Chromebook

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Chromebook
Chromebook-logo.png
Samsung Chromebook.jpg
Samsung Series 5 Chromebook
Product typePersonal computer - Notebook
OwnerGoogle
IntroducedJune 15, 2011 (2011-06-15)
Websitewww.google.com/chromebook/
 
  (Redirected from Chromebox)
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Chromebook
Chromebook-logo.png
Samsung Chromebook.jpg
Samsung Series 5 Chromebook
Product typePersonal computer - Notebook
OwnerGoogle
IntroducedJune 15, 2011 (2011-06-15)
Websitewww.google.com/chromebook/

A Chromebook is a personal computer running Chrome OS as its operating system. The devices are designed to be used while connected to the Internet and support applications that reside on the Web, rather than traditional applications that reside on the machine itself. All the data is stored in the "cloud" accessed by an internet connection. A Chromebook is an example of a thin client.[1][2]

The first Chromebooks for sale, by Acer Inc. and Samsung, were announced at the Google I/O conference in May 2011 and began shipping on June 15, 2011.[3] Lenovo, Hewlett Packard and Google itself entered the market in early 2013. In addition to laptop models, a desktop version, called a Chromebox, was introduced in May 2012. Samsung also launched a Samsung Chromebook specifically for the Indian market, with Samsung's Exynos 5 Dual core processor, in December 2013.[4]

Chromebooks are primarily sold online, both directly from Google and from the company's retail partners. By 2012, schools had become the largest category of customer. That October, Google broadened its marketing strategy to include first-time computer users and households seeking an additional computer. Critical reaction to the device was initially skeptical, with some reviewers, like Joey Sneddon and David Pogue,[5][6] unfavorably comparing the value proposition of Chromebooks with that of more fully featured laptops running the Microsoft Windows operating system. That complaint dissipated in reviews of machines from Acer and Samsung that were priced at $200 and $250, respectively.[7][8] In February 2013, Google announced and began shipping the Chromebook Pixel, a high-end machine priced at $1299.

In October 2012, Simon Phipps, writing in InfoWorld, said "the Chromebook line is probably the most successful Linux desktop/laptop computer we've seen to date".[9] Measures of overall success are mixed. As of May 2013, the Samsung Series 3 Chromebook has led Amazon's list of best-selling laptops, a position it established when it launched in October 2012.[10][11]

Design[edit]

Samsung Chromebook Series 3 with bottom panel removed.

Chromebooks are shipped with Google Chrome OS, an operating system that uses the Linux kernel and the Google Chrome web browser with an integrated media player.[12][13] With limited offline capability and a claimed boot time of eight seconds (actual boot time varies depending on hardware, e.g. the Acer C7 is claimed by Google to boot in 18 seconds[14]), Chromebooks are primarily designed to be used connected to the Internet.[15] Instead of installing traditional applications such as word processing and instant messaging, users add web apps from the Chrome Web Store.[16] Google claims that a multi-layer security architecture eliminates the need for anti-virus software.[3]

Support for many USB devices such as cameras, mice, external keyboards and flash drives is included, utilizing a feature similar to plug-and-play on other operating systems. Like the prototype Cr-48, Chromebooks have a specialized keyboard complete with buttons for opening and controlling multiple browser windows, as well as a Web search button which replaces the caps lock key (caps lock being activated by pressing both shift keys together).[17]

An analysis of the Samsung Series 5 components by iFixit in June 2011 estimated that the unit cost about US$322 in materials and US$12 in labor costs. With a retail price of US$499.99 and shipping, marketing, research and development and retail margins to account for this indicates that the profit margins on the Chromebooks are quite thin, requiring a large production run to make a profit.[18]

Using Chromebook offline[edit]

While Chromebooks are designed to be used when connected to the Internet, users are able to access Google applications such as Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Keep, and Google Drive in offline mode. Chromebooks also come with a built-in local music player, a photo editor, and a PDF viewer that are functional without internet access.[19][20] Lastly, Chrome apps such as Amazon's Cloud Reader, the New York Times App, and Angry Birds offer offline capability.[21][22][23]

