Chinese star maps

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

 
Jump to: navigation, search
Rubbing of the Suchow star chart

Chinese star maps (Chinese: s , t , xīngtú) are usually directional or graphical representations of Chinese astronomical alignments. Throughout the history of China, numerous star maps have been recorded. This page is intended to list or show the best available version of each star map. Star catalogs are also listed. For academic purposes, related star maps outside the China in East Asia are also listed.

List of star maps[edit]

Map or catalogCreatorTime createdContetslinks
M45 (伏羲星图Fuxixingtu)c. 4000 B.C.Found in a mural in a Neolithic Grave in Henan Puyang (河南濮陽西水坡新石器時代古墓) clam shells arranged in the shape of Big Dipper in the North (北斗Bei Dou) and below the foot, Tiger in the West and Azure Dragon in the East. Also showing Five Stars.[citation needed]
Wu Xian Star Map
(商巫咸星圖Shang wu Jian xing Tu)
Wu Xianc. 1000 BCContained 44 Central and Outer constellations totalling 141 stars[citation needed]
Warring States Period grave lacquer box
(戰國初年湖北隨縣擂鼓墩曾侯乙墓漆箱)
c. 5th century BCIndicated location of Big Dipper and 28 Constellations by characters[1]
Astronomic star observation
(天文星占Tian Wen xing zhan)
Gan De (甘德)475-221 B.C.Contained 75 Central Constellation and 42 Outer Constellations, some said 510 stars in 18 Constellations[citation needed]
Shi Shen astronomy
(石申天文Shi Shen Tian wen)
aka. (石氏星经 Shi Shi Xing Jing)
Shi Shen (石申)c. 350 B.C.138 Constellations and the name of 810 stars, location of 121 stars, some said it contains The 28 Lunar Ecliptic Constellations, 62 Central Constellations and 30 Outer Constellations[citation needed]
Han Comet Diagrams
(湖南長沙馬王堆漢墓帛書)
(彗星圖Meng xing Tu)
193 BCDifferent 29 different types of comets, also record and prediction of positions of Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus during 246–177 B.C.[2]
Five Star Prediction Device
(安徽阜陽五星候占儀)
168 BCAlso an Equatorial Device[citation needed]
Equatorial Armillary Sphere
(赤道式渾儀)
Luo Xiahong (落下閎)104 BC 西漢武帝時lost[citation needed]
Celestial Globe
(渾象)
(圓儀)
Geng Shouchang (耿壽昌)52 BC 甘露二年Gan Lu Er Renlost[citation needed]
First remark of a constellation in observation in Korean history49 BC 혁거세 거서간 9년The star 'Pae'(a kind of comet) appeared in the constellation Wang RangSamguk Sagi
First Ecliptic Armillary Sphere
(黄道仪Huang Dao Yi)
Jia Kui 贾逵30–101 AD 东汉永元十五年--
Han Grave Mural Star Chart
(洛阳西汉墓壁画)
(星象图Xing Xiang Tu)
c. 1st centurySun, Moon and ten other star charts[3]
Han Dynasty Nanyang Stone Engraving
(河南南阳汉石刻画)
(行雨图Xing Yu Tu)
c. 1st centuryDepicted five stars forming a cross[4]
Eastern Han Celestial Globe and star maps
(浑天仪)
(渾天儀圖注,浑天仪图注)
(靈憲,灵宪)
Zhang Heng (张衡)117 AD--
Sky Map
(浑天图)
and
Hun Tian Yi Shuo
(浑天仪说)
Lu Ji (陆绩)187–219 AD 三国--
Reproduced Hun Tian Yi
(浑天仪)
and wrote
Hun Tian Xiang Shuo
(浑天象说)
Wang Fan 王蕃227–266 AD 三国--
Whole Sky Star Maps
(全天星圖Quan Tian Xing Tu)
Chen Zhuo (陳卓)c. 270 AD 西晉初Xi Jin ChuA Unified Constellation System. Star maps containing 1464 stars in 284 Constellations, written astrology text-
Equatorial Armillary Sphere
(渾儀Hun Xi)
Kong Ting (孔挺)323 AD 東晉 前趙光初六年level being used in this kind of device-
Northern Wei Period Iron Armillary Sphere
(鐵渾儀)
Hu Lan (斛蘭)Bei Wei|level being used in this kind of device-
Southern Dynasties Period Whole Sky Planetarium
(渾天象Hun Tian Xiang)
Qian Lezhi (錢樂之)443 AD 南朝劉宋元嘉年間used red, black and white to differentiate stars from different star maps from Shi Shen, Gan De and Wu Xian 甘, 石, 巫三家星-
Northern Wei Grave Dome Star Map
(河南洛陽北魏墓頂星圖)
