Christmas controversy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search

The term "Christmas controversy" refers to the issue surrounding the celebration or acknowledgment of the Christmas holiday in government, media, advertising, and various secular environments. In the past, Christmas-related controversy was mainly restricted to concerns of a public focus on secular Christmas themes such as Santa Claus and gift-giving, rather than what is sometimes expressed by Christians as the real "reason for the season"—the birth of Jesus.[citation needed] The term "Xmas", a popular shortened form of the word "Christmas" that originates from the use of the Greek letter chi to represent "Christ" (Χριστός, Xristos), has been a particular topic of controversy among Christians unfamiliar with the historical roots of the term.

Modern-day controversy occurs mainly in western countries such as the United States,[1][2] Canada,[3][4] and to a lesser extent the United Kingdom and Ireland,[5][6][7] and usually stems from a contrast between the holiday's significant social and economic role in these countries and its strong association with Christianity in an increasingly multiculturally sensitive and religiously diversifying society. In recent decades, public, corporate, and government mention of the term "Christmas" during the Christmas and holiday season has declined and been replaced with a generic term, usually "holiday(s)", to avoid referring to Christmas by name. In addition, popular non-religious aspects of Christmas, such as Christmas carols and Christmas trees, are still prominently showcased and recognized, but are vaguely associated with unspecified "holidays" rather than with Christmas.[citation needed] Also, many retailers[which?] are asked to greet their customers with "Happy Holidays" or "Season's Greetings" than with the traditional "Merry Christmas".

Supporters of using terms[who?] such as "holidays" in place of "Christmas" argue that many of the symbols and behaviors that western societies have come to associate with Christmas were originally syncretized from pre-Christian pagan traditions and festivals that predate Jesus, and thus need not be directly associated with Christmas. Specifically, symbols and behaviors such as caroling, Christmas trees, mistletoe, holly wreaths and yule logs, have pre-Christian origins.[8][9] It has also been further argued[by whom?] that as western society continues to diversify culturally and religiously, public recognition of a potentially sectarian holiday, such as Christmas, may be seen as non-inclusive or offensive to non-Christians or non-celebrants in general.[citation needed]

Contents

Present-day controversy

History

The expression war on Christmas has often been used to denote Christmas-related controversy in the media.[10] The term gained notability thanks in part to its use by conservative commentators such as Peter Brimelow and Bill O'Reilly beginning in the early 2000s.[11][12][13]

The claim among Brimelow, O'Reilly, and some other prominent media figures and personalities was that any specific mention of the term "Christmas" or its religious aspects was being increasingly censored, avoided, or discouraged by a number of advertisers, retailers, government (prominently schools), and other public and secular organizations.

Government-related controversies

North America

Christmas Day is recognized as an official federal holiday by the United States government,[14] and few have raised objections to this designation; however, many groups, such as the American Civil Liberties Union and Americans United for Separation of Church and State, argue that government-funded displays of Christmas imagery and traditions violate the U.S. Constitution—specifically the First Amendment, which prohibits the establishment by Congress of a national religion. The battle over whether religious displays should be placed within public schools, courthouses, and other government buildings, has been heated in recent years.[15]

Supreme Court rulings starting with Lynch v. Donnelly in 1984 have permitted religious themes in government-funded Christmas displays that had "legitimate secular purposes." Since these rulings have been splintered and have left governments uncertain of their limits, many such displays have included secular elements such as reindeer, snowmen and elves along with the religious elements.[16] Other recent court cases have brought up additional issues such as the inclusion of Christmas carols in public school performances, but none of these cases have reached the US Supreme Court.

A controversy regarding these issues arose in 2002, when the New York City public school system banned the display of Nativity scenes, but allowed the display of supposedly less overtly religious symbols such as Christmas trees, Hanukkah menorahs, and the Muslim star and crescent.[17] The school system successfully defended its policy in Skoros v. City of New York (2006).[18]

In December 2007, a controversy arose[3] when a public school in Ottawa, Canada planned to have the children in its primary choir sing a version of the song "Silver Bells" with the word "Christmas" replaced by "festive"; the concert also included the songs Candles of Christmas and It's Christmas with the original lyrics. Also, in 2011, in Embrun, Ontario, near Ottawa, one school has barred the Christmas pageant and replaced it with a craft sale and winter concert scheduled for February, 2012. (Ottawa Citizen, December 2, 2011).

