Cilla Black

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Cilla Black
OBE
Birth namePriscilla Maria Veronica White
Born(1943-05-27) 27 May 1943 (age 69)
OriginLiverpool, England
GenresPop, Merseybeat, Soul, Adult contemporary
OccupationsSinger, television presenter, actress
InstrumentsVocal
Years active1963 – present
LabelsParlophone, EMI, Towerbell, Columbia, Virgin
Associated actsRory Storm and the Hurricanes, The Big Three, Cliff Richard, Barry Manilow, The Beatles
Websitecillablack.com
 
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Cilla Black
OBE
Birth namePriscilla Maria Veronica White
Born(1943-05-27) 27 May 1943 (age 69)
OriginLiverpool, England
GenresPop, Merseybeat, Soul, Adult contemporary
OccupationsSinger, television presenter, actress
InstrumentsVocal
Years active1963 – present
LabelsParlophone, EMI, Towerbell, Columbia, Virgin
Associated actsRory Storm and the Hurricanes, The Big Three, Cliff Richard, Barry Manilow, The Beatles
Websitecillablack.com

Cilla Black OBE (born Priscilla Maria Veronica White, 27 May 1943) is an English singer, actress, entertainer and media personality. She began her career as a singer in 1963, and is most famous in the UK for her singles "Anyone Who Had a Heart" (1964) and "You're My World" (1964), both of which reached number one. Black had eleven Top Ten hits on the British charts between 1964 and 1971. In May 2010, new research published by BBC Radio 2 claimed that her version of "Anyone Who Had a Heart" was the UK's biggest selling single by a female artist in the 1960s.[1] "You're My World" was also a modest hit in the United States, peaking at No.26 on the Billboard Hot 100.

After a successful recording career in the 1960s and early 1970s, and a brief time as a comedy actress in the 1970s, Black became a prominent television presenter in the 1980s and 1990s.

In 2013, Black will celebrate 50 years in showbusiness. In April 2012, as a prelude to this anniversary, EMI (the record label which launched her career in 1963) released Completely Cilla: 1963-1973 - a 5CD set containing 139 recordings (all produced by George Martin) and a bonus DVD of rare BBC TV music performances.[2]

Contents

Early life and career

Priscilla White was born in the Scotland Road area of Liverpool, England, during World War II, to a Protestant father and a Catholic mother.[citation needed] Determined to become an entertainer, she got a part-time job as a cloakroom attendant at Liverpool's Cavern Club, best known for its association with The Beatles. Her impromptu performances impressed The Beatles and others. She was encouraged to start singing by Liverpool promoter, Sam Leach, who gave her her first gig at The Cassanova Club, where she appeared as "Swinging Cilla". She became a guest singer with the Merseybeat bands Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, Kingsize Taylor and the Dominoes and, later, with The Big Three. She was also, meantime, a waitress at The Zodiac coffee lounge, where she was to meet her future husband Bobby Willis. She was featured in an article in the first edition of the local music newspaper Mersey Beat; the paper's publisher, Bill Harry, mistakenly referred to her as Cilla Black, rather than White, and she decided she liked the name, and took it as a stage name.[3]

She signed her first contract with long-time friend and neighbour, Terry McCann, but this contract was never honoured, because it was signed when she was under-age, and her father subsequently signed her with Brian Epstein.

Brian Epstein had a portfolio of local artists. At first he showed little interest in Black. She was introduced to Epstein by John Lennon, who persuaded him to audition her. Her first audition was a failure, partly because of nerves, and partly because The Beatles (who supported her) played the songs in their vocal key rather than re-pitching them for Black's voice. In her autobiography What's It All About? she writes:

I'd chosen to do Summertime, but at the very last moment I wished I hadn't. I adored this song, and had sung it when I came to Birkenhead with The Big Three, but I hadn't rehearsed it with The Beatles and it had just occurred to me that they would play it in the wrong key. It was too late for second thoughts, though. With one last wicked wink at me, John set the group off playing. I'd been right to worry. The music was not in my key and any adjustments that the boys were now trying to make were too late to save me. My voice sounded awful. Destroyed — and wanting to die — I struggled on to the end.