Models[edit]

Cr-48 prototype[edit]

The Cr-48 showing the setup screen seen when first booting up a Chromebook

At a December 7, 2010, press briefing, Google announced the first Chromebook, the Cr-48 laptop, a reference hardware design to test the Chrome OS operating system. The machine was named after Chromium-48, an unstable isotope of the metallic element Chromium.[24] The laptop's design broke convention by replacing the caps lock key with a dedicated search key.[25]

The Cr-48 was intended for testing only, not retail sales.[26][27][28] Google addressed complaints that the operating system offers little functionality when the host device is not connected to the Internet, demonstrated an offline version of Google Docs, and announced a 3G plan that would give users 100 MB of free data each month, with additional paid plans available from Verizon.[15][29]

Google distributed about 60,000 Cr-48s to testers and reviewers in early December 2010. Reviewers concluded that while the project held promise, it still had some distance to go before being ready for market.[30][31] The last of the Cr-48s were shipped in March 2011.[32]

The Cr-48 notebooks featured some unused hardware components, including a Bluetooth 2.1 controller.[33] The USB port could support a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter, or USB storage, but not a printer, as Google OS offers no print stack.[34] Adding further hardware outside of the previously mentioned items will likely cause problems with the operating system's "self knowing" security model.[35] Users instead were encouraged to use a secure service called Google Cloud Print to print to legacy printers connected to their desktop computers, or to connect an HP ePrint, Kodak Hero, Kodak ESP, or Epson Connect printer to the Google Cloud Print service for a "cloud aware" printer connection.[36]

Commercial machines[edit]

The Acer AC700 Chromebook

Google initially named several development partners working on hardware for the operating system, with others named in the press, including Acer, Adobe, Asus, Freescale, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Toshiba,[37] Intel,[38] Samsung,[39][40] and Dell.[41]

The first two commercially available Chromebooks, manufactured by Samsung and Acer, were announced on May 11, 2011, at the Google I/O developer conference. Retail prices began at $349, with a ship date of June 15 for the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. Retail partners in the United States included Amazon and Best Buy.[15] Google also announced a monthly payment scheme for business and education customers at $28 and $20 per user per month, respectively, for a three-year contract, including replacements and upgrades.[15]

Functionally similar to the Cr-48, the Chromebooks were available in both Wi-Fi and 3G versions from both manufacturers. The Samsung Chromebook had a 12.1 inch 1280×800 screen and a Mini-VGA port.[42] The Acer Chromebook had an 11.6-inch (290 mm) screen and HDMI output.[43] Both versions include an HD webcam and two USB 2.0 ports. Neither Chromebook, nor subsequent models, featured an optical disc drive, as both data and most[44] applications are meant to reside in the cloud. Applications are downloadable via the Chrome Web Store.

Samsung introduced the first ChromeOS desktop machine called a Chromebox, in May 2012.[15][45][46][47][48]

Models equipped with 3G/4G LTE connectivity receive 100-200 MB of wireless data per month for two years.[49][50] For models released on or after May 2012, 100GB-1.09TB of Google Drive cloud storage and 12 GoGo WiFi passes are included.[51][52] The two lowest cost Chromebooks emerged in the fall of 2012: the $249[53] Samsung Series 3 and the $199[54] Acer C7. The following February, Google introduced the most costly machine, their Chromebook Pixel, with a starting price of $1299.[55]

All chromebooks have been manufactured in China.

