Chromium(III) picolinate

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Chromium(III) picolinate
Chromium(III) picolinate
Identifiers
CAS number14639-25-9 YesY
PubChem151932
ChemSpider133913 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:50369 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCr(C6H4NO2)3
Molar mass418.33 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
 
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Chromium(III) picolinate
Chromium(III) picolinate
Identifiers
CAS number14639-25-9 YesY
PubChem151932
ChemSpider133913 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:50369 YesY
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCr(C6H4NO2)3
Molar mass418.33 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
Watch glass holds two grams of pure chromium (III) picolinate powder. It is a reddish crystalline powder, 12.5% Cr(III) by weight, very sparingly soluble in water.

Chromium(III) picolinate is a chemical compound sold as a nutritional supplement to prevent or treat chromium deficiency. Another is chromium polynicotinate, and six forms of chromium are sold for this purpose.[1] This bright-red coordination compound is derived from chromium(III) and picolinic acid. Small quantities of chromium are needed for glucose utilization by insulin in normal health, but deficiency is extremely rare and has only been observed in hospital patients on long-term defined diets.[2] No biochemical basis for the human body's need for chromium has been identified.[3] Chromium(III) picolinate has been described as a "poor choice as a nutritional supplement".[4]

Health claims and debates[edit]

Some commercial organizations promote chromium picolinate as an aid to body development for athletes and as a means of losing weight. But a number of studies have failed to demonstrate an effect of chromium picolinate on either muscle growth or fat loss.[5] In general, there is no good evidence that chromium picolinate supplementation helps people lose weight.[6][7]

There are claims that the picolinate form of chromium supplementation aids in reducing insulin resistance, particularly in diabetics, but a meta-analysis of chromium supplementation studies showed no association between chromium and glucose or insulin concentrations for non-diabetics, and inconclusive results for diabetics.[8] This study has been challenged on the grounds that it excluded significant results.[9] Subsequent trials gave mixed results, with one finding no effect in people with impaired glucose tolerance,[10] but another seeing a small improvement in glucose resistance.[11] A further study on obese adults with metabolic syndrome was published in 2009, this found no significant effect on insulin sensitivity, but increased short-term levels of insulin. The study also observed no effect on weight or serum lipids.[12]

In a review of these trials it was again concluded that chromium supplements had no effect on healthy people, but that there might be an improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetics, although the authors stated that the evidence for this effect remains weak.[13] However, opinions differ on this conclusion, a review published in 2006 argued that these data instead supported the clinical efficacy of chromium picolinate for the treatment of diabetes.[14] In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration stated that the "relationship between chromium picolinate intake and insulin resistance is highly uncertain".[15]

Initial concerns were raised that chromium picolinate is more likely to cause DNA damage and mutation than other forms of trivalent chromium,[16] but these results are also debated.[17] These concerns were based, in part, on studies in fruit flies, where chromium(III) picolinate supplementation generates chromosomal aberrations, impedes progeny development,[18] and causes sterility and lethal mutations.[19]

Regulation of chromium III picolinate[edit]

In 2004, the UK Food Standards Agency advised consumers to use other forms of trivalent chromium in preference to chromium picolinate until specialist advice was received from the Committee on Mutagenicity. This was due to concerns raised by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals that chromium picolinate might cause cancer (its genotoxicity). The committee also noted two case reports of renal failure that might have been caused by this supplement and called for further research into its safety.[20][21] In December 2004, the Committee on Mutagenicity published its findings, which concluded that "overall it can be concluded that the balance of the data suggest that chromium picolinate should be regarded as not being mutagenic in vitro" and that "the available in-vivo tests in mammals with chromium picolinate are negative.".[22] Following these findings, the UK Food Standards Agency withdrew its advice to avoid chromium picolinate, though it plans to keep its advice about chromium supplements under review.[23]