526 AD 北魏孝昌二年about 300 stars, including the Big Dipper, some stars are linked by straight lines to form constellation. The Milky Way is also shown.[5]
Water-powered Planetarium
(水力渾天儀)
Geng Xun (耿詢)c. 7th century 隋初Sui Chu--
Lingtai Miyuan
(靈台秘苑)
Yu Jicai (庾季才) and Zhou Fen (周墳)604 AD 隋Suiincorporated star maps from different sources-
Tang Dynasty Whole Sky Ecliptic Armillary Sphere
(渾天黃道儀)
Li Chunfeng 李淳風667 AD 貞觀七年including Elliptic and Moon orbit, in addition to old equatorial design-
The Dunhuang star map
(燉煌)
Dun Huang705–710 AD1,585 stars grouped into 257 clusters or "asterisms"[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Turfan Tomb Star Mural
(新疆吐鲁番阿斯塔那天文壁画)
250–799 AD 唐28 Constellations, Milkyway and Five Stars[17][18]
Picture of Fuxi and Nüwa 新疆阿斯達那唐墓伏羲Fu Xi 女媧NV Wa像XiangTang DynastyPicture of Fuxi and Nuwa together with some constellations[19]
[20]
Image:Nuva fuxi.gif
Tang Dynasty Armillary Sphere
(唐代渾儀Tang Dai Hun Xi)
(黃道遊儀Huang dao you xi)
Yixing Monk 一行和尚 (张遂)Zhang Sui and Liang Lingzan 梁令瓚683–727 ADbased on Han Dynasty Celestial Globe, recalibrated locations of 150 stars, determined that stars are moving
Tang Dynasty Indian Horoscope Chart
(梵天火羅九曜)
Yixing Priest 一行和尚 (张遂)|Zhang Sui|683–727 ADsimple diagrams of the 28 Constellation[21]
Kitora Kofun 法隆寺FaLong Si キトラ古墳 in Japanc. late 7th century – early 8th centuryDetailed whole sky map[22][23][24][25]
Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era
(開元占経,开元占经Kai Yuan zhang Jing)
Gautama Siddha713 AD –Collection of the three old star charts from Shi Shen, Gan De and Wu Xian. One of the most renowned collection recognized academically.-
Big Dipper
(山東嘉祥武梁寺石刻北斗星)
showing stars in Big Dipper[26]
Prajvalonisa Vjrabhairava Padvinasa-sri-dharani Scroll found in Japan 熾盛光佛頂大威德銷災吉祥陀羅尼經卷首扉畫972 AD 北宋開寶五年Chinese 28 Constellations and Western Zodiac-
Tangut Khara-Khoto (The Black City) Star Map 西夏黑水城星圖940 ADA typical Qian Lezhi Style Star Map-
Star Chart 五代吳越文穆王前元瓘墓石刻星象圖941–960 AD-[27]
Ancient Star Map 先天图 by 陈抟Chen Tuanc. 11th Chen Tuan 宋SongPerhaps based on studying of Puyong Ancient Star MapLost
Song Dynasty Bronze Armillary Sphere 北宋至道銅渾儀Han Xianfu 韓顯符1006 AD 宋道元年十二月Similar to the Simplified Armillary by Kong Ting 孔挺, 晁崇 Chao Chong, 斛蘭 Hu Lan-
Song Dynasty Bronze Armillary Sphere 北宋天文院黄道渾儀Shu Yijian 舒易簡, Yu Yuan 于渊, Zhou Cong 周琮宋皇祐年中Similar to the Armillary by Tang Dynasty Liang Lingzan 梁令瓚 and Yi Xing 一行-
Song Dynasty Armillary Sphere 北宋簡化渾儀Shen Kuo 沈括 and Huangfu Yu 皇甫愈1089 AD 熙寧七年Simplied version of Tang Dynasty Device, removed the rarely used moon orbit.-
Five Star Charts (新儀象法要)Su Song 蘇頌1094 AD1464 stars grouped into 283 asterisms[28]
Image:Su Song Star Map 1.JPG
Image:Su Song Star Map 2.JPG
Song Dynasty Water-powered Planetarium 宋代 水运仪象台Su Song 蘇頌 and Han Gonglian 韩公廉c. 11th century-[29]
[30]
Liao Dynasty Tomb Dome Star Map 遼宣化张世卿墓頂星圖1116 AD 遼天庆六年shown both the Chinese 28 Constellation encircled by Babylonian Zodiac[31]
[32]
Star Map in a woman's grave (江西德安 南宋周氏墓星相图)1127–1279 ADMilky Way and 57 other stars.[33]
Hun Tian Yi Tong Xing Xiang Quan Tu, Suzhou Star Chart (蘇州石刻天文圖),淳祐天文図Huang Shang (黃裳)created in 1193, etched to stone in 1247 by Wang Zhi Yuan 王致遠1434 Stars grouped into 280 Asterisms in Northern Sky map[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]
Yuan Dynasty Simplified Armillary Sphere 元代簡儀Guo Shou Jing 郭守敬1276–1279Further simplied version of Song Dynasty Device[39]
Japanese Star Chart 格子月進図1324Similar to Su Song Star Chart, original burned in air raids during World War II, only pictures left. Reprinted in 1984 by 佐佐木英治