But after seeing her another day, at The Blue Angel jazz club, Epstein contracted with Black as his only female client on 6 September 1963. Epstein introduced Black to George Martin who signed her to Parlophone Records and produced her début single, "Love of the Loved" (written by Lennon and McCartney), which was released only three weeks after she contracted with Epstein. Despite an appearance on ABC-TV's popular Thank Your Lucky Stars, the single peaked at a modest No.35 in the UK, a relative failure compared to début releases of Epstein's most successful artists (The Beatles, Gerry & The Pacemakers and Billy J. Kramer & The Dakotas).

Her second single, released at the beginning of 1964, was a cover of the Burt Bacharach-Hal David composition "Anyone Who Had a Heart", which had been written for Dionne Warwick. The single beat Warwick's recording into the UK charts and rose to No.1 in Britain in February 1964 (spending 3 weeks there), selling 800,000 copies in the UK in the process.[4] Her second UK No.1 success, "You're My World", was an English language rendition of the Italian popular song, "Il Mio Mondo". She also enjoyed chart success with the song in Australia, New Zealand, Europe, South Africa and Canada. Both songs sold over one million copies worldwide, and were awarded gold discs.[5]

Black's two No.1 successes were followed by the release of another Lennon–McCartney composition, "It's for You", as her fourth UK single. Paul McCartney played piano at the recording session and the song proved to be another major international success for Black, peaking at No.7 on the UK charts.

Black belonged to a generation of British female singers which included Dusty Springfield, Helen Shapiro, Petula Clark, Sandie Shaw and Lulu. These artists were not singer-songwriters, but interpreters of 1960s contemporary popular music by song writers/producers. Black recorded much material during this time, including songs written by Phil Spector, Randy Newman, Tim Hardin and Burt Bacharach. All were produced by George Martin at Abbey Road Studios.

Black's version of "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" (1965) reached No.2 in the UK charts in the same week that The Righteous Brothers's original version of the same song went to No.1 there (week of 4 February 1965). This was the first of only three occasions in the history of the British Top 40 where the same song, recorded by two different artists, held the top two positions in the chart in the same week. George Martin's and Parlophone's attempts to pull off the same trick that they had succeeded at with "Anyone Who Had a Heart", taking a strong song released by an American artist hitherto unknown to British audiences and giving it to Cilla, did not succeed in the same spectacular fashion in February 1965 as it had twelve months earlier.

Being so closely associated with The Beatles, Black became one of a select group of artists in the 1964-5 period (the others in the same position being Billy J. Kramer & The Dakotas and Peter and Gordon) to record more than one Lennon–McCartney composition. Black continued to record Lennon-McCartney compositions throughout the period (1963-1973) that she was under contract to EMI's Parlophone; Black's recordings of "Yesterday", "For No One" and "Across the Universe" were acclaimed critically and became radio favourites. McCartney said Black's 1972 interpretation of "The Long and Winding Road" represented for him how he always intended the song to be sung.

Black's career in the United States, although begun enthusiastically by Epstein and his PR team, was limited to a few television appearances (The Ed Sullivan Show among them), a 1965 cabaret season at the Plaza Hotel in New York, and success with "You're My World", which made it to No.26 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was to be her only Stateside chart success, and Elvis Presley had a copy on his personal jukebox at his Graceland home. Black herself recognised that to achieve popular status in the USA she would need to devote much time to touring there. But she was plagued by homesickness and a sense of loneliness and returned to the UK just as she was starting to become popular in the US.

