Circumflex

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ˆ
Circumflex
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek( ˛ )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
 
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ˆ
Circumflex
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek( ˛ )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ââ
Ĉĉ
Êê
ế
Ĝĝ
Ĥĥ
Îî
Ĵĵ
Ôô
Ŝŝ
Ûû
Ŵŵ
Ŷŷ

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus 'bent around' – a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispōménē). The circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped ( ˆ ), while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde ( ˜ ) or like an inverted breve (   ̑ ).

In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language (for example, rôle).

The diacritic is also used in mathematics, where it is typically called a hat or roof or house.

Uses[edit]

Phonetic marker[edit]

Pitch[edit]

The circumflex has its origins in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it marked long vowels that were pronounced with high and then falling pitch. In a similar vein, the circumflex is today used to mark tone contour in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

The shape of the circumflex was originally a combination of the acute and grave accents (^), as it marked a syllable contracted from two vowels: an acute-accented vowel and a non-accented vowel (all non-accented syllables in Ancient Greek were once marked with a grave accent). Later a variant similar to the tilde (~) was also used.

νόὸςcontraction
νόὺς = νoυ̂ς (νοῦς)
nóòsnóùs = noûs

The term[clarification needed] is also used to describe similar tonal accents that result from combining two vowels in related languages such as Sanskrit and Latin.

Since Modern Greek has a stress accent instead of a pitch accent, the circumflex has been replaced with an acute accent in the modern monotonic orthography.

Length[edit]

The circumflex accent marks a long vowel in the orthography or transliteration of several languages.

Stress[edit]

The circumflex accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in some languages:

Vowel quality[edit]

Other articulatory features[edit]

Abbreviation, contraction, and disambiguation[edit]

Note that in current French, the English spellings, at least in terms of the syllable with the circumflex, could be pronounced the same as the French spellings, owing to the transformative effect of s on the preceding vowel – for example forêt [fɔʁɛ] 'forest', as per est [ɛ] 'is' (third person singular of être). Conversely, in the homograph est [ɛst] 'east', the [s] sound is pronounced.
Some homophones (or near-homophones in some varieties of French) are distinguished by the circumflex, for instance cote [kɔt] 'level, mark' and côte [kot] 'rib, coast'. (See also Use of the circumflex in French.)
In handwritten French, for example in taking notes, an m with a circumflex (m̂) is an informal abbreviation for même 'same'.

Mathematics[edit]

In mathematics, the circumflex is used to modify variable names; it is usually read "hat", e.g., î is "i hat". The Fourier transform of a function ƒ is often denoted by {\hat  f}.

In the notation of sets, a hat above an element signifies that the element was removed from the set.

In vector notation, a hat above a letter indicates a unit vector (a dimensionless vector with a magnitude of 1). For instance, {\hat  {{\mathbf  {\imath }}}}, {\hat  {{\mathbf  {x}}}}, or {\hat  {{\mathbf  {e}}}}_{1} stands for a unit vector in the direction of the x-axis of a Cartesian coordinate system.

In statistics, the hat is used to denote an estimator or an estimated value, as opposed to its theoretical counterpart. For example, in errors and residuals, the hat in ε̂ indicates an observable estimate (the residuals) of an unobservable quantity called ε (the statistical errors). It is read x-hat or x-roof, where x represents the character under the hat.

Music[edit]

In music theory and musicology, a circumflex above a numeral is used to make reference to a particular scale degree.

In music notation, a chevron-shaped symbol placed above a note indicates marcato, a special form of emphasis or accent. In music for string instruments, a narrow inverted chevron indicates that a note should be performed up-bow.

Circumflex in digital character sets[edit]

The precomposed characters Â/â, Ê/ê, Î/î, Ô/ô, and Û/û (which incorporate the circumflex) are included in the ISO-8859-1 character set, and dozens more are available in Unicode. In addition, Unicode has U+0302 ◌̂ combining circumflex accent, which in principle allows adding the diacritic to any base letter.

For historical reasons, there is a similar but larger character, U+005E ^ circumflex accent, which is also included in ASCII but often referred to as caret instead. It is, however, unsuitable for use as a diacritic on modern computer systems, as it is a spacing character. Another spacing circumflex character in Unicode is the smaller U+02C6 ˆ modifier letter circumflex, mainly used in phonetic notations – or as a sample of the diacritic in isolation.

See also[edit]


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Letters using circumflex accent ( ◌̂ )
ÂâĈĉÊêĜĝĤĥÎ îĴĵÔôŜŝÛûŴŵŶŷẐẑ
Related

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genitivni znak". Pravopis Srpskog Jezika (in Serbian). 
  2. ^ a b www.tdk.gov.tr
  3. ^ Lewis, Geoffrey (1999). The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success. 
  4. ^ Kornfilt, Jaklin (2013). Turkish. 
  5. ^ Paul Morrow (March 16, 2011). "The basics of Filipino pronunciation: Part 2 of 3 • accent marks". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  6. ^ Ricardo M.D. Nolasco. Grammar notes on the national language. 
  7. ^ Joan Schoellner & Beverly D. Heinle, ed. (2007). Tagalog Reading Booklet. Simon & Schister's Pimsleur. p. 5–6. 

External links[edit]