天象列次分野之図(Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido)1395Korean versions of Star Map in Stone. It was made in Chosun Dynasty and the constellation names were written in Chinese letter. The constellations as this was found in Japanese later. Contained 1,464 stars.[40]
[41]
[42]
Japanese Star Chart 瀧谷寺 天之図c. 14th or 15th centuries 室町中期以前-
Korean King Sejong's Armillary sphere1433-[43]
[41]
Star ChartMao Kun 茅坤c. 1422Polaris compared with Southern Cross and Alpha Centaurizh:郑和航海图
Korean Tombc. late 14th centuryBig Dipper[41]
Ming Ancient Star Chart 北京隆福寺(古星圖)c. 1453 明代1420 Stars, possibly based on old star maps from Tang Dynasty[44]
Chanshu Star Chart (明常熟石刻天文圖)1506Based on Suzhou Star Chart, Northern Sky observed at 36.8 degrees North Latitude, 1466 stars grouped into 284 asterism-
Ming Dynasty Star Map (渾蓋通憲圖說)Matteo Ricci 利玛窦Li Ma Dou,[45] recorded by Li Zhizao 李之藻c. 1550-[46]
Tian Wun Tu (天问图)Xiao Yun Cong 萧云从c. 1600Contained mapping of 12 constellations and 12 animals[47]
Zhou Tian Xuan Ji Tu (周天璇玑图) and He He Si Xiang Tu (和合四象圖) in Xing Ming Gui Zhi (性命圭旨)by 尹真人高第弟子 published by 余永宁1615Drawings of Armillary Sphere and four Chinese Celestial Animals with some notes. Related to Taoism.[48]
[49]
Korean Astronomy Book "Selected and Systematized Astronomy Notes" 天文類抄1623~1649Contained some star maps[50]
[51]
Ming Dynasty General Star Map (赤道南北兩總星圖)Xu Guang ci 徐光啟 and Adam Schall von Bell Tang Ruo Wang湯若望1634-[44]
Ming Dynasty diagrams of Armillary spheres and Celestial GlobesXu Guang ci 徐光啟c. 1699-
Ming Dynasty Planetarium Machine (渾象 Hui Xiang)c. 17th centuryEcliptic, Equator, and dividers of 28 constellation[52]
Copper Plate Star Map stored in Korea1652 順治九年shun zi jiu nian-[53]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象列次之図 based on 天象列次分野之図 from KoreanHarumi Shibukawa 渋川春海Bu Chuan Chun Mei(保井春海Bao Jing Chun Mei)1670 寛文十年-[54]
The Celestial Globe 清康熙 天體儀Ferdinand Verbiest 南懷仁16731876 stars grouped into 282 asterisms[55]
[56]
Picture depicted Song Dynasty fictional astronomer (呉用 Wu Yong) with a Celestial Globe (天體儀)Japanese painter1675showing top portion of a Celestial GlobeFile:Chinese astronomer 1675.jpg
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文分野之図Harumi Shibukawa 渋川春海BuJingChun Mei (保井春海Bao JingChunMei)1677 延宝五年-[57]
[58]
Korean star map in stone1687-[59]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文図解井口常範1689 元禄2年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 古暦便覧備考苗村丈伯Mao Chun Zhang Bo1692 元禄5年--
Japanese star chartHarumi Yasui written in Chinese1699 ADA Japanese star chart of 1699 showing lunar stations[60]
[61]
[62]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天文成象Tian Wen Cheng xiang(渋川昔尹She Chuan Xi Yin) (保井昔尹Bao Jing Xi Yin)1699 元禄十二年including Stars from Wu Shien (44 Constellation, 144 stars) in yellow; Gan De (118 Constellations, 511 stars) in black; Shi Shen (138 Constellations, 810 stars) in red and Harumi Shibukawa (61 Constellations, 308 stars) in blue;[63]
[64]
[65]
Japanese Star Chart 改正天文図説unknownIncluded stars from Harumi Shibukawa[65]
Korean Star Map Stonec. 17th century-[66]
Korean Star Mapc. 17th century-[67]
Ceramic Ink Sink Coverc. 17th centuryShowing Big Dipper[68]
Korean Star Map Cube 方星圖Italian Missionary Philippus Maria Grimardi 閔明我 (1639~1712)c. early 18th century-[69]
Star Chart preserved in Japan based on a book from China 天経或問You Zi liu 游子六1730 AD 江戸時代 享保15年A Northern Sky Chart in Chinese[70]
Star Chart 清蒙文石刻(欽天監繪製天文圖) in Mongolia1727–1732 AD1550 stars grouped into 270 starisms.[71]
Korean Star Maps, North and South to the Eclliptic 黃道南北恒星圖1742-[72]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天経或問註解図巻 下入江脩敬Ru Jiang YOu Jing1750 寛延3年--