Chromebook models
AvailableBrandModelProcessorBattery lifeRAMStorageScreen sizeWeightBase priceReferences
Dec 2010GoogleCr-48 (prototype)Intel Atom N4559 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD12.1 in (30.7 cm)3.8 lb (1.7 kg)Not for retail sale[56][57][58]
Jun 2011SamsungSeries 5
XE500C21
Intel Atom N5706.5 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD12.1 in (30.7 cm)3.06–3.26 lb (1.4–1.5 kg)US$349.99 Wi-Fi
US$449.99 3G[59]
[46][60]
Jul 2011AcerAC700Intel Atom N5706 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.19 lb (1.4 kg)US$299.99 Wi-Fi
US$399.99 3G[59]
[43][61][62]
May 2012SamsungSeries 5
XE550C22
Intel Celeron 867[63]6 hours4 GB DDR316 GB SSD12.1 in (30.7 cm)3.3 lb (1.5 kg)US$449.99 Wi-Fi
US$549.99 3G
[64][65][66]
Oct 2012SamsungSeries 3
XE303C12
Samsung Exynos 5 Dual 1.7 GHz [67]6.5 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD, 100 GB Google drive storage for 2 years11.6 in (29.5 cm)2.43 lb (1.1 kg)US$249.99 Wi-Fi
US$329.99 3G
[68][69]
Nov 2012AcerC7 C710-2055Intel Celeron 8474 hours4 GB DDR3320 GB HDD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.2 lb (1.5 kg)US$279.99 Wi-Fi
C7 C710-2605Intel Celeron 8476 hours2 GB DDR3500 GB HDD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.2 lb (1.5 kg)US$299.99 Wi-Fi[70]
C7 C710-2688Intel Celeron 8474 hours4 GB DDR316 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.04 lb (1.4 kg)US$249.99 Wi-Fi
C7 C710-2833Intel Celeron 8474 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3 lb (1.4 kg)US$239.99 Wi-Fi
C7 C710-2834Intel Celeron 1007U4 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.05 lb (1.4 kg)US$199.99 Wi-Fi
C7 C710-2847Intel Celeron 8473.5 hours2 GB DDR3320 GB HDD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.04 lb (1.4 kg)US$199.99 Wi-Fi
C7 C710-2856Intel Celeron 8473.5 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.04 lb (1.4 kg)US$228 Wi-Fi
February 2013HPChromebook PavilionIntel Celeron 8474.25 hours2 GB DDR316 GB SSD14 in (35.6 cm)3.96 lb (1.8 kg)US$329.99 with Dual band Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n and Ethernet[71]
LenovoX131eIntel Celeron6.5 hours4 GB16 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)3.92 lb (1.8 kg)US$429 with Dual band Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n and Ethernet[72]
February 2013 (Wi-Fi)
April 2013 (LTE)
GoogleChromebook PixelIntel Core i5 3427U[73]5 hours4 GB32 GB SSD with Wi-Fi
64 GB with LTE
12.85 in (32.6 cm)3.35 lb (1.5 kg)US$1249 with Wi-Fi
US$1499 with LTE
[74][75][76]
Oct 2013HPChromebook 11Samsung Exynos 5 Dual[67] 1.7 GHz6 hours2 GB16 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)2.3 lb (1.0 kg)US$279.99[77]
Chromebook 14 Wi-FiIntel Celeron 2955U9.5 hours2 GB16 GB SSD14 in (35.6 cm)4.08 lb (1.9 kg)US$299.99[78][79]
Chromebook 14 LTEIntel Celeron 2955U9.5 hours4 GB16 GB SSD14 in (35.6 cm)4.08 lb (1.9 kg)US$349.99[78][79]
AcerC720-2800 ChromebookIntel Celeron 2955U8.5 hours4 GB16 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)2.76 lb (1.3 kg)US$249.99[80][81][82]
C720-2848 (or C720-2802) ChromebookIntel Celeron 2955U8.5 hours2 GB16 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)2.76 lb (1.3 kg)US$199.99
Nov 2013C720P-2666 ChromebookIntel Celeron 2955U7.5 hours2 GB32 GB SSD11.6 in (29.5 cm)2.98 lb (1.4 kg)US$299.99[83]

Chromeboxes[edit]

A connected Samsung Chromebox as seen from above.