During 1966, Black recorded the Bacharach-David song "Alfie", written as the signature song to the 1966 feature film, Alfie. While Cher sang "Alfie" on the closing credits of the movie, Black was the first and only artist to have a hit with the song in the UK (No.9). "Alfie" went on to become a success for both Cher (in 1966) and Dionne Warwick (in 1967) in the States. Black's version of "Alfie" was arranged and conducted by Bacharach himself at the recording session at Abbey Road. Bacharach insisted on several takes, and Black cited the session as one of the most demanding of her recording career. For Bacharach's part, he said "...there weren't too many white singers around, who could convey the emotion that I felt in many of the songs I wrote but that changed with people like Cilla Black..." [6]

By the end of 1966, Black had guested on Peter Cook and Dudley Moore's Not Only... But Also, appeared in a Ray Galton-Alan Simpson revue in London's West End — Way Out In Piccadilly — alongside Frankie Howerd, made notable appearances on The Eamonn Andrews Show, and starred in her own television special (the first of its kind to be filmed in colour), Cilla at the Savoy.

Brian Epstein's attempts to make Black a film actress were less successful. A brief appearance in the "beat" film Ferry 'Cross the Mersey and a leading role alongside David Warner in the 1968 psychedelic comedy Work Is a Four-Letter Word were largely ignored by film critics. In a 1997 interview with Record Collector magazine, Black revealed she was asked to appear in the 1969 film The Italian Job, playing the part of Michael Caine's girlfriend, but negotiations fell through between producers and her management over her fee.

Brian Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose in August 1967, not long after negotiating a contract with the BBC for his only female artist to appear in a television series of her own. Relations between Epstein and Black had somewhat soured during the year prior to his death, due largely to the fact that Epstein was not paying her career enough attention and the fact that Black's singles "A Fool Am I" (UK No.13, 1966) and "What Good Am I?" (UK No.24, 1967) were not big successes. Apparently Black was also unhappy with Epstein's public admission that he had taken LSD. In her autobiography, Black claimed that Epstein had tried to pacify her by negotiating a deal that would see her representing the UK in the 1968 Eurovision Song Contest. However, Black refused on the basis that Sandie Shaw had won the previous year's contest, and that the chances of another British female artist winning were improbable.

After the death of Epstein, Black's boyfriend and songwriter Bobby Willis assumed management duties. After the relatively disappointing performance of "I Only Live to Love You" (UK No.26, 1967), Black hit a new purple patch in her recording career, starting with "Step Inside Love" in 1968 (UK No.8), which McCartney wrote especially for her as the theme for her new weekly BBC-TV variety series. Other successes followed in 1969: "Conversations" (UK No.7), "Surround Yourself With Sorrow" (UK No.3), "If I Thought You'd Ever Change Your Mind" (No.20). Black had a further big hit with "Something Tells Me (Something's Gonna Happen Tonight)" (UK No.3) in 1971.

The Beatles association continued. At a Cannes Film Festival during the 1970s, Black joined George Harrison, Ringo Starr and popular music star Marc Bolan to attend a screening of the John Lennon-Yoko Ono experimental film Erection. She also holidayed with Harrison and Starr on a trip aboard a yacht chartered by Ringo. "Photograph" was written on this trip — originally intended for Black to record — but Starr decided to record it himself. George Harrison also wrote two songs for Black: "The Light that has Lighted The World" and "I'll Still Love You (When Every Song Is Sung)". The latter she recorded during 1974 with her then producer David Mackay, but it was not heard publicly until 2003, when it re-surfaced on a retrospective collection entitled Cilla: The Best of 1963-78.

She shows an increasing reluctance to sing nowadays, though there have been two returns to the recording studio in recent times; during 1993 Black released Through the Years, an album of new material featuring a number of duets with Dusty Springfield, Cliff Richard and Barry Manilow. Ten years later, she released the album Beginnings... Greatest Hits and New Songs.

In his 1969 study of popular music history Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom, the rock music journalist Nik Cohn wrote prophetically:

It’s true — the British don’t like their girl singers to be too good, they think it smacks of emancipation, and Cilla at least seemed safe. Obviously, she was quite a nice girl. Also, she was respectable and reliable, very clean and quite unsexy, and she played daughter or maybe kid sister, steady date or fiancée, but she played nobody's mistress at all. She wasn’t like that. Everyone patronised her like hell, waiting for her to fall, but then she didn’t fall after all, she floated instead and she’s still up there now. She won't ever come down either — she doesn't sing much, she still comes on like a schoolgirl but she's liked like that and she can't go wrong. Genuinely, she's warm and she makes people glow. In her time, she will grow into a pop Gracie Fields, much loved entertainer, and she'll become institutionalised.

