Cincinnati Bengals

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Cincinnati Bengals
Current season
Established 1968
Play in and headquartered in Paul Brown Stadium
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati Bengals logo
Logo
League/conference affiliations

American Football League (1968–1969)

National Football League (1970–present)

Current uniform
AFCN-Uniform-CIN.PNG
Team colors

Black, Orange

         
MascotBengal tiger (Who Dey)
Personnel
Owner(s)Mike Brown
PresidentMike Brown
Head coachMarvin Lewis
Team history
  • Cincinnati Bengals (1968–present)
Championships
League championships (0)

Conference championships (2)

  • AFC: 1981, 1988

Division championships (8)

  • AFC Central: 1970, 1973, 1981, 1988, 1990
  • AFC North: 2005, 2009, 2013
Playoff appearances (12)
  • NFL: 1970, 1973, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1988, 1990, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013
Home fields
 
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This article is about the current Cincinnati Bengals team of the National Football League. For the American Football League team of the same name (1937–41), see Cincinnati Bengals (1937–41).
Cincinnati Bengals
Current season
Established 1968
Play in and headquartered in Paul Brown Stadium
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati Bengals logo
Logo
League/conference affiliations

American Football League (1968–1969)

National Football League (1970–present)

Current uniform
AFCN-Uniform-CIN.PNG
Team colors

Black, Orange

         
MascotBengal tiger (Who Dey)
Personnel
Owner(s)Mike Brown
PresidentMike Brown
Head coachMarvin Lewis
Team history
  • Cincinnati Bengals (1968–present)
Championships
League championships (0)

Conference championships (2)

  • AFC: 1981, 1988

Division championships (8)

  • AFC Central: 1970, 1973, 1981, 1988, 1990
  • AFC North: 2005, 2009, 2013
Playoff appearances (12)
  • NFL: 1970, 1973, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1988, 1990, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013
Home fields

The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional American football franchise based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are currently members of the North Division of the American Football Conference (AFC) of the National Football League (NFL). Their home stadium is Paul Brown Stadium in downtown Cincinnati. Their current head coach is Marvin Lewis. Their primary colors are orange and black. Their chief rivals are the Baltimore Ravens, Cleveland Browns and Pittsburgh Steelers.

The Bengals were founded in 1966 as a member of the American Football League (AFL) by former Cleveland Browns head coach Paul Brown. Brown was the Bengals' head coach from their inception to 1975. After being dismissed as the Browns' head coach by Art Modell (who had purchased majority interest in the team in 1961) in January 1963, Brown had shown interest in establishing another NFL franchise in Ohio and looked at both Cincinnati and Columbus. He ultimately chose the former when a deal between the city, Hamilton County, and Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds (who were seeking a replacement for the obsolete Crosley Field) was struck that resulted in an agreement to build a multipurpose stadium which could host both baseball and football games. Due to the impending merger of the American Football League and the National Football League, which was due to take full effect in the 1970 season, Brown agreed to join the AFL as its tenth and final franchise. The Bengals, like most other former AFL teams, were assigned to the AFC following the merger. Cincinnati was also selected because, like their neighbors the Reds, they could draw from several large neighboring cities (Louisville, Lexington, KY; Columbus, Dayton, Springfield, OH; Indianapolis, IN) that were all no more than 110 miles away from downtown Cincinnati.

The Bengals won AFC championships in 1981 and 1988, but lost Super Bowls XVI and XXIII to the San Francisco 49ers. After Paul Brown's death in 1991, controlling interest in the team was inherited by his son, Mike Brown. In 2011, Brown purchased shares of the team owned by the estate of co-founder Austin Knowlton and is now the majority owner of the Bengals franchise.[1]

The 1990s and the 2000s were a period of great struggle. The Bengals had several head coaches and several of their top draft picks did not pan out. Mike Brown, the team's de facto general manager,[2] was rated as among the worst team owners in American professional sports.[3] Compounding matters were off-field problems of several players, notably receiver Chris Henry, who was suspended several times during his short professional career and was actually released by the Bengals at one point, but was then re-signed for the 2009 season.