Chromeboxes are the desktop variants of Chromebooks. Classed as small form-factor PCs, the devices typically feature a power switch and a set of ports: local area network, USB, DVI-D, DisplayPorts, and audio. As with Chromebooks, Chromeboxes employ solid state memory and support Web applications, but require an external monitor, keyboard, and pointing device. Samsung released the first Chromebox.[84][85]

Chromebox models
AvailableBrandModelProcessorRAMHard driveSizeWeightBase priceReferences
May 2012SamsungSeries 3
XE300M22-A01US
1.9 GHz dual-core Intel Celeron B8404 GB16 GB SSD1.3″×7.5″×7.5″2.64 lb (1.2 kg)$329.99[84][86][87]
January 2012SamsungSeries 3
XE300M22-A02US
2.5 GHz Intel Core i5-2450M4 GB16 GB SSD1.3″×7.6″×7.6″5.82 lb (2.6 kg)$499.99[88]
March 2013SamsungSeries 3
XE300M22-B01US
1.9 GHz Celeron B8404 GB16 GB SSD1.57 x 8.10 x 8.10 inches1.8 lb (0.8 kg)$329.99[89][90]

Sales and marketing[edit]

Google's Sundar Pichai speaking about the Chromebook at its launch at Google I/O, May 2011.

Since late 2010, Google's Chromebooks initiative has been headed by Rajen Sheth, best known as the "father of Google Apps". His strategy for marketing Chromebooks has centered on the total cost of ownership, which, he said, can be "dramatically" reduced by lower maintenance, management and security costs, even if hardware costs remain unchanged.[91]

Chromebooks began selling through online channels, including Amazon and Best Buy in the U.S., and in some European countries starting June 15, 2011. The first machines sold for between $349 and $499, depending on model and whether 3G was included.[92] Google also offered a monthly payment scheme for business and education customers at $28 and $20 per user, per month, respectively for a three-year contract, including replacements and upgrades. Verizon offered 100 megabytes of wireless data per month, with an additional gigabyte at $20 per month.[15]

Google's early marketing efforts relied primarily on hands-on experience: giving away Samsung machines to 10 Cr-48 pilot program participants along with the title Chromebook Guru and loaning Chromebooks to passengers on some Virgin America flights.[93][94][95] At the end of September 2011, Google launched the Chrome Zone, a "store within a store", inside the Currys and PC World superstore in London.[96] The store had a Google-style look and feel with splashes of color all around the retail store front.[97] Google said it was planning to open more Chrome Zones in the UK over the next few months.[98]

In addition to these marketing strategies, Google Chrome has created several "Chromebook minis" that demonstrate the ease of use and simplicity of the devices in a comical manner. For example, when the question "How do you back up a Chromebook" is asked, it is implied to refer to data backup, but instead, shows two hands pushing a Chromebook back to the end of a table. This is followed by the statement, "You don't have to back up a Chromebook," showing how all data is stored on the web.[99]

A Paradise Valley Unified School District student using a Chromebook as part of the organization's pilot project

On November 21, 2011, Google announced[59] price reductions on all Chromebooks. Since then, the Wi-Fi-only Samsung Series 5 was reduced to $349, the 3G Samsung Series 5 was reduced to $449, and the Acer AC700 was reduced to $299. By January 2012, commercial sales for Chromebooks were flat, with the exception of the education market. Google had placed nearly 27,000 Chromebooks in schools across 41 states, including "one-on-one" programs, which allocate a computer for every student, in South Carolina, Illinois, and Iowa.[100] As of August 2012, over 500 school districts in the United States and Europe were using the device, as well as universities, corporations and government facilities.[101][102]

By January 2013, Acer's Chromebook sales were being driven by "heavy Internet users with educational institutions", and the platform represented 5-10 percent of the company's U.S. shipments, according to Acer president Jim Wong. He called those numbers sustainable, contrasting them with low Windows 8 sales which he blamed for a slump in the market. Wong said that the company would consider marketing Chromebooks to other developed countries, as well as to corporations. He noted that although Chrome OS is free to license for hardware vendors, it has required greater marketing expenditure than Windows, offsetting the licensing savings.[103]

Over the summer of 2013 sales of Chromebooks increased to 3.3% of the market, while sales of Windows and Apple laptops declined. Between June 30 to September 7, 2013 computer sales in general were down with chromebooks the only category that were increasing, with 175,000 units sold.[104]

Reception[edit]

Cr-48[edit]

