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Chinese herbology (simplified Chinese: 中药学; traditional Chinese: 中藥學; pinyin: zhōngyào xué) is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
The term herbology is misleading in so far as plant elements are by far the most commonly, but not solely used substances; animal, human, and mineral products are also utilized. Thus, the term "medicinal" (instead of herb) is usually preferred as a translation for 药 (pinyin: yào).
Chinese herbs have been used for centuries. Among the earliest literature are lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by the manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tombs which were sealed in 168 BC.
The first traditionally recognized herbalist is Shénnóng (神农, lit. "Divine Farmer"), a mythical god-like figure, who is said to have lived around 2800 BC. He allegedly tasted hundreds of herbs and imparted his knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants to farmers. His Shénnóng Běn Cǎo Jīng (神农本草经, Shennong's Materia Medica) is considered as the oldest book on Chinese herbal medicine. It classifies 365 species of roots, grass, woods, furs, animals and stones into three categories of herbal medicine:
The original text of Shennong's Materia Medica has been lost; however, there are extant translations. The true date of origin is believed to fall into the late Western Han dynasty (i.e., the first century BC).
The Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was collated by Zhang Zhongjing, also sometime at the end of the Han dynasty, between 196 and 220 CE. Focusing on drug prescriptions, it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang and the Five Phases with drug therapy. This formulary was also the earliest Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically useful "patterns" (zheng 證) that could serve as targets for therapy. Having gone through numerous changes over time, it now circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song dynasty.
Succeeding generations augmented these works, as in the Yaoxing Lun (simplified Chinese: 药性论; traditional Chinese: 藥性論; literally "Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs"), a 7th century Tang Dynasty Chinese treatise on herbal medicine.
Arguably the most important of these later works is the Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu) compiled during the Ming dynasty by Li Shizhen, which is still used today for consultation and reference.
There are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal recipes recorded in the ancient literature. Plant elements and extracts are by far the most common elements used. In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - out of these, only 45 were animal parts, and 30 were minerals. For many plants used as medicinals, detailed instructions have been handed down not only regarding the locations and areas where they grow best, but also regarding the best timing of planting and harvesting them.
Some animal parts used as medicinals can be considered rather strange such as cows' gallstones. In general, Chinese traditional medicine emphasizes the penis of animals as therapeutic. Snake oil, which is used traditionally for joint pain as a liniment was extensively marketed in the West in the late 1800s and early 1900s and wildly claimed to be effective in treating many maladies; however, there is no clinical evidence that it is effective.
Traditional Chinese Medicine also includes some human parts: the classic Materia medica (Bencao Gangmu) describes the use of 35 human body parts and excreta in medicines, including bones, fingernail, hairs, dandruff, earwax, impurities on the teeth, feces, urine, sweat, and organs, but most are no longer in use.
Each herbal medicine prescription is a cocktail of many substances, usually tailored to the individual patient.
Typically, one batch of medicinals is prepared as a decoction of about 9 to 18 substances. Some of these are considered as main herbs, some as ancillary herbs; within the ancillary herbs, up to three categories can be distinguished. Some ingredients are added in order to cancel out toxicity or side-effects of the main ingredients; on top of that, some medicinals require the use of other substances as catalysts.
Chinese patent medicine (traditional Chinese: 中成藥, Simplified Chinese: 中成药, pinyin: zhōngchéng yào) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. They are standardized herbal formulas. From ancient times, pills were formed by combining several herbs and other ingredients, which were dried and ground into a powder. They were then mixed with a binder and formed into pills by hand. The binder was traditionally honey. Modern teapills, however, are extracted in stainless steel extractors to create either a water decoction or water-alcohol decoction, depending on the herbs used. They are extracted at a low temperature (below 100 degrees Celsius) to preserve essential ingredients. The extracted liquid is then further condensed, and some raw herb powder from one of the herbal ingredients is mixed in to form an herbal dough. This dough is then machine cut into tiny pieces, a small amount of excipients are added for a smooth and consistent exterior, and they are spun into pills. Teapills are characteristically little round black pills.