Franchise history[edit]

The franchise takes its name from an earlier Cincinnati Bengals team, which played from 1937–1941. It also was a nod to Paul Brown's Massillon, Ohio roots where he coached the high school team known as the Tigers.

In 1967 an ownership group led by Paul Brown was granted a franchise in the American Football League. Brown named the team the Bengals in order "to give it a link with past professional football in Cincinnati." [4] Another Bengals team had existed in the city and played in three previous American Football Leagues[5] from 1937 to 1942. The city's world-renowned zoo was also home to a rare white Bengal Tiger. However, possibly as an insult to Art Modell, or possibly as an homage to his own start as a head coach to the Massillon Tigers, Paul Brown chose the exact shade of orange used by his former team. He added black as the secondary color. Brown chose a very simple logo: the word "BENGALS" in black lettering. One of the potential helmet designs Brown rejected was a striped motif that was similar to the helmets adopted by the team in 1981 and which is still in use to this day; however, that design featured yellow stripes on a turquoise helmet which were more uniform in width.

Brown was not a supporter of the rival American Football League, stating that "I didn't pay ten million dollars to be in the AFL." [6] He only acquiesced to joining the AFL when he was guaranteed that the team would become an NFL franchise after the impending merger of the two leagues.

There was also a complication: Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds were in need of a facility to replace the antiquated, obsolete Crosley Field, which they had used since 1912. Parking nightmares had plagued the city as far back as the 1950s, the little park lacked modern amenities, and New York City, which in 1957 had lost both its National League teams (the Dodgers and the Giants) to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively, was actively courting Reds owner Powel Crosley. However, Crosley was adamant that the Reds remain in Cincinnati and tolerated worsening problems with the Crosley Field location, which were exacerbated by the Millcreek Expressway (I-75) project that ran alongside the park.

Paul Brown Stadium, home of the Bengals.

With assistance from Ohio governor James A. Rhodes, Hamilton County and thie Cincinnati city council agreed to build a single multi-purpose facility on the dilapidated riverfront section of the city. The new facility had to be ready by the opening of the 1970 NFL season and was officially named Riverfront Stadium.

With the completion of the merger in 1970, the Cleveland Browns were moved to the AFL-based American Football Conference and placed in the AFC Central, the same division as the Bengals. An instant rivalry was born, fueled initially by Paul Brown's rivalry with Art Modell. The teams have since met on Monday Night Football twice, the Bengals winning each time.

For their first two seasons, the Bengals played at Nippert Stadium which is the current home of the University of Cincinnati Bearcats.[7] The team held training camp at Wilmington College in Wilmington, Ohio, through the 1996 preseason. The team finished its first season with a 3–11 record.[8] One bright spot was running back Paul Robinson, who rushed for 1,023 yards and was named the AFL Rookie of the Year.

Quarterback Carson Palmer, wide receiver #84 T.J. Houshmandzadeh, and the rest of the Bengals line up to play the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006.

Founder Paul Brown coached the team for its first eight seasons. One of Brown’s college draft strategies was to draft players with above-average intelligence. Punter/wide receiver Pat McInally attended Harvard University and linebacker Reggie Williams attended Dartmouth College and served on Cincinnati city council while on the Bengals’ roster. Because of this policy, many former players were highly articulate and went on to have successful careers in commentary and broadcasting as well as the arts. In addition, Brown had a knack for locating and recognizing pro football talent in unusual places.

In 1970 the Bengals moved to play at Riverfront Stadium, a home they shared with the Cincinnati Reds until the team moved to Paul Brown Stadium in 2000. The team reached the playoffs three times during that decade, but could not win any of those postseason games. In 1975, the team posted an 11–3 record, giving them what is to this day the highest winning percentage (.786) in franchise history. But it only earned them a wild card spot in the playoffs, behind the 12–2 Pittsburgh Steelers, who went on to win the Super Bowl. The Bengals lost to the Oakland Raiders 31–28 in the divisional playoffs.

Andy Dalton takes a snap in a game against the Baltimore Ravens on January 1, 2012.