The Cr-48 prototype laptop gave reviewers their first opportunity to evaluate Chrome OS running on a device. Ryan Paul of Ars Technica wrote that the machine "met the basic requirements for Web surfing, gaming, and personal productivity, but falls short for more intensive tasks." He praised Google's approach to security, but wondered whether mainstream computer users would accept an operating system whose only application is a browser. He thought Chrome OS "could appeal to some niche audiences": people who just need a browser or companies that rely on Google Apps and other Web applications. But the operating system was "decidedly not a full-fledged alternative to the general purpose computing environments that currently ship on netbooks." Paul wrote that most of Chrome OS's advantages "can be found in other software environments without having to sacrifice native applications."[30]

In reviewing the Cr-48 on December 29, 2010, Kurt Bakke of Conceivably Tech wrote that a Chromebook had become the most frequently used family appliance in his household. "Its 15 second startup time and dedicated Google user accounts made it the go-to device for quick searches, email as well as YouTube and Facebook activities." But the device did not replace other five notebooks in the house: one for gaming, two for the kids, and two more for general use. "The biggest complaint I heard was its lack of performance in Flash applications."[105]

In ongoing testing, Wolfgang Gruener, also writing in Conceivably Tech, said that cloud computing at cellular data speeds is unacceptable and that the lack of offline ability turns the Cr-48 "into a useless brick" when not connected.[106] "It's difficult to use the Chromebook as an everyday device and give up what you are used to on a Mac/Windows PC, while you surely enjoy the dedicated cloud computing capabilities occasionally."[107]

Commercial machines[edit]

Reviewing the Samsung Series 5 specifications, Scott Stein of CNET was unimpressed with a machine with a 12-inch screen and just 16 GB of onboard storage. "Chrome OS might be lighter than Windows XP, but we'd still prefer more media storage space. At this price, you could also get an 11.6-inch (290 mm) Wi-Fi AMD E-350-powered ultraportable running Windows 7."[46] On the other hand, MG Siegler of TechCrunch wrote a largely favorable review, praising the improvements in speed and trackpad sensitivity over the CR-48 prototype, as well as the long battery life and the fact that all models are priced below the iPad.[108]

In June 2011 iFixit dismantled a Samsung Series 5 and concluded that it was essentially an improved Cr-48. They rated it as 6/10 for repairability, predominantly because the case has to be opened to change the battery and because the RAM chip is soldered to the motherboard. iFixit noted that the "mostly-plastic construction" felt "a little cheap". On the plus side they stated that the screen was easy to remove and most of the components, including the solid state drive would be easy to replace. iFixit's Kyle Wiens wrote that the Series 5 "fixes the major shortfalls of the Cr-48 and adds the polish necessary to strike lust into the heart of a broad consumer base: sleek looks, 8+ hours of battery life, and optimized performance."[109]

In an article published on ZDNet in June 2011, entitled "Five Chromebook concerns for businesses", Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols faulted the devices for lack of virtual private network capability, not supporting some Wi-Fi security methods, in particular Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) Enterprise with Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) or Cisco’s Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP). He also noted that its file manager does not work, the need to use the undocumented crosh shell to accomplish basic tasks such as setting up a secure shell (SSH) network connection as well as serious deficiencies in documentation.[110]

In one of the first customer reviews, the City of Orlando, Florida reported on their initial testing of 600 Chromebooks as part of a broader study related to accessing virtual desktops. Early indications show potential value in reducing IT support costs. End users have indicated that the Chromebook is easy to travel with and starts up quickly. One stated that "If I just need to stay connected for emergencies, I take my Chrome," but when traveling for business she would still take her laptop. Orlando does plan to continue to use the Chromebooks.[111]

Shortly after the Samsung Series 5 Chromebook was released to the public in July 2011, the review site Chromebook Ratings praised the Series 5 and its 8-second boot-up time, claiming that "You can literally go from a cold machine to searching the internet in about 10 seconds. It’s one thing to see it described, but it’s another to experience it first-hand." They also lauded the Series 5 for its "exceptionally long battery life" that exceeded the battery life of the Acer AC700 Chromebook.[112]