Chinese patent medicines are easy and convenient. They are not easy to customize on a patient-by-patient basis, however. They are often used when a patient's condition is not severe and the medicine can be taken as a long-term treatment.
These medicines are not patented in the traditional sense of the word. No one has exclusive rights to the formula. Instead, "patent" refers to the standardization of the formula. In China, all Chinese patent medicines of the same name will have the same proportions of ingredients, and manufactured in accordance with the PRC Pharmacopoeia, which is mandated by law. However, in western countries there may be variations in the proportions of ingredients in patent medicines of the same name, and even different ingredients altogether.
Several producers of Chinese herbal medicines are pursuing FDA clinical trials to market their products as drugs in U.S. and European markets.
Chinese herbal extracts are herbal decoctions that have been condensed into a granular or powdered form. Herbal extracts, similar to patent medicines, are easier and more convenient for patients to take. The industry extraction standard is 5:1, meaning for every five pounds of raw materials, one pound of herbal extract is derived.
There are several different methods to classify traditional Chinese medicinals:
The Four Natures are: hot(热), warm(温), cool(凉), cold(寒) or neutral(平), in terms of temperature). Hot and warm herbs are used to treat cold diseases, while cool and cold herbs are used to treat heat diseases.
The Five Flavors, sometimes also translated as Five Tastes, are: acrid/pungent(辛), sweet(甘), bitter(苦), sour(酸), and salty(咸). Substances may also have more than one flavor, or none (i.e., a bland(淡) flavor). Each of the Five Flavors corresponds to one of the zàng organs, which in turn corresponds to one of the Five Phases: A flavor implies certain properties and therapeutic actions of a substance: saltiness "drains downward and softens hard masses"; sweetness is "supplementing, harmonizing, and moistening"; pungent substances are thought to induce sweat and act on qi and blood; sourness tends to be astringent(涩) in nature; bitterness "drains heat, purges the bowels, and eliminates dampness".
This classification refers not just to the meridian, but also to the meridian-associated zàng-organ, which can be expected to be primarily affected by a given medicinal (there are 12 standard meridians in the body a medicinal can act upon). For example, traditional beliefs hold that menthol is pungent and cool and goes to the Lung and the Liver channels. The Traditional Chinese concept of the Lungs includes the function of protecting the body from colds, and menthol is thought to cool the Lungs and purge heat toxins caused by wind-heat invasion (one of the patterns of common cold).
These categories mainly include:
Many herbs earn their names from their unique physical appearance. Examples of such names include Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae seu Achyranthis), "cow's knees," which has big joints that might look like cow knees; Bai Mu Er (Fructificatio Tremellae Fuciformis), white wood ear,' which is white and resembles an ear; Gou Ji (Rhizoma Cibotii), 'dog spine,' which resembles the spine of a dog.
Color is not only a valuable means of identifying herbs, but in many cases also provides information about the therapeutic attributes of the herb. For example, yellow herbs are referred to as 'huang' (yellow) or 'jin' (gold). Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri) means 'yellow fir," and Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae) has the label 'golden silver flower."
Unique flavors define specific names for some substances. "Gan" means 'sweet,' so Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) is 'sweet herb," an adequate description for the licorice root. "Ku" means bitter, thus Ku Shen (Sophorae Flavescentis) translates as 'bitter herb.'
The locations or provinces in which herbs are grown often figure into herb names. For example Bei Sha Shen (Radix Glehniae) is grown and harvested in northern China, whereas Nan Sha Shen (Radix Adenophorae) originated in southern China. And the Chinese words for north and south are respectively "bei" and "nan."
Chuan Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae) and Chuan Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae) are both found in Sichuan province, as the character "chuan" indicates in their names.
Some herbs, like Fang Feng (Radix Saposhnikoviae), literally 'prevent wind," prevents or treats wind-related illnesses. Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci), literally 'restore the broken,' effectively treats torn soft tissues and broken bones.