Reproduction of an ancient device 璇璣玉衡Dai Zhen 戴震1723–1777 ADbased on ancient record and his own interpretationCould be similar to[73]
Rock Star Chart 清代天文石c. 18th centuryA Star Chart and general Astronomy Text[52]
Korean Complete Star Map (渾天全圖)c. 18th century-[74]
[75]
Qing Dynasty Star Catalog (儀象考成,仪象考成)恒星表 and Star Map 黄道南北両星総図Yun Lu 允禄 and Ignatius Kogler 戴进贤Dai Jin Xian 戴進賢, a GermanDevice made in 1744, book completed in 1757 清乾隆年间300 Constellations and 3083 Stars. Referenced Star Catalogue published by John Flamsteed[76]
Jingban Tianwen Quantu by Ma Junliang 马俊良1780–90 ADmapping nations to the sky[77]
Japanese Edo period Illustration of a Star Measuring Device 平天儀図解Yan Qiao Shan Bing Heng 岩橋善兵衛1802 Xiang He Er Nian 享和二年-The device could be similar to[78]?
[79]
North Sky Map 清嘉庆年间Huang Dao Zhong Xi He Tu(黄道中西合图)Xu Choujun 徐朝俊1807 ADMore than 1000 stars and the 28 consellation[80]
[81]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象総星之図Chao Ye Bei Shui 朝野北水1814 文化十一年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 新制天球星象記田中政均1815 文化十二年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天球図坂部廣胖1816 文化十三年--
Chinese Star mapJohn Reeves esq1819 ADPrinted map showing Chinese names of stars and constellations[82]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 昊天図説詳解佐藤祐之1824 文政七年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 星図歩天歌小島好謙 and 鈴木世孝1824 文政七年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart鈴木世孝1824 文政七年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天象管鈔 天体図 (天文星象図解)長久保赤水1824 文政七年-[65]
Japanese Edo period Star Measuring Device 中星儀足立信順Zhu Li Xin Shun1824 文政七年--
Japanese Star Map 天象一覧図 in Kanji桜田虎門1824 AD 文政7年Printed map showing Chinese names of stars and constellations[83]
Korean Star Map 天象列次分野之図 in Kanjic. 19th centuryPrinted map showing Chinese names of stars and constellations[84]


[18]
[85]

Korean Star Mapc. 19th century, late Choson Period-[86]
Korean Star maps: Star Map South to the Ecliptic 黃道南恒星圖 and Star Map South to the Ecliptic 黃道北恒星圖c. 19th centuryPerhaps influenced by Adam Schall von Bell Tang Ruo wang 湯若望 (1591–1666) and P. Ignatius Koegler 戴進賢 (1680–1748)[87]
[88]
Korean Complete map of the celestial sphere (渾天全圖)c. 19th century-[89]
Korean Book of Stars 經星c. 19th centurySeveral star maps[90]
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 方円星図,方圓星図 and 増補分度星図方図石坂常堅1826b文政9年--  
Japanese Star Chart伊能忠誨c. 19th century--  
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 天球図説古筆源了材1835 天保6年--
Qing Dynasty Star Catalog (儀象考成續編)星表1844Appendix to Yi Xian Kao Cheng, listed 3240 stars (added 163, removed 6)[91]
Stars map (恒星赤道経緯度図)stored in Japan1844 道光24年 or 1848--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 経緯簡儀用法藤岡有貞1845 弘化2年--
Japanese Edo period Star Chart 分野星図高塚福昌, 阿部比輔, 上条景弘1849 嘉永2年--
Japanese Late Edo period Star Chart 天文図屏風遠藤盛俊late Edo Period 江戸時代後期--
Japanese Star Chart 天体図三浦梅園---
Japanese Star Chart 梅園星図高橋景保--[92]
Korean Book of New Song of the Sky Pacer 新法步天歌李俊養1862Star maps and a revised version of the Song of Sky Pacer[93]
Stars South of Equator, Stars North of Equator (赤道南恆星圖,赤道北恆星圖)1875~1908 清末光緒年間Similar to Ming Dynasty General Star Map[52]
Fuxi 64 gua 28 xu wood carving 天水市卦台山伏羲六十四卦二十八宿全图modern--
Korean Map of Heaven and Earth 天地圖c. 19th century28 Constellations and geographic map[94]
Korean version of 28 Constellation 列宿圖c. 19th century28 Constellations, some named differently from their Chinese counterparts[95]
Korean Star Chart 渾天図朴?---
Star Chart in a Dao Temple 玉皇山道觀星圖1940 AD--
Simplified Chinese and Western Star MapYi Shi Tong 伊世同Aug. 1963Star Map showing Chinese Xingquan and Western Constellation boundaries[96]
[97]
[98]
