Chloride

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Chloride
Identifiers
CAS number16887-00-6 YesY
PubChem312
ChemSpider306 YesY
KEGGC00698 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:17996
ChEMBLCHEMBL19429 YesY
Beilstein Reference3587171
Gmelin Reference14910
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCl
Molar mass35.453 g mol-1
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−167 kJ·mol−1[2]
Standard molar
entropy
So298
153.36 J K-1 mol-1[2]
Related compounds
Other anionsBromide

Fluoride
Iodide

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Chloride
Identifiers
CAS number16887-00-6 YesY
PubChem312
ChemSpider306 YesY
KEGGC00698 YesY
ChEBICHEBI:17996
ChEMBLCHEMBL19429 YesY
Beilstein Reference3587171
Gmelin Reference14910
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaCl
Molar mass35.453 g mol-1
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−167 kJ·mol−1[2]
Standard molar
entropy
So298
153.36 J K-1 mol-1[2]
Related compounds
Other anionsBromide

Fluoride
Iodide

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) gains an electron to form an anion (negatively charged ion) Cl. The salts of hydrochloric acid contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such as sodium chloride, are very soluble in water.[3] It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells.[4]

The word chloride can also form part of the name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, more commonly called chloromethane, (CH3Cl) is an organic covalently bonded compound, which does not contain a chloride ion.

Corrosion[edit]

The presence of chlorides, e.g. in seawater, significantly aggravates the conditions for pitting corrosion of most metals (including stainless steels and high-alloyed materials) by enhancing the formation and growth of the pits through an autocatalytic process.

Uses[edit]

Chloride is used to form salts that can preserve food such as sodium chloride. Other salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have varied uses ranging from medical treatments to cement formation.[5]

An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissociates into Na+ and Cl ions.

Examples of inorganic covalently bonded chlorides that are used as reactants are:

A chloride ion is also the prosthetic group present in the amylase enzyme.

Another example is calcium chloride with the chemical formula CaCl2. Calcium chloride is a salt that is marketed in pellet form for removing dampness from rooms. Calcium chloride is also used for maintaining unpaved roads and for fortifying roadbases for new construction. In addition, Calcium chloride is widely used as a De-icer since it is effective in lowering the melting point when applied to ice.[6]

In the petroleum industry, the chlorides are a closely monitored constituent of the mud system. An increase of the chlorides in the mud system may be an indication of drilling into a high-pressure saltwater formation. Its increase can also indicate the poor quality of a target sand.[citation needed]

Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage & potable water. Many water regulating companies around the world utilize chloride to check the contamination levels of the rivers and potable water sources.[7]

Human health[edit]

Chloride is a chemical the human body needs for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy).[8] It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys.

Further reading: Renal chloride reabsorption

Other derivatives[edit]

Organic and inorganic anions are produced from chloride, including:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chloride ion - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 
  2. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  3. ^ Green, John, and Sadru Damji. "Chapter 3." Chemistry. Camberwell, Vic.: IBID, 2001. Print.
  4. ^ "Chloride ion - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference". Genetics Home Reference. USA: National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  5. ^ Green, John, and Sadru Damji. "Chapter 3." Chemistry. Camberwell, Vic.: IBID, 2001. Print.
  6. ^ "Common Salts." Test Page for Apache Installation. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/saltcom.html>.
  7. ^ http://www.gopetsamerica.com/substance/chlorides.aspx
  8. ^ http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_schlorid_crs.htm

See also[edit]