Many herbs indigenous to other countries have been incorporated into the Chinese materia medica. Xi Yang Shen (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii), imported from North American crops, translates as 'western ginseng," while Dong Yang Shen (Radix Ginseng Japonica), grown in and imported from North Asian countries, is 'eastern ginseng.' Similar examples are noted in the text whenever geography matters in herb selection.
From the earliest records regarding the use of medicinals to today, the toxicity of certain substances has been described in all Chinese materiae medicae. The toxicity in some cases could be confirmed by modern research (i.e., in scorpion); in some cases it couldn't (i.e., in curculigo).
Substances known to be potentially dangerous include aconite, secretions from the Asiatic toad, powdered centipede, the Chinese beetle (Mylabris phalerata, Ban mao), and certain fungi. Further, ingredients may have different names in different locales or in historical texts, and different preparations may have similar names for the same reason, which can create inconsistencies and confusion in the creation of medicinals, with the possible danger of poisoning.
Regarding Traditional Chinese herbal therapy, only few trials exist that are considered to be of adequate methodology by modern western medical researchers, and its effectiveness therefore is considered poorly documented. For example, a 2007 Cochrane review found promising evidence for the use of Chinese herbal medicine in relieving painful menstruation, compared to conventional medicine such as NSAIDs and the oral contraceptive pill, but the findings have to be interpreted with caution due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies (as, amongst others, data for placebo control could not be obtained).
The traditional practice of using (by now) endangered species is controversial within TCM. Modern Materia Medicas such as Bensky, Clavey and Stoger's comprehensive Chinese herbal text discuss substances derived from endangered species in an appendix, emphasizing alternatives.
Poachers supply the black market with such substances, including tiger penis and rhinoceros horn. The black market in rhinoceros horn has reduced the world's rhino population by more than 90 percent over the past 40 years. Concerns have also arisen over the use of turtle plastron and seahorses.
TCM recognizes bear bile as a medicinal. In 1988, the Chinese Ministry of Health started controlling bile production, which previously used bears killed before winter. Now bears are fitted with a sort of permanent catheter, which is more profitable than killing the bears. More than 12,000 asiatic black bears are held in "bear farms", where they suffer cruel conditions while being held in tiny cages. The catheter leads through a permanent hole in the abdomen directly to the gall bladder, which can cause severe pain. Increased international attention has mostly stopped the use of bile outside of China; gallbladders from butchered cattle (niú dǎn / 牛膽 / 牛胆) are recommended as a substitute for this ingredient.
There are over three hundred herbs that are commonly being used today. Some of the most commonly used herbs are Ginseng (人参, 人參, rénshēn), wolfberry (枸杞子), Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis, 当归, 當歸, dāngguī), astragalus (黄耆, 黃耆, huángqí), atractylodes (白术, 白朮, báizhú), bupleurum (柴胡, cháihú), cinnamon (cinnamon twigs (桂枝, guìzhī) and cinnamon bark (肉桂, ròuguì)), coptis (黄莲, 黃蓮, huánglián), ginger (姜, 薑, jiāng), hoelen (茯苓, fúlíng), licorice (甘草, gāncǎo), ephedra sinica (麻黄, 麻黃, máhuáng), peony (white: 白芍, báisháo and reddish: 赤芍, chìsháo), rehmannia (地黄, 地黃, dìhuáng), rhubarb (大黄, 大黃, dàhuáng), and salvia (丹参, 丹參, dānshēn).
The use of ginseng (人参) is well over two thousand years old in Chinese medicine. Ginseng contains ginsenosides. The amount of ginsenosides in ginseng depends on how the plant was cultivated and the age of the root. Wild ginseng is rare and commands the highest prices on the market. Red Panax ginseng is the most popular form of ginseng and it is usually packaged as a liquid or tea. Ginseng comes in two kinds, red and white. The color of the ginseng depends on how it is processed. White ginseng is unprocessed and dries naturally. Red ginseng is processed with steam and is believed to be more effective. Native Americans have used American ginseng for dry coughs, constipation, and fevers.