United Kingdom & Ireland

In the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland there have been some minor controversies, one of the most famous being the temporary promotion of the phrase Winterval for a whole season of events (including Christmas festivities) by Birmingham City Council in the late 1990s.[19] This remains a controversial example of "Christmas controversy", with critics attacking the use of the word "Winterval" as being political correctness gone mad, accusing council officials of trying to take the Christ out of Christmas.[19] The council responded to the criticism by stating that Christmas-related words and symbols were prominent in its publicity material: "...there was a banner saying Merry Christmas across the front of the council house, Christmas lights, Christmas trees in the main civil squares, regular carol-singing sessions by school choirs, and the Lord Mayor sent a Christmas card with a traditional Christmas scene wishing everyone a Merry Christmas"...[20]

In November 2009 the city council of Dundee was accused of banning Christmas because it promoted its celebrations as the Winter Night Light festival, initially with no specific references to Christianity. Local church leaders were invited to participate in the event, and they did.[21]

Christmas tree controversies

Since the 1980s,[22] there have been several instances in both the United States and Canada when official public mentions and references to Christmas trees were renamed to "holiday trees" for various reasons, mostly for an enforcement of separation of church and state or a recognition of cultural and religious diversity. Reaction to such renamings has been mixed.

One of the most prominent Christmas tree controversies came in 2005, when the city of Boston labeled their official decorated tree as a holiday tree, and the subsequent response from the Nova Scotian tree farmer who donated the tree was that he would rather have put the tree in a wood chipper than have it named a "holiday" tree.[1]

After claims that it was avoiding the term, US retailer Lowe's began using "Christmas tree" prominently in advertising.

Another controversy occurred in 2005 with the US builders hardware retailer Lowe's signage for their Christmas trees read "holiday trees" in English, but read árboles de Navidad (Christmas trees) in Spanish rather than árboles de feriados. In 2007, Lowe's started using the term "family tree", sparking protest from the American Family Association, but they have since claimed that this term was only a printing mistake.[23]

In 2009 in Jerusalem, Israel the Lobby for Jewish Values, with support of the Jerusalem Rabbinate, has handed out fliers condemning Christmas and have called for a boycott of restaurants and hotels that sell or put up Christmas trees and what the organization called "foolish" Christian symbols.[24]

Reclamation of the term "Christmas tree"

In recent years, efforts have also been made to rename official public holiday trees back to Christmas trees. In 2002, a bill was introduced in the California Senate to rename the State Holiday Tree the California State Christmas Tree;[25] while this measure failed, at the official lighting of the tree on December 4, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger referred to the tree as a Christmas tree in his remarks and in the press release his office issued after the ceremony.[26]

The Michigan Senate had a heated debate in 2005 over whether the decorated tree in front of the Michigan Capitol would continue to be called a holiday tree (as it had been since the early 1990s) or named a Christmas tree. The question was revisited in 2006, when the bipartisan Michigan Capitol Committee voted unanimously to use the term Christmas tree.[27] And in 2007, Wisconsin lawmakers considered whether to rename the tree in the Wisconsin Capitol rotunda, a holiday tree since 1985, the Wisconsin State Christmas Tree.[28]

Retailer controversies

Since at least 2005, religious conservative groups and media in the United States such as the American Family Association, Liberty Counsel and Fox News have called for boycotts of various prominent secular organizations, particularly retail giants, demanding that they use the term "Christmas" rather, than solely "holiday" in their print, TV, online, and in-store marketing and advertising. This was also seen by some as containing a hidden anti-Jewish message. All of the major retailers named denied the charges.[29][30]