The Bengals reached the Super Bowl twice during the 1980s, but lost both times to the San Francisco 49ers. Then, after the team appeared in the playoffs in 1990, Paul Brown died. He had already transferred control to his son, Mike Brown, but was reported to still influence the daily operations of the team. The Bengals' fortunes changed for the worse as the team posted 14 consecutive non-winning seasons and were saddled with numerous draft busts. They began to emerge from that dismal period into a new era of increased consistency, however, after the hiring of Marvin Lewis as head coach in 2003. Carson Palmer, the future star quarterback, was drafted in 2003, but did not play a snap that whole season, as Jon Kitna had a comeback year (voted NFL Comeback Player of the Year). Despite Kitna's success, Palmer was promoted to starting quarterback the following season. Under Palmer, the team advanced to the playoffs for the first time since 1990 in the 2005 season, which also was the first time the team had a winning percentage above .500 since 1990.

The Bengals returned to the playoffs again in 2009 in a season that included the franchise's first ever division sweep. This was especially impressive since two of the teams swept by the Bengals (the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Baltimore Ravens) had both made it to the AFC Championship Game the previous season. Marvin Lewis was rewarded for the accomplishment with the NFL Coach of the Year Award.

In the 2010 season, the Bengals posted a 4–12 record. The next season, the Bengals improved to 9–7 and clinched a playoff spot. They lost to the Houston Texans 31–10 in the Wild Card Round.

In the 2012 season, the Bengals clinched a playoff spot once more with a win over the Pittsburgh Steelers, going to the playoffs in back-to-back years for the first time since 1982. However, the Bengals faced the Texans in the first round yet again and took another early exit losing 19–13.

In the 2013 season, for the third straight year, the Bengals clinched a playoff berth and also won the AFC North, finishing with an 11-5 record. But once again, the Bengals were defeated in the wild card round, this time by the San Diego Chargers, 27-10. Most of the blame was put on Andy Dalton, who threw 2 interceptions and fumbled on a forward dive. This makes the Bengals 0-5 in playoff games since Mike Brown took over as owner.

Logos and uniforms[edit]

Cincinnati Bengals uniform: 1968–1980

When the team debuted in 1968, the Bengals' uniforms were modeled after the Cleveland Browns. When Paul Brown was fired by Art Modell, Brown still owned the equipment used by Cleveland. So after the firing, Paul Brown packed up all his equipment, which he then used for his new team in Cincinnati. The Cleveland Browns' team colors were brown, orange and white, then they changed to white, black and orange, and their helmets were solid orange with a white dorsal stripe over the crest.

The Bengals' team colors were orange, black, and white, and their helmets were a similar shade of orange, with the only variations being the word "Bengals" in block letters on either side of the helmet and no stripe on the helmet. The Cincinnati Bengals were unique in the NFL as they did not have uniform numbers on the players sleeves until the 1980 season.

The team did not discard their Cleveland-like uniforms until 1981. During that year, a then-unique uniform design was introduced. Although the team kept black jerseys, white jerseys, and white pants, they were now trimmed with orange and black tiger stripes. The team also introduced the orange helmets with black tiger stripes that are still in use today.

In 1997, the Bengals designed a logo consisting of a leaping tiger, and it was added to the uniform sleeves. Another alternate logo consisted of a Bengal's head facing to the left. However, the orange helmet with black tiger stripes continued to be the team's primary trademark.

In 2004, a new tiger stripe pattern and more accents were added to the uniforms. The black jerseys now featured orange tiger-striped sleeves and white side panels, while the white jerseys began to use black tiger-striped sleeves and orange shoulders. A new logo consisting of an orange "B" covered with black tiger stripes was introduced. The team also started rotating black pants and debuted an alternate orange jersey, with white side panels and black tiger-striped sleeves.

The Bengals have worn their black uniforms at home throughout their history, with some exceptions such as the 1970 season when the Bengals wore white at home for the entire season, and most of the 1971 season. Since 2005, the Bengals wear white for September home games where the heat could become a factor.