TCM Information: Species: Panax ginseng. Pinyin: Ren Shen. Common Name: Chinese Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen, Heart. Actions: Tonifies yuan qi to treat collapse of qi, tonifies spleen and lung, generates fluids, mildly tonifies heart qi.
Species: Elutherococcus senticosus. Pinyin: Ci Wu Jia. Common Name: Siberian Ginseng. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Slightly bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Heart, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies spleen and kidney, mildly tonifies heart qi, promote blood circulation, calms shen.
Species: Panax quinquefolius. Pinyin: Xi Yang Shen. Common Name: American Ginseng. Quality: Sweet, Slightly bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Lung. Actions: Tonifies lung and spleen qi, tonifies lung yin, cools fire from lung yin deficiency, generates fluids.
Mushrooms have long been used as a medicinal food and as a tea in Chinese herbology. Clinical, animal, and cellular research has shown some mushrooms may be able to up-regulate aspects of the immune system. Notable mushrooms used in Chinese herbology include Reishi and Shiitake.
Wolfberry (枸杞子) is grown in the Far East and is grown from shrubs with long vines. The shrubs are covered with small trumpet-shaped flowers, which turn into small, bright red berries. The berries are usually fresh and sometimes used when dried.
TCM Information: Species: Lycium barbarum. Pinyin: Gou Qi Zi. Common Name: Chinese Wolfberry. Quality: Sweet, Neutral. Meridians: Liver, Lung, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies kidney and lung yin, tonifies liver blood, tonifies jing, improves vision.
TCM Information: Species: Angelica sinensis. Pinyin: Dang Gui. Common Name: Chinese Angelica Root. Quality: Sweet, Pungent(Acrid), Warm. Meridians: Liver, Heart, Spleen. Actions: Tonify blood, invigorate blood, regulate menstruation, relieve pain, unblock bowels by moistening intestine.
TCM Information: Species: Astragalus membranaceus. Pinyin: Huang Qi. Common Name: Astragalus Root, Milkvetch Root. Quality: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Lung, Spleen. Actions: Raise yang qi to treat prolapse, tonify spleen and lung qi, tonify wei qi, increases urination, promotes drainage of pus, generates flesh.
TCM Information: Species: Atractylodes lancea. Pinyin: Cang Zhu. Common Name: Atractylodes Rhizome. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Spleen, Stomach. Actions: Strong to dry dampness, strengthens the spleen, induce sweating, expel wind-cold, clears damp-heat from lower jiao, improves vision.
Bupleurum (柴胡) is believed to be useful for the treatment of liver diseases, skin ailments, arthritis, menopausal syndrome, withdrawal from corticosteroid use, nephritis, stress-induced ulcers, and mental disorders.
TCM Information: Species: Bupleurnum chinense. Pinyin: Chai Hu. Common Name: Hare's Ear Root. Quality: Bitter, Pungent(Acrid), Cool. Meridians: Gallbladder, Liver, Pericardium, San Jiao. Actions: Treats alternating chills and fever, clears lesser yang disorders, relieves liver qi stagnation, raises yang qi to treat prolapse, treats certain menstrual disorders.
Cinnamon (桂枝, 肉桂), mostly gui zhi and rou gui, are twigs and bark from large tropical trees.
Studies show that cinnamon reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes, and the findings suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
TCM Information: Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Gui Zhi. Common Name: Cinnamon Twig. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Warm. Meridians: Heart, Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating, warms and unblocks channels, unblocks yang qi of the chest, treats dysmenorrhea.
Species: Cinnamomum cassia. Pinyin: Rou Gui. Common Name: Cinnamon Bark. Quality: Pungent (Acrid), Sweet, Hot. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonifies kidney yang, leads fire back to its source, disperses cold, encourages generation of qi and blood, promotes blood circulation, alleviates pain due to cold, dysmenorrhea.