Black was the best-selling British female recording artist in the UK during the 1960s. To date, she has released 15 studio albums and 37 singles. During 2006–07, Black's 1971 single "Something Tells Me (Something's Gonna Happen Tonight)" was used as the soundtrack to a new British advertising campaign for Ferrero Rocher chocolates.

During the 2008-09 pantomime season, Black returned to live musical performance in the pantomime "Cinderella", appearing as the Fairy Godmother. Black was part of an all-Scouse cast assembled in this three hour stage spectacular to mark the end of Liverpool's year as European Capital of Culture. The show incorporated a number of Black's successes, which she performed live, including "You're My World", "Something Tells Me (Something's Gonna Happen Tonight)", "Step Inside Love" and "Sing a Rainbow". Black received rave reviews for her singing and overall performance.[7][8][9][10]

On 7 September 2009, a total of 13 original studio albums (the first seven produced by George Martin) recorded by Black between 1963 and 2003 were released for digital download. These albums were all digitally re-mastered and featured an array of musical genres. Also released by EMI at the same time was a double album and DVD set, The Definitive Collection (A Life In Music), featuring rare BBC video footage; a digital download album of specially commissioned re-mixes Cilla All Mixed Up; a remixed single on digital download of "Something Tells Me (Something’s Gonna Happen Tonight)".[11]

For the winter 2010 pantomime season, Black appeared in Cinderella at the Waterside Theatre in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.[12]

Television career

BBC TV

Black was offered her own show on the BBC by Bill Cotton, then Assistant Head of Light Entertainment. The first series of Cilla was broadcast on Tuesday 30 January 1968. On the first show her guest was Tom Jones and the two popular music stars sang a duet together. Paul McCartney (without Lennon) wrote the theme tune - another chart success for Black - entitled "Step Inside Love". This song was later covered by Madeline Bell. The series was very popular, and ran for almost a decade, racking up eight seasons (66 episodes) between January 1968 and April 1976. Although it featured guest appearances by many famous stars of the era (including Cliff Richard, Henry Mancini, Johnny Mathis, Andy Williams, Charles Aznavour, Ringo Starr, Lulu, Matt Monro, Sacha Distel, Donovan, Georgie Fame, Dusty Springfield, Ethel Merman, The Shadows, Phil Everly, Marc Bolan, Jimmy Tarbuck and Ronnie Corbett), most of the episodes (recorded on videotape) were subsequently erased by the BBC.

This success paved the way for a lengthy television career which continued intermittently until 2003. Black began the 1970s by appearing on the BBC's highly rated review of the sixties music scene Pop Go The Sixties, performing "Anyone Who Had a Heart" live on the show broadcast across Europe and BBC1, on 31 December 1969. Black recorded her performance for this show separately, in a different studio without an audience, although she did sing live.[13]

Like so many of her contemporaries, during the 1970s her musical career declined, although she toured often. Increasingly thought of as a television "personality", she found herself experimenting with situation comedy for ITV. Her BBC series, Cilla, continued successfully until 1976, recessing during 1970, 1972 and 1975. The theme songs from the Cilla series were also successful. Step Inside Love opened the series in both the 1968 and 1969 runs and reached number 8 in the UK singles chart on its release. Something Tells Me (Something's Gonna Happen Tonight) was the theme for the 1971 and 1973 shows, reaching number 3 and becoming Black's last top ten success. "Baby, We Can't Go Wrong" was used for the 1974 series and was a minor success, reaching number 36, Black's last UK chart song until 1993. "It's Now" was the final theme from the 1976 series and failed to reach the charts, though it was released as a "B" side.

The UK's Eurovision Song Contest entry selection process was part of the Cilla show in both 1968 and 1973, when her close friend Cliff Richard was the featured artist performing all the songs shortlisted in the A Song For Europe segment. Black was originally asked to sing for the UK in 1968 and was asked again for the 1970 contest, but declined because she was pregnant at the time.

