Citation

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Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution.

Citation has several important purposes: to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding plagiarism),[1] to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used.[2]

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford,[3] Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the trade-offs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus are chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors often specify the citation system to use.

Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfil the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.[4]

Concepts[edit]

Content[edit]

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:

Unique identifiers[edit]

Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.

Systems[edit]

Broadly speaking, there are two types of citation systems (Vancouver Referencing and Parenthetical referencing) according to .[9] However, according to Council of Science Editors (CSE)[10] there are three main styles

Citation-Sequence System or Vancouver Referencing Styles[edit]

Vancouver Referencing Styles are a group of styles that use sequential numbers in the text. The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail. They are either bracketed or superscript.[9] The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.

For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like:

"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."1

The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:

1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.

In a paper with a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like:

1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60.

The bibliography entry, required with a shortened note, would look like this:

Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.

In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.[11]

Name-Year System or Parenthetical referencing[edit]

Parenthetical referencing also known as Harvard referencing where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style.[9]

An example of a parenthetical reference would be:

(Smith 2010, p. 1)

Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author's last name.

This section may be known as:

However, the in-text referencing style in online publications may differ from the conventional parenthetical referencing. A full reference can be hidden and displayed in the form of a tooltip on a reader's request.[12] This style makes citing easier and improves the reader's experience.

Citation-Name System[edit]

Superscripted numbers are inserted at the point of reference as in the citation‐sequence system. However, the citations are numbered according to the alphabetical listing by author’s last name of cited works in the end reference page.

Styles[edit]

Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.[13][14][15] The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.

A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play,

Humanities[edit]

In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional footnotes (explanations or examples) is avoided. In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.

Law[edit]

Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine[edit]

Social sciences[edit]

Boundary marks[edit]

In the case of direct citations, the boundaries of a citation are apparent from the quotation marks. However, the boundaries of indirect citations are usually unknown. To clarify these boundaries, citation marks (˻…˼) can be used. Example:

This is sentence 1. ˻This is sentence 2. This is sentence 3.˼ (Smith et al., 2013)

Here, it becomes apparent from the citation marks that the citation refers to both sentence 2 and 3, but not to sentence 1.

Issues[edit]

In their research on footnotes in scholarly journals in the field of communication, Michael Bugeja and Daniela V. Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life," that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.[26]

Other experts have found that published replications do not have as many citations as original publications.[27]

Another important issue is citation errors, which often occur due to carelessness on either the researcher or journal editor's part in the publication procedure. Experts have found that simple precautions, such as consulting the author of a cited source about proper citations, reduce the likelihood of citation errors and thus increase the quality of research.[28]

Research suggests the number of citations an article receives can be, partly, explained by superficial factors and not only by the scientific merits of an article. For instance in Medicine among other factors the number of authors, the number of references, the article length, and the presence of a colon in the title influence the impact. Whilst in Sociology the number of references, the article length, and title length are among the factors.[29]

Citation patterns are also known to be affected by unethical behavior of both the authors and journal staff. Such behavior is called impact factor boosting, and was reported to involve even the top-tier journals. Specifically the high-ranking journals of medical science, including the Lancet, JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine, are thought to be associated with such behavior, with up to 30% of citations to these journals being generated by commissioned opinion articles [30]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The field of Communication (or Communications) overlaps with some of the disciplines also covered by the MLA and has its own disciplinary style recommendations for documentation format; the style guide recommended for use in student papers in such departments in American colleges and universities is often The Publication Manual of the APA (American Psychological Association); designated for short as "APA style".

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, "What Does it Mean to Cite?" MIT Academic Integrity. http://web.mit.edu/academicintegrity/citing/whatandwhy.html.
  2. ^ Association of Legal Writing Directors Darby Dickerson and Mickey Mouse, ed., ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation, 4th ed.(New York: Aspen, 2010), 3.
  3. ^ "Oxford Referencing System". Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Gibaldi, Joseph. "Work Cited, References, and Bibliography-What's the difference?". OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  5. ^ "Library glossary". Benedictine University. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  6. ^ Long Island University.
  7. ^ Duke University Libraries 2007.
  8. ^ a b Brigham Young University 2008.
  9. ^ a b c Neville, C. (2012). Referencing: Principles, practices and problems. In RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol 2:2. pp. 1-8
  10. ^ Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee (2007). Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers.
  11. ^ "How to Write Research Papers with Citations - MLA, APA, Footnotes, Endnotes". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  12. ^ Live Reference Initiative. Accessed 2012-04-28.
  13. ^ California State University 2007.
  14. ^ Lesley University 2007.
  15. ^ Rochester Institute of Technology 2003.
  16. ^ Elizabeth Shown Mills. Evidence Explained : Citing History Sources from Artifacts to cyberspace. 2d ed. Baltimore:Genealogical Pub. Co., 2009.
  17. ^ The 2nd edition (updated April 2008) of the MHRA Style Guide is downloadable for free from the Modern Humanities Research Association official Website.
  18. ^ Martin 2007.
  19. ^ Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Cite Guide). McGill Law Journal. Updated October 2008. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  20. ^ Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
  21. ^ International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References".
  22. ^ IEEE Style Manual. Accessed 2011-08-08.
  23. ^ Pechenik Citation Style QuickGuide (PDF). University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Canada. Web. November 2007.
  24. ^ Garfield, Eugene (2006). "Citation indexes for science. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas". International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (5): 1123–1127. doi:10.1093/ije/dyl189. PMID 16987841. 
  25. ^ Stephen Yoder, ed. (2008). The APSA Guide to Writing and Publishing and Style Manual for Political Science. Rev. ed. August 2006. APSAnet.org Publications. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  26. ^ Bugeja, Michael and Daniela V. Dimitrova. Vanishing Act: The Erosion of Online Footnotes and Implications for Scholarship in the Digital Age. Duluth, Minnesota: Litwin Books (2010)
  27. ^ Raymond Hubbard and J. Scott Armstrong (1994). "Replications and Extensions in Marketing – Rarely Published But Quite Contrary". International Journal of Research in Marketing 11 (3): 233–248. doi:10.1016/0167-8116(94)90003-5. 
  28. ^ Malcolm Wright and J. Scott Armstrong (2008). "The Ombudsman: Verification of Citations: Fawlty Towers of Knowledge?". Interfaces (INFORMS) 38 (2): 125–139. doi:10.1287/inte.1070.0317. 
  29. ^ van Wesel, M.; Wyatt, S.; ten Haaf, J. (2013). "What a difference a colon makes: how superficial factors influence subsequent citation". Scientometrics. doi:10.1007/s11192-013-1154-x. 
  30. ^ Heneberg, P. (2014). "Parallel Worlds of Citable Documents and Others: Inflated Commissioned Opinion Articles Enhance Scientometric Indicators". Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. doi:10.1002/asi.22997. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Guidelines
Examples
Style guides
Other online resources