Sky MapYu Xi Dao Ren 玉溪道人1987Star Map with captions[99]
The Chinese Sky during the Han Constellating Stars and SocietySun Xiaochun and Jacob Kistemaker1997 ADAn attempt to recreate night sky seen by Chinese 2000 years ago[100]
Star mapRecentAn attempt by a Japanese to reconstruct the night sky for a historical event around 235 AD 秋風五丈原[101]
Star mapsRecentChinese 28 Constellation with Chinese and Japanese captions[102]
SinoSky Beta 2.02002A computer program capable of showing Chinese Xingguans alongside with western constellations, lists about 700 stars with Chinese names.[103]
AEEA Star mapsModernGood reconstruction and explanation of Chinese constellations[104]
[105]
[106]
Wikipedia Star mapsModern-zh:華蓋星
28 Constellations, big dipper and 4 symbols Star mapModern-[107]
Collection of printed star mapsModern-[108]
28 Xu Star map and catalog-ModernStars around ecliptic[109]
HNSKY Korean/Chinese SupplementJeong, Tae-Min(jtm71)/Chuang_Siau_ChinModernKorean supplement is based on CheonSangYeulChaBunYaZiDo (B.C.100 ~ A.D.100)[110]
Stellarium Chinese and Korean Sky CultureG.S.K. Lee; Jeong, Tae-Min(jtm71); Yu-Pu Wang (evanzxcv)ModernMajor Xingguans and Star names[111]
[112]
[113]
修真內外火侯全圖 Huo Hou TuXi Chun Sheng Chong Hui|2005 redrawn, original unknownillustrations of Milkyway and star maps, Chinese constellations in Taoism view[114]
Star Map with illustrations for Xingguans坐井★观星Zuo Jing Guan XingModernillustrations for cylindrical and circular polar maps[115]
[116]
[117]
[118]
Sky in Google Earth KMLModernAttempts to show Chinese Star Maps on Google Earth[119]
[120]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

List of Japanese star charts from 17th–19th century and their storage locations. Also listed are some copies of Chinese star maps

References[edit]

  1. ^ Acc6.it.brooklyn.cu New york edu. None. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  2. ^ (Chinese) 汉代彗星图[dead link]
  3. ^ http://www.chinastyle.cn/cn[dead link]
  4. ^ http://www.cdragon.com.cn/uploadfile/2005123193431785.gif
  5. ^ www.kepu.com.cn
  6. ^ International Dunhuang Project.bl.uk. Idp.bl.uk. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  7. ^ Spot.pcc.edu[dead link]
  8. ^ Dunhuang Caves In China. Crystalinks (2004-05-12). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  9. ^ Chinapage.com. None. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  10. ^ AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ Mapping the Sky. Cas.sdss.org. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  14. ^ AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  15. ^ Star Charts and Maps – 星图 – Chinese Astronomy – 中国天文学. Hua.umf.maine.edu. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  16. ^ The Silk Road: trade, travel, war ... – Susan Whitfield, British Librar. yGoogle Books. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  17. ^ cdragon.com.cn Tulufang. None. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  18. ^ www.cdragon.com.cn tulufang2. Cdragon.com.cn. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  19. ^ ­đĽN¤k´EšĎ. Epochtimes.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  20. ^ ¤k´EŠMĽńżŞ. Epochtimes.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  21. ^ CBETA T21 No. 1311¡m±ë¤Ñ¤õù¤EÂ`¡n¨÷1. Cbeta.org. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  22. ^ gol.com kitora. .gol.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  23. ^ gol.com kitchtb. None. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  24. ^ cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp. cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  25. ^ astro.ysc.go.jp