2000s

2010s

Historical controversy

Puritan era

The first documented Christmas controversy was Christian-led, and began during the English Interregnum, when England was ruled by a Puritan Parliament.[51] Puritans sought to remove elements they viewed as "pagan" (because they were not biblical in origin) from Christianity (see Pre-Christianity below). In 1647, the Puritan-led English Parliament banned the celebration of Christmas, replacing it with a day of fasting and considering it "a popish festival with no biblical justification", and a time of wasteful and immoral behavior.[52] Protests followed as pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities and for weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.[53] The book, The Vindication of Christmas (London, 1652), argued against the Puritans, and makes note of Old English Christmas traditions, dinner, roast apples on the fire, card playing, dances with "plow-boys" and "maidservants", and carol singing.[54] The Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 ended the ban, but many clergymen still disapproved of Christmas celebration. In Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland also discouraged observance of Christmas. James VI commanded its celebration in 1618, however attendance at church was scant.[55]

In Colonial America, the Puritans of New England disapproved of Christmas, and celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681.[56] The ban by the Pilgrims was revoked by English governor Edmund Andros, however it was not until the mid-19th century that celebrating Christmas became fashionable in the Boston region.[57] By the Declaration of Independence in 1776, it was not widely celebrated in the US.[56]

Pre-Christianity

Midvinterblot. Painting by Carl Larsson in the Swedish National museum's stairway (detail March 2008.

There is also controversy concerning the precise date of December 25 as the presumed birthday of Jesus. December 25 was the date of the winter solstice in ancient times (before subsequent drift due to chronological errors in the Julian calendar eventually left the solstice on its present date of December 21.) As such, many pagan winter holidays occurred on this date, which marks the shortest day of the year and the point where the days become longer again. Many customs from these holidays, particularly from the pagan Scandinavian and Germanic celebration of Yule in northern Europe, are transparently present in later Christmas customs, suggesting that the date was appropriated directly from pagan customs and given a Christian veneer rather than being the true birthday of Jesus.

The pagan Scandinavian and Germanic people of northern Europe celebrated a twelve-day "midwinter" (winter solstice) holiday called Yule (also called Jul, Julblot, jólablót, midvinterblot, julofferfest) beginning on December 25. Many modern Christmas traditions, such as the Christmas tree, the Christmas wreath, the Yule log, and others, are direct descendents of Yule customs. As Northern Europe was the last part to become Christianized, its pagan traditions had a major influence on Christmas. Scandinavians still call Christmas "Jul". In English, the word "Yule" is synonymous with Christmas,[58] a usage first recorded in 900. It is believed that the celebration of this day was a worship of these peculiar days, interpreted as the reawakening of nature. The Yule (Jul) particular God was Jólner, which is one of Odin's many names. The concept of Yule (Jul) occurs in a tribute poem to Harold Hårfager from about AD 900, where someone said "drinking Jul". Julblot is the most solemn sacrifice feast. At the “julblotet”, sacrifices were given to the gods to earn blessing on the forthcoming germinating crops. Julblotet was eventually integrated into the Christian Christmas. As a remainder from this Viking era, the Midsummer is still important in Scandinavia, and hence vividly celebrated.

Sol Invictus ("The Unconquerable Sun") was originally a Syrian god who was later adopted as the chief god of the Roman Empire under Emperor Aurelian. His holiday is traditionally celebrated on December 25, as are several gods associated with the winter solstice in many pagan traditions.[59]

Protestantism

Prior to the Victorian era, Christmas in the United States was primarily a religious holiday observed by Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, and Lutherans. Its importance was often considered secondary to that of Epiphany and Easter.

As was the case with other Christian holidays, Christmas borrowed elements from pagan peoples, including yule logs, decorations such as candles, holly, and mistletoe. Christmas trees were seen as pagan in origin. Cited as proof is Jeremiah 10:3-4, which states, "For the customs of the peoples are false: a tree from the forest is cut down, and worked with an ax by the hands of an artisan. People deck it with silver and gold they fasten it with hammer and nails so that it cannot move." The Advent season (originally a fasting period meant to point to the Second Coming of Christ), and gift giving (invented by Martin Luther to counter St. Nicholas Day, December 6) were also pagan in origin.