TCM Information: Species: Coptis chinensis. Pinyin: Huang Lian. Common Name: Coptis Rhizome. Qualities: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Clears heat and drains damp, drains fire(especially from heart and stomach), eliminates toxicity.
Ginger (姜, 薑) is a herb and a spice that is used in Chinese cuisine. There are four main kinds of preparations in Chinese herbology: fresh ginger, dried ginger, roasted ginger, and ginger charcoal, all made of the rhizomes.
TCM Information: Species: Ephedra sinica or Ephedra intermedia. Pinyin: Ma Huang. Common Name: Ephedra Stem. Quality: Pungent(Acrid), Slightly Bitter, Warm. Meridians: Lung, Bladder. Actions: Induce sweating and release exterior for wind-cold invasion with no sweating, promotes urination, move lung qi for wheezing, cough or asthma.
TCM Information: Species: Paeonia lactiflora. Pinyin: Bai Shao. Common Name: White Peony Root. Quality: Bitter, Sour, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Tonify liver blood, calms liver yang, alleviates flank/abdominal pain from liver qi stagnation or liver and spleen disharmony, preserves yin and adjusts nutritive and protective levels, regulates menses for blood deficiency problem.
Species: Paeonia lactiflora or Paeonia veitchii. Pinyin: Chi Shao. Common Name: Red Peony Root. Quality: Sour, Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Liver, Spleen. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, invigorates blood and dispel stasis to treat irregular menses, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and fixed abdominal masses.
TCM Information: Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Sheng Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root. Qualities: Sweet, Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Clears heat, cools blood, nourishes yin, generates fluids, treats wasting and thirsting disorder.
Species: Rehmannia glucinosa. Pinyin: Shu Di Huang. Common Name: Chinese Foxglove Root Prepared with Wine. Qualities: Sweet, Slightly warm. Meridians: Heart, Kidney, Liver. Actions: Tonifies blood, tonifies liver and kidney yin, treats wasting and thirsting disorder, nourishes jing.
Rhubarb (大黄) is a large root and was once one of the first herbs that was imported from China.
TCM Information: Species: Rheum palmatum, Rheum ranguticum, or Rheum officinale. Pinyin: Da Huang. Common Name: Rhubarb Root and Rhizome. Quality: Bitter, Cold. Meridians: Heart, Large Intestine, Liver, Stomach. Actions: Purge accumulation, cool blood, invigorate blood, drain damp-heat.
TCM Information: Species: Salvia miltiorrhiza. Pinyin: Dan Shen. Common Name: Salvia Root. Qualities: Bitter, Cool. Meridians: Heart, Pericardium, Liver. Actions: Invigorate blood, tonify blood, regulate menstruation, clear heat and soothe irritability.
In Chinese herbology, there are 50 "fundamental" herbs, as given in the reference text, although these herbs are not universally recognized as such in other texts. The herbs are:
|Binomial nomenclature||Chinese name||English Common Name (when available)|
|Agastache rugosa||huò xiāng (藿香)||Korean Mint|