  26. ^ Big dipper aeea.nmns.edu Taiwan. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  27. ^ AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  28. ^ AEEA ¤Ñ¤å±Ð¨|¸ê°Tºô. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  29. ^ Öйú¹Å´úÌìÎÄÒÇÆ÷. Nongli.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  30. ^ [3][dead link]
  31. ^ http://159.226.2.5:89/gate/big5/www.kepu.com.cn/gb/technology/ancientech/ancientech_astronomy/1.20b.html
  32. ^ http://www.cdragon.com.cn/uploadfile/2005123193751192.gif
  33. ^ [4][dead link]
  34. ^ Ancient Chinese Celestial Charts. Chinapage.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  35. ^ Episode II-Chinese Astrology. Students.ou.edu. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  36. ^ [5][dead link]
  37. ^ http://www.cdragon.com.cn/uploadfile/2005123193231686.gif
  38. ^ http://vm.nthu.edu.tw/history/shows/show01/astronomical.chart/contents/chart01/images/chart01.jpg
  39. ^ 科學館展覽計畫. Vm.nthu.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  40. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/gubub/chunsangjo.htm
  41. ^ a b c [6][dead link]
  42. ^ http://nmazca.com/3142857/sejong_stele_star_map.jpg
  43. ^ Korean History – Early Choson Period. Asianinfo.org. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  44. ^ a b [7][dead link]
  45. ^ 利玛窦 - 维库,知识与思想的自由文库,基于Wei ke(维客)
  46. ^ 三民網路書店>渾蓋通憲圖說簡平儀說合編-星命經典大系13. Sanmin.com.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  47. ^ http://www.showchina.org/zt/zggdfm/dwdfm/200808/W020080814306866813878.jpg
  48. ^ [8][dead link]
  49. ^ 和合四象圖 – 黃元吉(黃裳)真人大願︰繼去聖傳絕學;渡原靈回本來 – Yahoo!奇摩部落格. Tw.myblog.yahoo.com (2009-11-19). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  50. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  51. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  52. ^ a b c ¤¤°ê¥j¤Ñ¤å¦¨´N®i. Lcsd.gov.hk. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  53. ^ http://www.scienceall.com/sa0them/03/04e/index.jsp?fId=3859&cId=93045&selMenu=ad
  54. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  55. ^ 科學館展覽計畫. Vm.nthu.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  56. ^ Celestial Globe – 天体仪 – Chinese Astronomy – 中国天文学 – History -历史. Hua.umf.maine.edu. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  57. ^ 科学史展示室. Sci-museum.kita.osaka.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  58. ^ (Japanese) 天文分野之圖. Db.yamahaku.pref.yamaguchi.lg.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  59. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/gubub/chunsangsuk.htm
  60. ^ WebCite query result
  61. ^ Star Charts and Moon Stations. .gol.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  62. ^ Moon Station Figures for The Sky Level IV Version 5. .gol.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  63. ^ http://ddb.libnet.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/exhibit/b62/image/01/b62s0001.html
  64. ^ 天文成象 / 保井春海Bao Jing chun Mei [著] ; 保井昔尹Bao Jing xi Yin [編]. Wul.waseda.ac.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  65. ^ a b c 貴重資料-NAOJ Library. Library.nao.ac.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  66. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  67. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/gubub/pilchunsang.htm
  68. ^ CCTV-国家地理-百件精品2004. Cctv.com (2005-01-21). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  69. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  70. ^ 江戸時代の星図インデックス. Tsm.toyama.toyama.jp. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  71. ^ [9][dead link]