During the various Protestant reformations, these paganizing elements were a source of controversy. Some sects, such as the Puritans, rejected Christmas as an entirely pagan holiday. Others rejected certain aspects of Christmas as paganizing, but wanted to retain the "essence" of the holiday as a celebration of the Christ's birth. This tension put in motion an ongoing debate within Christianity about the proper observance of Christmas.[60]

19th century

According to historian Ronald Hutton, the current state of observance of Christmas is largely the result of a mid-Victorian revival of the holiday, spearheaded by Charles Dickens. In A Christmas Carol, Hutton argues, Dickens sought to construct Christmas as a family-centered festival of generosity, in contrast to the community-based and church-centered observations, the observance of which had dwindled during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.[61]

Modern celebrations of Christmas include more commercial activity, compared to the more religious celebrations of the past.

Historian Stephen Nissenbaum contends that the modern celebration in the United States was developed in New York State from defunct and imagined Dutch and English traditions in order to refocus the holiday from one where groups of young men went from house to house demanding alcohol and food into one centered on the happiness of children. He notes that there was deliberate effort to prevent the children from becoming greedy in response.[62]

Christmas was not proclaimed a holiday by US congress until 1870.[63]

Early 20th century

In the early 20th century, Christian writers such as C. S. Lewis had already noted a distinct split between the religious and secular observance of Christmas. In Xmas and Christmas: A Lost Chapter from Herodotus, Lewis gives a satire of the observance of two simultaneous holidays in "Niatirb" ("Britain" spelled backwards) from the supposed view of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (484–425 BC). One of the holidays, "Exmas", is observed by a flurry of compulsory commercial activity and expensive indulgence in alcoholic beverages. The other, "Crissmas", is observed in Niatirb's temples. Lewis's narrator asks a priest why they kept Crissmas on the same day as Exmas. He receives the reply:

It is not lawful, O Stranger, for us to change the date of Crissmas, but would that Zeus would put it into the minds of the Niatirbians to keep Exmas at some other time or not to keep it at all. For Exmas and the Rush distract the minds even of the few from sacred things. And we indeed are glad that men should make merry at Crissmas; but in Exmas there is no merriment left." And when I asked him why they endured the Rush, he replied, "It is, O Stranger, a racket. . . [64]

The December 1957 News and Views published by the Church League of America, an organization co-founded in 1937 by George Washington Robnett,[65] attacked the use of Xmas in an article titled "X=The Unknown Quantity". The claims were picked up later by Gerald L. K. Smith, who in December 1966 claimed that Xmas was a "blasphemous omission of the name of Christ" and that "'X' is referred to as being symbolical of the unknown quantity." Smith further argued that Jews introduced Santa Claus to suppress the New Testament accounts of Jesus, and that the United Nations, at the behest of "world Jewry", had "outlawed the name of Christ".[66] There is, however, a well documented history of use of Χ (actually a chi) as an abbreviation for "Christ" (Χριστός) and possibly also a symbol of the cross.[67]

The Soviet Union, and certain other Communist regimes, banned overtly religious Christmas observances.[citation needed] Most customs traditionally associated with Christmas, such as decorated trees, presents, and Ded Moroz, were later reinstated in Soviet society, but tied to New Year's Day instead;[citation needed] this tradition remains as of the present day. It should, however, be noted that most Russian Christians are of the Orthodox community, whose religious festivals (Christmas, Easter etc.) do not necessarily coincide precisely with those of the main western Christian churches (Catholic or Protestant).