Reviewing the Samsung Series 5 Chromebook in July 2011, Benjamin Humphrey of OMG! Ubuntu! concluded that while the device is "a lovely piece of hardware and a perfect start to the Chromebook lineup", it doesn't handle some of the basics: copy and paste in the File Manager or playback of common local formats. He noted Chrome OS's six-week release cycle that had already addressed some of his concerns and suggested that most people should hold out until later in the year "to let the software mature a bit more. If you’re simply after a tablet with a keyboard however, the Series 5 might just be the perfect purchase.[113]

In May 2012, Samsung introduced the Chromebook Series 5 550, priced at US$449 for the Wi-Fi model and US$549 for 3G.[87]

Reviews generally questioned the value proposition. Dana Wollman of Engadget wrote that the Chromebook's keyboard "put thousand-dollar Ultrabooks to shame" and offered better display quality than on many laptops selling for twice as much. But the price "seems to exist in a vacuum—a place where tablet apps aren't growing more sophisticated, where Transformer-like Win8 tablets aren't on the way and where there aren't some solid budget Windows machines to choose from."[66]

Joey Sneddon of OMG! Chrome! in May 2012 also found fault with Samsung's pricing, arguing that $500 is unrealistic. "People coming to ChromeOS will be prepared to make sacrifices – but more money for less speed is unlikely to be one of them. I can’t help but feel that Samsung have priced the Chromebook to fail."[5]

Joe Wilcox of BetaNews wrote that "price to performance and how it compares to other choices" is "where Chromebook crumbles for many potential buyers." He noted that the new models sell for more than their predecessors, and while the price-performance ratio is quite favorable compared to the MacBook Air, "by the specs, there are plenty of lower-cost options."[114]

Series 3, C7[edit]

Acer C7 - Nov. 2012: at $199, the lowest cost Chromebook

In October 2012, the Series 3 Chromebook was introduced at a San Francisco event with the Samsung Chromebook XE303. The device was priced at $249 and was thinner and lighter than the Chromebook 550. Google marketed the Series 3 as the computer for everyone, due to its simple operating system (Chrome OS) and affordable price. Target markets included students and first-time computer users, as well as households looking for an extra computer.[115][116]

The lower price proved a watershed for some reviewers. New York Times technology columnist David Pogue reversed his earlier thumbs-down verdict on the Chromebook, writing that "$250 changes everything." The price is half that of an "iPad, even less than an iPad Mini or an iPod Touch. And you’re getting a laptop." He wrote that the Chromebook does many of the things people use computers and laptops for: playing flash videos, and opening Microsoft Office documents. "In other words, Google is correct when it asserts that the Chromebook is perfect for schools, second computers in homes and businesses who deploy hundreds of machines."[6][7]

Joey Sneddon of OMG! Chrome! also praised the pricing on the Series 3 Chromebook on October 18, 2012, indicating that Samsung had at last got it right. "We weren’t alone in criticising the prices of the Samsung Series 550 Chromebook released earlier this year. They were priced above and beyond the ‘tipping’ point of casual consumers, and sat firmly in the enthusiast land" resulting in sales below Google's expectations. Acer's second generation Chromebook was also missing in action, he wrote. But not ready to give up, "Google and Samsung are back with a newer, cheaper, ARM-powered Chromebook."[8]

CNET's review of the Series 3 Chromebook was even more favorable, saying the machine largely delivered as a computer for students and as an additional computer for a household—especially for users who are already using Google Web applications like Google Docs, Google Drive, and Gmail. "It's got workable if not standout hardware, its battery life is good, it switches on quickly, and the $249 price tag means it's not as much of a commitment as the $550 Samsung Series 5 550 that arrived in May." The review subtracted points for performance. "It's fine for many tasks, but power users accustomed to having more than a couple dozen browser tabs open should steer clear."[115]

Chromebook Pixel[edit]