In 2010, chromium picolinate was approved by Health Canada to be used in dietary supplements. The monograph includes use in capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets. Approved labeling statements include: a factor in the maintenance of good health, provides support for healthy glucose metabolism, helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates and helps the body to metabolize fats.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Preuss, H. G.; Echard, B.; Perricone, N. V.; Bagchi, D.; Yasmin, T.; Stohs, S. J. (2008). "Comparing metabolic effects of six different commercial trivalent chromium compounds". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 102 (11): 1986–1990. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.07.012. PMID 18774175.  edit
  2. ^ Review of Chromium Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals Review of Chromium, 12 August 2002
  3. ^ Stearns DM (2000). "Is chromium a trace essential metal?". BioFactors 11 (3): 149–62. doi:10.1002/biof.5520110301. PMID 10875302. 
  4. ^ John B. Vincent "Chromium: celebrating 50 years as an essential element?" Dalton Transactions, 2010, pp. 3787-3794. doi:10.1039/B920480F
  5. ^ Vincent J.B.; Sack, DA; Roffman, M; Finch, M; Komorowski, JR (2003). "The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent". Sports Medicine 33 (3): 213–230. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333030-00004. PMID 12656641. 
  6. ^ Pittler, M. H.; Stevinson, C; Ernst, E (2003). "Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: Meta-analysis of randomized trials". International Journal of Obesity 27 (4): 522–9. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802262. PMID 12664086.  edit
  7. ^ Tian, H; Guo, X; Wang, X; He, Z; Sun, R; Ge, S; Zhang, Z (2013). "Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults". "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 11: CD010063. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010063.pub2. PMID 24293292.  edit
  8. ^ Althuis MD, Jordan NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT (1 July 2002). "Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (1): 148–155. PMID 12081828. 
  9. ^ Kalman DS (1 July 2003). "Chromium picolinate and type 2 diabetes". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (1): 192; author reply 192–3. PMID 12816793. 
  10. ^ Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R et al. (2005). "Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance". Diabetes Care 28 (3): 712–3. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.3.712. PMID 15735214. 
  11. ^ Singer GM, Geohas J (2006). "The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial". Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8 (6): 636–43. doi:10.1089/dia.2006.8.636. PMID 17109595. 
  12. ^ Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S et al. (January 2009). "Chromium Picolinate Does Not Improve Key Features of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Nondiabetic Adults". Metab Syndr Relat Disord 7 (2): 143–50. doi:10.1089/met.2008.0048. PMC 3135886. PMID 19196082. 
  13. ^ Balk EM, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Pittas AG (2007). "Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Care 30 (8): 2154–63. doi:10.2337/dc06-0996. PMID 17519436. 
  14. ^ Broadhurst CL, Domenico P (December 2006). "Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review". Diabetes Technol. Ther. 8 (6): 677–87. doi:10.1089/dia.2006.8.677. PMID 17109600. 
  15. ^ Trumbo PR, Ellwood KC (August 2006). "Chromium picolinate intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: an evidence-based review by the United States Food and Drug Administration". Nutr. Rev. 64 (8): 357–63. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00220.x. PMID 16958312. 
  16. ^ Chaudhary S, Pinkston J, Rabile MM, Van Horn JD (2005). "Unusual reactivity in a commercial chromium supplement compared to baseline DNA cleavage with synthetic chromium complexes". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 99 (3): 787–794. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2004.12.009. PMID 15708800. 
  17. ^ Hininger I, Benaraba R, Osman M, Faure H, Marie Roussel A, Anderson RA (2007). "Safety of trivalent chromium complexes: no evidence for DNA damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 42 (12): 1759–65. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.02.034. PMID 17512455. 
  18. ^ Stallings DM, Hepburn DD, Hannah M, Vincent JB, O'Donnell J (2006). "Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate generates chromosomal aberrations and impedes progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster". Mutat. Res. 610 (1–2): 101–13. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.06.019. PMID 16887379. 
  19. ^ Hepburn DD, Xiao J, Bindom S, Vincent JB, O'Donnell J (2003). "Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate causes sterility and lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (7): 3766–71. doi:10.1073/pnas.0636646100. PMC 152996. PMID 12649323. 
  20. ^ Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals Food Standards Agency - May 2003
  21. ^ Risk assessment: Chromium Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, 2003
  22. ^ STATEMENT ON THE MUTAGENICITY OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM PICOLINATE COM/04/S3 - December 2004
  23. ^ Agency revises chromium picolinate advice Food Standards Agency - 13 December 2004
  24. ^ [1] Health Canada

External links[edit]