Certain Christian faiths continue to reject the holiday for theological reasons.[citation needed] Some of these groups include Jehovah's Witnesses, Amish Mennonites, most sabbatarian denominations, such as the True Jesus Church and the Church of God (7th-Day), and the Iglesia ni Cristo, as well as certain reformed and fundamentalist churches of various persuasions, including some Independent Baptist, Holiness, Apostolic Pentecostal, and Churches of Christ congregations.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Trimming 'Christmas' from trees stirs debate – USA Today article. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d Bishop, Tricia. "Stores revert to 'Merry Christmas'." Chicago Tribune. November 24, 2006. Retrieved on December 5, 2006.
  3. ^ a b Controversy surrounding "Silver Bells" editNational Post. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  4. ^ Premier appeals for tolerance in courthouse Christmas tree debate — CBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  5. ^ 'Bonkers' police drop the word Christmas from poster to avoid upsetting other faithsDaily Mail. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  6. ^ BBC NEWS | Council now says it is Christmas — BBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  7. ^ BBC NEWS | Red Cross denies banning Christmas — BBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  8. ^ Rätsch, Christian Rätsch and Müller-Ebeling, Claudia (2006)Pagan Christmas: The Plants, Spirits, and Rituals at the Origins of Yuletide. Inner Traditions. ISBN 1-59477-092-1
  9. ^ "Christmas". History.com. http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=205639. Retrieved 2008-12-08.[dead link]
  10. ^ Keck, Kristi (December 18, 2009). "Heated debate again over 'War on Christmas' claims". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/12/18/war.on.christmas/index.html.
  11. ^ Altman, Alex (December 24, 2008). "A Brief History of the War on Christmas". Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1868542,00.html.
  12. ^ O'Reilly's War on Christmas goes RetailHuffington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  13. ^ Mandatory 'merry Christmas' line may lose its liltUSA Today. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  14. ^ Government Federal Holiday web page
  15. ^ Ostling, Richard. "Have Yourself A Merry Little Lawsuit This Season." Buffalo Law Journal 12/1/2005, Vol. 77 Issue 96, p. 1-4.
  16. ^ Is there a War on Christmas? - Church & State article
  17. ^ New York times article
  18. ^ "Nativity scene is too religious for New York City schools | csmonitor.com". Csmonitor.com. February 22, 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0222/p04s01-ussc.html. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
  19. ^ a b Winterval gets frosty reception BBC. Retrieved 23 December 2011
  20. ^ Burkeman, Oliver (8 December 2006). "The phoney war on Christmas". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/08/religion.communities.
  21. ^ April Mitchinson (2009-11-29). "Differences set aside for Winter Night Light festival in Dundee". The Press and Journal. http://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/Article.aspx/1502592?UserKey=. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  22. ^ Wisconsin Lawmaker Seeks to Ax State's 'Holiday' Tree - Associated Press article
  23. ^ "Urban Legends Reference Pages: Lowe's Family Trees". Snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/politics/christmas/familytree.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
  24. ^ Rabbis versus Christmas: Religious rivalry in Jerusalem benefits no one Haaretz December 17, 2009
  25. ^ RE: SB 1577, Redesignation of State Holiday Tree as a Christmas Tree – Letter from Dave Kong to the California State Assembly’s Committee on Governmental Organization
  26. ^ Governor and First Lady Celebrate 76th Annual Christmas Tree Lighting – press release
  27. ^ Mich. Capitol Conifer re-christened ‘Christmas tree’ – Associated Press article
  28. ^ ‘Holiday Tree’ or ‘Christmas Tree’ in State Capitol? Capitol Times article
  29. ^ Cohen, Adam (December 7, 2005). "CommercializeChristmas, or else". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/07/opinion/07iht-edcohen.html?_r=0. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  30. ^ Popper, Nathaniel (December 16, 2005). "Boycotts Bloom as Religious Conservatives Wage Battle Over Christmas Read more: http://forward.com/articles/1757/boycotts-bloom-as-religious-conservatives-wage-bat/#ixzz2CE0rcvy2". The Jewish Daily Forward.