In 2007 Black took part in the BBC Wales programme Coming Home about her Welsh family history, with roots in Wrexham and Holywell.

Comedy actress

On 15 January 1975, Black performed as main entertainer of the first of six half-hour situation comedy plays. The series which was broadcast on ITV was entitled Cilla's Comedy Six[14] and written by Ronnie Taylor. During May 1975, the Writers' Guild of Great Britain named Black as Britain's Top Female Comedy Star. The following year, ATV was commissioned to film six more plays as the initial series had accrued healthy viewing figures and remained constantly among the best scoring three shows of the week. During August 1976, Black reprised her role as a comedy-actress in Cilla's World of Comedy[15] which featured her theme song and new single "Easy In Your Company".

London Weekend Television

By the beginning of the 1980s, Black was performing mainly in cabaret and concert and absent from television since a 1978 Thames Television special. In 1983, she appeared on the BBC's Wogan programme. Her appearance on this peak-time talk show was a major success, and her career in television was resurrected.

She signed a contract with London Weekend Television, becoming the host of two of the most popular and long-running evening entertainment shows of the 1980s and 1990s—Blind Date (1985–2003) and Surprise, Surprise (1984–2001). She also presented the game show The Moment of Truth (1998–2001). All programmes were mainstream ratings winners and consolidated her position as the highest-paid female performer on British television.[16]

Her TV appearances have made her spoken mannerisms ("Lorra lorra laughs", for example) and her habit of referring familiarly to her fellow presenters ("Our Graham") well known.

Recent TV work

Notable television performances since her resignation from LWT have included Parkinson, So Graham Norton, Friday Night with Jonathan Ross, Room 101 and a one off show titled Cilla Live! for Living TV. Black was a judge on the first series of the reality TV series Soapstar Superstar, has featured in an episode of the series Eating with... and has guest presented editions of The Paul O'Grady Show and The Friday Night Project for Channel 4 in 2006 and 2007 respectively.

Black filmed a pilot dating show for Sky One during 2008. The project referred to as Loveland was to be a ten-part "21st century" dating programme for the channel for the next year. Unlike on Blind Date, which Black hosted for 18 years, contestants would not sit in front of a studio audience but would be 'hidden' behind real-time animations as they date each other. Each episode concludes with the contestant picking their preferred animated character before meeting that person in real life. Production costs, however, were too high and it was terminated.[17]

On 10 October 2009, Black appeared as a guest on Piers Morgan's Life Stories.

In October 2009, Black guest anchored Loose Women and between September 2010 and June 2011, Black made guest panellist appearances.

On 28 November 2009, she appeared on the channel Sky 1 to present TV's Greatest Endings.

She also appeared as herself in the first episode of series 4 of ITV comedy-drama Benidorm in 2011.[18]

She has also appeared as the guest host of Never Mind the Buzzcocks on 5 December 2011.

On 7 April 2012, she appeared on Keith Lemon's new Saturday night ITV show Keith Lemon's Lemonaid.

On 7 December 2012 she appeared on 100 years of the Royal Variety Performance

On 1 February 2013 she appeared on Room 101.

Television

Personal life

She attended St. Anthony's School,[19] which was behind St. Anthony's Church in Scotland Road,[20] and Anfield Commercial College.[19]

She was married to her manager Bobby Willis for more than 30 years until his death from lung cancer on 23 October 1999. They had three sons: Robert (now her manager, born in 1970), Ben (born in 1974), and Jack (born in 1980). Her daughter, Ellen (born in 1975), was 13 weeks premature and died two hours after birth.[21]

On 4 August 2004, Black became a grandmother when her eldest son, Robert, and his wife, Fiona, had their first child, Max.[citation needed] Her second grandchild, Alana, was born on 6 February 2007.[citation needed]

Black is a supporter of the British Conservative Party. During 1992 she made prominent calls for the party's re-election.[22] She was very supportive of Margaret Thatcher and said on Radio 1 in 1993 that Margaret Thatcher made Britain great again.