Mascots[edit]

The team's official mascot is a bengal tiger named Who Dey.[9] Aside from Who Dey, the team also has the Cincinnati Ben–Gals, the team's cheerleading squad,[10] which is known for having Laura Vikmanis, the oldest cheerleader in league history.[11]

Contributions to NFL culture[edit]

No-Huddle Offense[edit]

A No-Huddle Offense was commonly used by all teams when time in the game was running low. However, Sam Wyche, the head coach of the Bengals in 1988, along with offensive coordinator Bruce Coslet, made the high-paced offense the standard modality for the ball club regardless of time remaining. By quickly setting up for the next play (often within 5–10 seconds after the last play despite being afforded 45 seconds) this hindered the other team's defense from substituting situational players, regrouping for tactics, and, some suggest, increased the defense's rate of fatigue (This is attributed to the belief that the offense dictates when a play starts so they tend to be more mentally relaxed and prepared for the start of a play where the defense must remain on a higher level of alert before the play starts). In response the NFL instituted several rules related to this tactic:

The hurry-up tactic was used by the franchise during the late 1980s while Sam Wyche was the coach. A rival for AFC supremacy during this time was the Buffalo Bills, coached by Marv Levy, who also used a version of the no-huddle offense starting with the 1989 season. The Bengals had beaten the Bills three times in 1988 (pre-season, regular season, and the AFC Championship Game). Marv Levy threatened to fake injuries if the Bengals used the "no-huddle" in the AFC Championship. Coach Wyche was notified that the Commissioner had ordered the "no-huddle" illegal for the game. The official notified Wyche and the Bengals' team just two hours before the game kickoff. Wyche asked to talk directly to the Commissioner and word immediately came back that the "no-huddle" would not be penalized. Coach Levy didn't fake injuries in the game, but installed his version the next year, 1989. The Bengals first used the "no-huddle" in 1984. Most of the high-profile games (the various games for AFC titles and regular season games) between the two led to these changes in NFL rules. Wyche also first used the timeout periods as an opportunity to bring his entire team to the sideline to talk to all eleven players, plus substitutes, at one time. This also allowed trainers time to treat a cut or bruise and equipment managers time to repair an equipment defect.

West Coast offense/Paul Brown's Offense[edit]

The West Coast Offense is the popular name for the high-percentage passing scheme designed by former Bengals assistant Bill Walsh. Walsh formulated what has become popularly known as the West Coast Offense during his tenure as assistant coach for the Cincinnati Bengals from 1968 to 1975, while working under the tutelage of Paul Brown. Bengals quarterback Virgil Carter would be the first player to successfully implement Walsh's system, leading the NFL in pass completion percentage in 1971. Ken Anderson later replaced Carter as Cincinnati's starting QB, and was even more successful. In his 16-year career in the NFL, Anderson made four trips to the Pro Bowl, won four passing titles, was named NFL MVP in 1981, and set the record for completion percentage in a single season in 1982 (70.66%).

The Zone Blitz[edit]

Ironically, the defense created to combat the West Coast Offense also came from Cincinnati. Then-Bengals defensive coordinator Dick LeBeau (who would later become the team's head coach from 2000–2002) created the zone blitz in the 1980s in response to the West Coast Offense.

Season-by-season records[edit]

Players of note[edit]

Current roster[edit]

Cincinnati Bengals roster
Quarterbacks

Running backs

Wide receivers

Tight ends

Offensive linemen

Defensive linemen

Linebackers

Defensive backs

Special teams

Reserve lists


Rookies in italics
Roster updated August 30, 2014
Depth ChartTransactions

53 Active, 4 Inactive

AFC rostersNFC rosters

Retired numbers[edit]

Cincinnati Bengals retired numbers
PlayerPositionSeasons
54Bob Johnson
(Number retired in 1978)[12]
C1970–79

Pro Football Hall of Famers[edit]

Awarded players[edit]

NFL Most Valuable Player
AFL/NFL Rookie of the Year
Coach of the Year

Head coaches[edit]

Current staff[edit]