  31. ^ Staff Writer. "Wal-Mart opts for ‘Christmas’ marketing." MSNBC. November 15, 2006. Retrieved on December 5, 2006.
  32. ^ Merry Christmas Target, Snopes.com, December 9, 2005.
  33. ^ Target Doesn't Respond, Refuses To Include "Christmas", American Family Association Online, 2005
  34. ^ Target Includes 'Christmas,' AFA Drops Boycott, NewsMax.com, December 9, 2005.
  35. ^ Wal-Mart Opts for 'Christmas' Marketing. Associated Press. November 15, 2006. Retrieved on January 28, 2007.
  36. ^ Wildmon, Donald Best Buy Bans Use of Merry Christmas In Advertising . American Family Association. November 10, 2006. Retrieved on November 10, 2006.
  37. ^ "Christmas Watch." Catholic League. Retrieved on November 24, 2006.
  38. ^ Home Depot: Hanukkah, yes! Holidays, yes! Christmas, no!. American Family Association. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  39. ^ Home Depot to put more Christmas into their marketing. American Family Association. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  40. ^ "snopes.com: Home Depot Christmas". Snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/politics/christmas/homedepot.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
  41. ^ Boycott Gap, Old Navy, and Banana Republic this Christmas
  42. ^ The Gap's "Happy whatever-you-wannukah" reignites "War on Christmas" debateUSA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
  43. ^ Gap.com Main page
  44. ^ Holiday Gift Shop 2009 | Gap
  45. ^ Gap responds - Should the boycott end or not? You decide
  46. ^ a b Your actions make a difference! Gap says "pro-Christmas" ad to air this weekendAmerican Family Association. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  47. ^ Chase orders Southlake bank to remove Christmas tree. - Star-Telegram. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2010.
  48. ^ Wachovia Bank Bans Christmas Tree Displays From Its Branches - The Moral Liberty. Retrieved Dec 13, 2010.
  49. ^ Wachovia Policy Now Allows Christmas Trees - The Moral Liberty. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2010.
  50. ^ Bloomquist, Sarah: ""Christmas" returns to Philly's Christmas Village", 6ABC Philadelphia, 2 December 2010.
  51. ^ Marta Patiño, The Puritan Ban on Christmas
  52. ^ "Why did Cromwell abolish Christmas?". Oliver Cromwell. The Cromwell Association. 2001. http://www.olivercromwell.org/faqs4.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  53. ^ Durston, Chris, "Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas 1642–60", History Today, December 1985, 35 (12) pp. 7 – 14. Archived at the Internet Archive
  54. ^ "A Christmassy post | Mercurius Politicus". Mercuriuspoliticus.wordpress.com. 2008-12-21. http://mercuriuspoliticus.wordpress.com/2008/12/21/a-christmassy-post/. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
  55. ^ Chambers, Robert (1885). Domestic Annals of Scotland. p. 211.
  56. ^ a b "Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Christmas". Time. December 24, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1868506_1868508_1868518,00.html.
  57. ^ When Christmas Was Banned - The early colonies and Christmas
  58. ^ Yule. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  59. ^ Capoccia, Kathryn (2002). "Christmas Traditions". http://www.biblebb.com/files/christmas00.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
  60. ^ Stephen Nissenbaum. (1997). The Battle for Christmas. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-74038-4.
  61. ^ Stations of the Sun: The Ritual Year in England. Oxford: Oxford Press. ISBN 0-19-285448-8.
  62. ^ Stephen Nissenbaum. (1997). The Battle for Christmas"". Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74038-4.
  63. ^ "Top 10 Things You Didn". Time. December 24, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1868506_1868508_1868518,00.html.
  64. ^ Exmas and Christmas: A Lost Chapter from Herodotus by C. S. Lewis
  65. ^ "Subject guide to Conservative and Libertarian materials, in Manuscript collections" University of Oregon
  66. ^ Kominsky, Morris (1970). The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars and Damned Liars, pages 137-138 ISBN 0-8283-1288-5
  67. ^ "Christian Symbols and their descriptions". Ancient-symbols.com. http://www.ancient-symbols.com/christian_symbols.html. Retrieved 2008-12-08.

External links