In February 2013, Google introduced and shipped the 32 GB Chromebook Pixel, whose $1299 price was more than six times that of the lowest cost Chromebook, the Acer C7. The Pixel drew praise for its exterior design and high resolution screen, said to have the highest pixels-per-inch of any laptop. But early reviews questioned the value of a high-end laptop that only supports Web applications, when similarly priced machines (like Apple's MacBook Air) also support conventional applications. The Pixel departed from Google's strategy of producing inexpensive machines, and some observers speculated that the company was less interested in sales than in burnishing the Chromebook family's overall reputation with a faster, more stylish device.[75][117][118][119][120][121][122]

In April 2013, Google began shipping a 64 GB 4G LTE model for $1,449, which includes 100 MB of data each month for two years from Verizon Wireless.[123]

Chromeboxes[edit]

In reviewing the first Samsung Chromebox desktop PC released in May 2012, Joey Sneddon of OMG! Chrome! described it as a "tough sell". Google, Samsung and Acer, he wrote, have already had a tough time selling the Chrome OS concept. He expected Chrome OS on a PC to encounter similar hurdles, with success "far from certain. And if the steep pricing by TigerDirect holds true then Samsung may find themselves with an uphill struggle on their hands in gaining the device traction with consumers."[124]

Android laptop[edit]

In April 2013, Intel said that its Bay Trail chips will be used in a series of inexpensive touchscreen laptops primarily running Google's Android operating system. The move would create a direct competitor to Chromebooks (as well as Windows 8 laptops) using Google's other operating system.[125]

Trademark dispute[edit]

In June 2011, ISYS Technologies, based in Salt Lake City, sued Google in a Utah district court, claiming rights to the name "Chromium", and, by default, Chromebook and Chromebox. The suit sought to stop Google and its hardware and marketing partners from selling Chromebooks.[126] The suit was later dismissed, and, as part of an undisclosed settlement between Google and ISYS, ISYS abandoned its trademark efforts.[127]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (June 18, 2012). "It's 2016, and Chrome OS is ascendant". Computerworld. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  2. ^ Enderle, Rob (May 12, 2011). "Why Google's Chromebooks are born to lose". Digital Trends. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Upson, Linus; Pichai, Sundar (May 11, 2011). utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+blogspot%2FMKuf+%28Official+Google+Blog%29&utm_content=Google+Reader "A New Kind Of Computer: Chromebook". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  4. ^ Sunday, December 8, 2013 (2013-12-05). "Samsung Chromebook launched in India for Rs.26990". Gadget Cluster. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  5. ^ a b Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (May 24, 2012). "2nd Gen Samsung ChromeBook Priced to Fail". OMG! Chrome!. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Pogue, David (June 15, 2011). "A Laptop, Its Head in the Cloud". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Pogue, David (November 29, 2012). "Laptop Buyers Should Pay Some Attention to the Chromebook". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b Sneddon, Joey (October 18, 2012). "Google Announce $249/£229 ARM Chromebook". OMG Chrome. Retrieved October 20, 2012. 
  9. ^ Phipps, Simon (October 26, 2012). "Why I left my MacBook for a Chromebook". InfoWorld. Retrieved October 28, 2012. 
  10. ^ Kendrick, James (April 18, 2013). "The misunderstood Chromebook: Why few get it". ZDNet. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Best Sellers in Laptops". Amazon Best Sellers. Amazon. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  12. ^ Bailey, Dan (May 2011). "Chrome OS File Manager Gets Secret Shortcuts". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  13. ^ Smith, William. "8 Things You Need to Know About Chrome OS". MaximumPC. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  14. ^ Pichai, Sundar (November 12, 2012). "The new Acer Chromebook". Google. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Sherr, Ian (May 11, 2011). "Google to launch Chrome Laptops in June". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 
  16. ^ "What is the Chrome Web Store?". Google Inc. 
  17. ^ Poeter, Damon (May 12, 2011). "Three Big Questions for the Samsung Chromebook". PC Mag. 
  18. ^ Bakke, Kurt (June 2011). "First Chromebook Is Expensive To Make". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2011. 
  19. ^ Use your Chromebook offline
  20. ^ Yes you can use the new Chromebook offline
  21. ^ Chrome Web Store: NYTimes
  22. ^ Chrome Web Store: Cloud Reader
  23. ^ Chrome Web Store: Angry Birds
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