  72. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/sinbub/hwangchong.htm
  73. ^ http://www.museum.seoul.kr/web_data/theme_data/science/66_1_ba54-1.jpg
  74. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  75. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/sinbub/honchon.htm
  76. ^ [10][dead link]
  77. ^ http://aries.rice.edu/website/jingban/viewer.htm
  78. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  79. ^ [11][dead link]
  80. ^ 罕见的古代星象图现身[图文]. Astro.lady.qq.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  81. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/sinbub/hwangjung.htm
  82. ^ WebCite query result
  83. ^ [12][dead link]
  84. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  85. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/gubub/chunsangyoung.htm
  86. ^ http://multiclub.co.kr/jungsun/astronomy/gubub/pilchunmun.htm
  87. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  88. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  89. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  90. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  91. ^ 《欽定儀象考成續編》 (圖書館) – 中國哲學書電子化計劃. Ctext.org (2011-07-06). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  92. ^ http://library.nao.ac.jp/naoreport/8-34-3.pdf
  93. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  94. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  95. ^ 테마박물관-테마02(조선의과학문화재)-상세보기. Museum.seoul.kr. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  96. ^ http://bbs.bjp.org.cn/html/uploads/newbb/1298_46d9439eca5f8.jpg
  97. ^ http://bbs.bjp.org.cn/html/uploads/newbb/1298_46d943b239145.jpg
  98. ^ http://bbs.bjp.org.cn/html/uploads/newbb/1298_46d943d7ea43a.jpg
  99. ^ [13][dead link]
  100. ^ [14][dead link]
  101. ^ http://202.224.39.49/~NR8C-AB/sgs_star5jougen.htm
  102. ^ Four Gods Heaven and Earth. Sempai.org. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  103. ^ http://soft.66169.com/66664lo/jyjx/twdl/sinosky20.zip
  104. ^ AEEA 2006-05. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  105. ^ AEEA 2006-06. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  106. ^ AEEA 2006–07. Aeea.nmns.edu.tw. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  107. ^ [15][dead link]
  108. ^ 中国星官图(12p)_世 博 天的百度空间相册. Hi.baidu.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  109. ^ 二十八宿星图与星表[dead link]. Chancezoo.net. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  110. ^ Language modules for HNSKY. Hnsky.org. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  111. ^ Sky cultures – Stellarium Wiki. Stellarium.org (2011-09-13). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  112. ^ Sky cultures – Stellarium Wiki. Stellarium.org (2011-09-13). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  113. ^ [16][dead link]
  114. ^ [17][dead link]
  115. ^ 中国传统星官图_追真_百度空间. Hi.baidu.com (2007-12-11). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  116. ^ photoshop制作中国星官图 – 酷图欣赏 – 牧夫天文论坛(中国最早的天文论坛,致力于天文和望远镜的科普交流平台) – Powered by Discuz!. Astronomy.com.cn. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  117. ^ 【转贴】极度精美的photoshop制作中国星官图_黑暗四天王吧_贴吧. Post.baidu.com. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  118. ^ 中国传统星官图 – 坐井★观星的个人空间 – 牧夫天文网 – Powered by X-Space. Astronomy.com.cn. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  119. ^ chinese constellations – Google Earth Community. Bbs.keyhole.com (1995-10-27). Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
  120. ^ xingtu | Free Science & Engineering software downloads at. Sourceforge.net. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.