|Alangium chinense||bā jiǎo fēng (八角枫)||Chinese Alangium Root|
|Anemone chinensis (syn. Pulsatilla chinensis)||bái tóu weng (白头翁)||Chinese anemone|
|Anisodus tanguticus||shān làng dàng (山莨菪)|
|Ardisia japonica||zǐ jīn niú (紫金牛)||Marlberry|
|Aster tataricus||zǐ wǎn (紫菀)||Tatar aster, Tartar aster|
|Astragalus propinquus (syn. Astragalus membranaceus)||huáng qí (黄芪) or běi qí (北芪)||Chinese astragalus|
|Camellia sinensis||chá shù (茶树) or chá yè (茶叶)||Tea Plant|
|Cannabis sativa||dà má (大麻)||Cannabis|
|Carthamus tinctorius||hóng huā (红花)||Safflower|
|Cinnamomum cassia||ròu gùi (肉桂)||Cassia, Chinese Cinnamon|
|Cissampelos pareira||xí shēng téng (锡生藤) or (亞乎奴)||Velvet leaf|
|Coptis chinensis||duǎn è huáng lián (短萼黄连)||Chinese Goldthread|
|Corydalis ambigua||yán hú suǒ (延胡索)||Fumewort|
|Croton tiglium||bā dòu (巴豆)||Purging Croton|
|Daphne genkwa||yuán huā (芫花)||Lilac Dahpne|
|Datura metel||yáng jīn huā (洋金花)||Devil's Trumpet|
|Datura stramonium (syn. Datura tatula)||zǐ huā màn tuó luó (紫花曼陀萝)||Jimson Weed|
|Dendrobium nobile||shí hú (石斛) or shí hú lán (石斛兰)||Noble Dendrobium|
|Dichroa febrifuga||cháng shān (常山)||Blue Evergreen Hydrangea, Chinese Quinine|
|Ephedra sinica||cǎo má huáng (草麻黄)||Chinese ephedra|
|Eucommia ulmoides||dù zhòng (杜仲)||Hardy rubber tree|
|Euphorbia pekinensis||dà jǐ (大戟)||Peking spurge|
|Flueggea suffruticosa (formerly Securinega suffruticosa)||yī yè qiū (一叶秋)|
|Forsythia suspensa||liánqiáo (连翘)||Weeping Forsythia|
|Gentiana loureiroi||dì dīng (地丁)|
|Gleditsia sinensis||zào jiá (皂荚)||Chinese Honeylocust|
|Glycyrrhiza uralensis||gān cǎo (甘草)||Licorice|
|Hydnocarpus anthelminticus (syn. H. anthelminthica)||dà fēng zǐ (大风子)||Chaulmoogra tree|
|Ilex purpurea||dōngqīng (冬青)||Purple Holly|
|Leonurus japonicus||yì mǔ cǎo (益母草)||Chinese motherwort|
|Ligusticum wallichii||chuān xiōng (川芎)||Szechuan lovage|
|Lobelia chinensis||bàn biān lián (半边莲)||Creeping Lobelia|
|Phellodendron amurense||huáng bǎi (黄柏)||Amur cork tree|
|Platycladus orientalis (formerly Thuja orientalis)||cèbǎi (侧柏)||Chinese Arborvitae|
|Pseudolarix amabilis||jīn qián sōng (金钱松)||Golden Larch|
|Psilopeganum sinense||shān má huáng (山麻黄)||Naked rue|
|Pueraria lobata||gé gēn (葛根)||Kudzu|
|Rauwolfia serpentina||shégēnmù (蛇根木), cóng shégēnmù (從蛇根木) or yìndù shé mù (印度蛇木)||Sarpagandha, Indian Snakeroot|
|Rehmannia glutinosa||dìhuáng (地黄) or gān dìhuáng (干地黄)||Chinese Foxglove|
|Rheum officinale||yào yòng dà huáng (药用大黄)||Chinese or Eastern rhubarb|
|Rhododendron tsinghaiense||Qīng hǎi dù juān (青海杜鹃)|
|Saussurea costus||yún mù xiāng (云木香)||Costus|
|Schisandra chinensis||wǔ wèi zi (五味子)||Chinese Magnolia Vine|
|Scutellaria baicalensis||huáng qín (黄芩)||Baikal Skullcap|
|Stemona tuberosa||bǎi bù (百部)|
|Stephania tetrandra||fáng jǐ (防己)||Stephania Root|
|Styphnolobium japonicum (formerly Sophora japonica)||huái (槐), huái shù (槐树), or huái huā (槐花)||Pagoda Tree|
|Trichosanthes kirilowii||guā lóu (栝楼)||Chinese Cucumber|
|Wikstroemia indica||liǎo gē wáng (了哥王)||Indian stringbush|
In addition to the above, many other Chinese herbs and other substances are in common use, and these include:
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