cleveland Street", St. Petersburg Times. October 9, 1962.
  31. ^ "Royalty Can Start Renovating New Home Now That Papers Are Signed", St. Petersburg Times. September 30, 1981.
  32. ^ "Royalty Theatre Off To Good Start At Capitol With Oliver", St. Petersburg Times, December 3, 1981.
  33. ^ "Clearwater negotiating to buy old Royalty Theatre building", St. Petersburg Times, October 5, 2008.
  34. ^ "Clearwater negotiating to buy old Royalty Theatre building", St. Petersburg Times. October 5, 2008.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Clearwater Public Library System (2014). History of the Clearwater Public Library System. Retrieved from http://www.myclearwater.com/cpl/about/history/.
  36. ^ "CPL Editorial". Clearwater Public Library. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  37. ^ "Further CPL History - First Librarian". Clearwater Public Library. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  38. ^ Pinellas Public Library Cooperative (2014). About PPLC. Retrieved from http://www.pplc.us/about.shtml
  39. ^ Clearwater develops a downtown identity
  40. ^ Clearwater boosters celebrate progress
  41. ^ Parade
  42. ^ Tony's pizzeria moving west in downtown Clearwater
  43. ^ Group plans apartment tower downtown
  44. ^ downtown clearwater
  45. ^ PDF
  46. ^ Coachman Park event
  47. ^ http://www.myclearwater.com/gov/depts/parksrec/athletics/aquatics.asp
  48. ^ Leiby, Richard (1979-11-03). "Scientologists plot city takeover" (PDF scan, 1.9MB). Clearwater Sun. 
  49. ^ SECRET POWER PROJECT : 3 NORMANDY Ref. GO Order 261175 LRH "POWER" Target 3. 1975-12-05. 
  50. ^ Gabe Cazares video interview for a Clearwater historical society.
  51. ^ Carmichael bio
  52. ^ "Aaron Gillespie biography - Evi". Trueknowledge.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  53. ^ Catalanello, Rebecca. "Knievel, rapper eye mediation". St. Petersburg Times. July 11, 2007.
  54. ^ Farley, Robert. "Manse with celebrity ties hits market." St. Petersburg Times. North Pinellas section, page 1. October 10, 2002. Online. August 9, 2008.
  55. ^ Hooters' founder blames ex-friend; November 10, 2005 article; Tampa Bay Times; retrieved February 01, 2013.

External links[edit]