Cincinnati Bengals staff
Front Office
  • President – Mike Brown
  • Senior Vice President of Player Personnel – Pete Brown
  • Executive Vice President – Katie Blackburn
  • Vice President of Player Personnel – Paul Brown
  • Director of Player Personnel – Duke Tobin
Head Coaches
  • Head Coach – Marvin Lewis
  • Assistant Head Coach/Offensive Line Coach – Paul Alexander
Offensive Coaches
 
Defensive Coaches
  • Defensive Coordinator – Paul Guenther
  • Defensive Line – Jay Hayes
  • Linebackers – Matt Burke
  • Assistant Linebackers/Quality Control – David Lippincott
  • Defensive Backs – Vance Joseph/Mark Carrier
Special Teams Coaches
  • Special Teams Coordinator – Darrin Simmons
  • Special Teams Assistant/Quality Control – Brayden Coombs
Strength and Conditioning
  • Strength and Conditioning – Chip Morton
  • Strength and Conditioning Assistant – Jeff Friday
Coaching Assistants
  • Nick Silciliano

Coaching Staff
Management
More NFL staffs

Radio and television[edit]

The Bengals flagship radio stations are WCKY, "ESPN 1530" and WEBN-FM, with WLW AM 700 joining in following the end of the Reds' season through 2013. It was announced on May 4 by the Bengals, that beginning with the 2011 season that Dan Hoard was hired to replace Brad Johansen[16] as the main play-by-play man. The radio broadcast crew now consists of Hoard and former Bengals offensive lineman Dave Lapham, William Hoyt, who started in 1985.

Most preseason and regular season games, are telecast on WKRC-TV, Local 12, the CBS affiliate. The current TV announcers for preseason games are Brad Johansen play-by play, Anthony Munoz color commentary and Mike Valpredo sideline reporter.[17] With the addition of Dan Hoard to the radio broadcast crew, Brad Johansen replaced Dan Hoard as the new TV play-by-play for preseason games.[18] Games that feature an NFC opponent played at Paul Brown Stadium are televised on WXIX, Fox 19.

Phil Samp was the Bengals original play-by-play announcer from 1968–1990. Ken Broo (1991–1995), Paul Keels (1996) and Pete Arbogast (1997–2000) and Brad Johansen (2001–2010) have also done radio play-by-play for the Bengals.

Radio affiliates[edit]

List of Radio Affiliates

Ohio[edit]

CityCall SignFrequency
AthensWATH-AM970 AM
CelinaWCSM-FM96.7 FM
ChillicotheWBEX-AM1490 AM
CincinnatiWCKY-AM1530 AM
CincinnatiWEBN-FM102.7 FM
CincinnatiWLW-AM700 AM
ColumbusWYTS-AM1230 AM
DaytonWTUE-FM104.7 FM
FostoriaWBVI-FM96.7 FM
HillsboroWSRW-AM1590 AM
LimaWIMA-AM1150 AM
LoganWLGN-AM1510 AM
MariettaWMOA-AM1490 AM
MassillonWTIG-AM990 AM
MiddleportWMPO-AM1390 AM
PortsmouthWIOI-AM1010 AM
Washington Court HouseWCHO-FM105.5 FM
ZanesvilleWHIZ-AM1240 AM

Kentucky[edit]

CityCall SignFrequency
AshlandWCMI-AM1340 AM
LexingtonWLAP-AM630 AM
LouisvilleWKRD-AM790 AM
PaintsvilleWKYH-AM600 AM
SomersetWTLO-AM1480 AM

Indiana[edit]

CityCall SignFrequency
WashingtonWAMW-FM107.9 FM

West Virginia[edit]

CityCall SignFrequency
HuntingtonWRVC-AM930 AM
RavenswoodWMOV1360 AM

Chant[edit]

"Who Dey!" is the name of a chant of support by fans of the Cincinnati Bengals, in use for over 30 years. The entire chant is: "Who dey, who dey, who dey think gonna beat dem Bengals?" The answer screamed in unison, "Nobody!" Sometimes fans will instead shout "Who Dey!" to represent the entire cheer. "Who Dey" is also the name of the team’s mascot, a Bengal tiger.[19]