Discography

Record producers

Autobiography

References

  1. ^ "Biggest selling chart stars of the '60s". Telegraph News. 1 June 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/music-news/7791739/Ken-Dodd-outsold-only-by-The-Beatles.html. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  2. ^ "EMI release extensive multiple disc compilation COMPLETELY CILLA: 1963-1973 celebrating Cilla Black's career". CillaBlack.com. 4 February 2012. http://www.cillablack.com/Release-Of-Completely-Cilla-Black-EMI-CD-DVD-Set.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  3. ^ Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. New York: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 264–265. ISBN 0-316-80352-9.
  4. ^ "All Music Guide Cilla Black > Biography". 12 April 2009. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p15856/biography. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  5. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. pp. 172–173. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
  6. ^ "Cilla — What's It All About". Stage & Screen. Lily Savage. 21 December 2003. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/lilysavage_uk/radio.html&date=2009-10-26+01:50:22. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  7. ^ "Panto: Cinderella's Got The Magic". 17 December 2008. http://www.liverpoolconfidential.com/index.asp?Sessionx=IpqiNwEnNwEiIwP6IHqjNwB6IA&realname=Panto_Cinderellas_got_the_magic. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  8. ^ "Cilla & Co In A Scouse Panto Cracker". Liverpool Echo. 16 December 2008. http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/liverpool-news/capital-of-culture/2008/12/16/review-cilla-co-in-a-scouse-panto-cracker-100252-22486585/. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  9. ^ Lee, Veronica (22 December 2008). "Cilla Sparkles In An Evening Of Fabness". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/theatre/drama/3901469/Cinderella-at-the-Liverpool-Empire-Cilla-sparkles-in-an-evening-of-fabness.html. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  10. ^ "We Love Cilla Black". 5 January 2009. http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/liverpool-news/local-news/2009/01/05/we-love-cilla-black-panto-thrills-family-of-fans-100252-22605434/. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
  11. ^ "Cilla Black celebrating her 45th Year (Press Release)". http://www.cillablack.com/CILLA%20BLACK%20-%20PRESS%20RELEASE%20-%202009.doc. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  12. ^ Cilla Black stars in Cinderella at Aylesbury Waterside (From Bucks Free Press)
  13. ^ BFI | Film & TV Database | POP GO THE SIXTIES! (1969)
  14. ^ "IMDb > "Cilla's Comedy Six" (1975)". http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198088. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  15. ^ "IMDb > "Cilla's World of Comedy" (1976)". http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198089. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  16. ^ "Cilla Black to host BBC game show". BBC News. 14 March 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/tv_and_radio/3511054.stm. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
  17. ^ "CILLA BLACK - CILLA BLACK RETURNS TO TV WITH ANIMATED DATING SHOW". contactmusic.com. 6 August 2008. http://www.contactmusic.com/news.nsf/article/cilla%20black%20returns%20to%20tv%20with%20animated%20dating%20show_1076533. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
  18. ^ "Video: Cilla Black in 'Benidorm'". Digital Spy. 24 February 2011. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/tv/news/a305629/video-cilla-black-in-benidorm.html. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  19. ^ a b "What's your name and where d'ya come from?". Local History – Liverpool. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/liverpool/localhistory/journey/stars/cilla_black/profile.shtml. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  20. ^ "St. Anthony's Church - Scotland Road". Scotland Road 2003. Scottie Press. http://www.scottiepress.org/sr2003/sr2003.htm. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  21. ^ "Cilla Black's tears over the death of premature baby girl 'Ellen' 34 years ago". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. 8 October 2009. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1218976/Cilla-Blacks-tears-death-premature-baby-34-years-ago.html. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  22. ^ Smith, Giles (12 October 1993), "The only bird in a beat boy's world", The Independent (London), http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/pop-the-only-bird-in-a-beat-boys-world-cilla-black-once-hailed-by-brian-epstein-as-the-edith-piaf-of-the-future-is-back-in-the-charts-giles-smith-considers-a-serious-attempt-at-hip-replacement-1510238.html.

External links