The Who Dey chant's first known use was by fans of the 1980 Cincinnati Bengals. While the origin of the chant is unsettled, one possible source for the chant is a 1980 commercial for (the now-defunct) Red Frazier Ford of Cincinnati, which used this tagline: “Who’s going to give you a better deal than Red Frazier?...Nobody!” Cincinnati fans who had seen the commercial many times may have just copied it when cheering.[20]

The Who Dey chant is also steeped in local beer lore. Hudy, a leading product of Hudepohl Brewing Company through the late 1980s, bears a phonetic similarity to the "Who Dey" chant. Beer vendors who carried full cases of bottled local beer up and down the steep upper stairs of what was then Riverfront Stadium would call out "Hudy", "Berger" and other local beer names. Raucous fans would often chant back and forth with them as the vendors called out. During the 1980 season the banter with the Hudepohl vendors grew organically into the now famous (Hu-Dey) -Who They?- chant.¤[21]

The chant bears some similarities to the phrase "Who Dat?," which was officially adopted by the New Orleans Saints in 1983 but had been used by Louisiana's high school team fans for some time. The saying “Who Dat?" originated in minstrel shows and vaudeville acts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, then it was taken up by New Orleans Jazz and various Big band folks in the 1920s and 1930s. In the late 1960s, local Louisiana High Schools, St. Augustine High School in New Orleans and Patterson High School are reported to have been using the cheer and Gulf Coast fans of Alcorn State University and Louisiana State University picked up the cheer in the 1970s.[22] Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana claims to have originated the cheer in the late 1960s in their version: "Who dat talkin' 'bout beatin' dem Jags."[23] There is a long-standing debate between the Saints and Bengals fan bases over which one originated the chant from their culture.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Katzowitz, Josh (December 23, 2011). "Mike Brown Now Owns Most of Bengals Franchise". CBS Sports (CBS Interactive). Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  2. ^ "HBO Shows Bengals Behind the Scenes". ESPN. Associated Press. August 20, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  3. ^ "The 16 Worst Owners in Sports: Mike Brown – Cincinnati Bengals". Business Insider. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Cincinnati Bengals Team History". Bengals.com. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  5. ^ AFL II 1937, AFL/APFA 1939, AFL III 1940–1941
  6. ^ "Paul Brown". Conigliofamily.com. Retrieved 2013-12-16. 
  7. ^ "Hot Football Time in Old Cincy Tonight". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. August 3, 1968. p. 2C. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Cincinnati Bengals Team Encyclopedia". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Bengals Mascot "Who Dey"". Bengals.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  10. ^ "Ben-Gals Cheerleaders Home". Bengals.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  11. ^ "Laura Vikmanis, 42, is NFL's oldest cheerleader: Can she keep up with younger girls? | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2011-01-22. Retrieved 2012-07-09. 
  12. ^ http://www.cincyjungle.com/2011/4/25/2132155/best-bengals-draft-pick-4-the-original-bengal-bob-johnson 12
  13. ^ "Anthony Muñoz". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Charlie Joiner". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 8, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Paul Brown". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  16. ^ Posted in: Updates (2011-01-16). "Radio change: Hoard takes over on play-by-play | Bengals Blog". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  17. ^ "On the Air – Cincinnati Bengals". Bengals.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  18. ^ Posted in: Updates (2011-01-16). "Johansen the voice for TV preseason games | Bengals Blog". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  19. ^ "Bengals Mascot "Who Dey"". Cincinnati Bengals. National Football League. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  20. ^ Monkovic, Toni (December 14, 2006). "Who Dey vs. Who Dat". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  21. ^ This is an eye witness account from a Cincinnati Bengals season ticket holder. This family held season tickets for the Bengals from their inaugural season in 1968 through the 2000 season when the Bengals moved to Paul Brown Stadium.
  22. ^ Rick Cleveland, "Who Dat started diz?"[dead link], The Clarion-Ledger (Jackson, Miss.), January 29, 2010.
  23. ^ Morris, George (December 30, 2009). "Where dat from?". 2theadovate.com. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 

External links[edit]