Descendants of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici

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Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici were married on October 28, 1533, and their marriage produced ten children. Henry and Catherine became the ancestors of monarchs of several countries. Some of their descendants were doomed historical figures, like Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and her loyal companion and friend, the Madame de Lamballe, brilliant military commanders like Prince Eugene of Savoy and Louis William of Baden, later Kings of France, like Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France and famous personalities such as actress Brooke Shields, among many others. This article elaborates on descent from Henry and Catherine, and how it can still be traced till today.

Background, pedigree and family ties[edit]

Both Henry and Catherine were from illustrious families and had notable people in their respective family trees.

Henry II of France

Henry II of France[edit]

Henry's father was Francis I of France, the patron of Leonardo da Vinci and a member of the Valois-Angoulême branch of the House of Valois. His maternal grandfather was Louis XII of France, the conqueror of the Neapolitan Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Milan. Both Kings of France were descendants (in the male line) of Charles V, King of France, and as such represented, as the only extant line of the House of Valois, the descent of Charles, Count of Valois, fourth son of King Philip III of France, from the House of Capet.

Henry's maternal grandmother was Anne of Brittany, the defiant Duchess Regnant of Brittany and Queen of France twice over. Her grandmother was Eleanor of Navarre, the daughter of John II of Aragon and half-sister of Ferdinand II of Aragon. Therefore, this made Henry a distant half-cousin of his son-in-law Philip II of Spain. This also made him a second cousin once-removed of his other son-in-law, Henry IV of France, who was also his 7th cousin, 4 times removed, through their common male-line ancestor, St. Louis of France. Also, Henry was a direct matrilineal descendant of Blanca Núñez de Lara.

Catherine de' Medici

Catherine de' Medici[edit]

Catherine's father and grandfather were Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino and Piero the Unfortunate respectively. The latter was a son of Lorenzo il Magnifico, the great Renaissance ruler of Florence. This made Catherine a scion of the illustrious House of Medici. Also her guardian till her marriage was Pope Clement VII, formerly Giulio De'Medici, illegitimate son of Giuliano De'Medici, brother of Lorenzo il Magnifico. Therefore from her father's side, Catherine had high Italian ancestry.

Her mother was from the House of La Tour d'Auvergne, her father being the last Count of Boulogne from the aforementioned House. Through her mother, Catherine's ancestry stretched back to Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, who was part of the invading army of William, the Conqueror in the Battle of Hastings. Interestingly, Catherine was also a descendant of William the Conqueror himself, through his grandson, Stephen of England, whose daughter Marie of Boulogne was a direct ancestor of Catherine. Her maternal grandmother Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme was a direct patrilineal descendant of Louis, the first duke of Bourbon. This made Catherine a direct descendant of Louis IX of France, and of the House of Capet, albeit through a female line. Also this made her a 7th cousin, once removed of her husband Henry and a 6th cousin, 3 times removed of Henri of Navarre, her son-in-law.

Children[edit]

During their marriage, the royal couple faced health problems with their children: their fourth child, Louis, died when he was a baby and Catherine almost died giving birth to her youngest children who were the twins, Joan and Victoria. After their birth the doctors told Henry and Catherine that their marriage should not produce more children.

The following table lists all the children of Henry and Catherine.

NamePortraitBirthDeathMarriages and Issue/Notes
Francis II, King of FranceFrancoisII.jpgJanuary 19, 1544December 5, 1560Married Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587) in 1558. Had no issue.
Elizabeth of FranceElisabethdevalois44.JPGApril 2, 1545October 3, 1568Married Philip II, King of Spain (1527–1598) in 1559. Had issue.
Claude of FranceClaude of Valois.jpgNovember 12, 1547February 21, 1575Married Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (1543–1608). Had issue.
Louis, Duke of OrléansD2ed0a7b2a.jpgFebruary 3, 1549October 24, 1549Died young; no issue
Charles IX, King of FranceCharles IX of France3.jpgJune 27, 1550May 30, 1574Married Elizabeth of Austria (1554–1592) in 1570. Had one legitimate daughter who died young.
Henry III, King of FranceHenri III Versailles.jpgSeptember 19, 1551August 2, 1589Married Louise of Lorraine in 1575. Had no issue. Briefly King of Poland in 1574.
Margaret of FranceMargot00.jpegMay 14, 1553March 27, 1615Known as "Queen Margot". Married Henry IV, King of France. Divorced and had no issue.
Hercules, Duke of AnjouFd'Alençon.jpgMarch 18, 1555June 19, 1584Later known as Francis, Duke of Alençon and Anjou, no issue.
Victoria of FranceLivre d'heures de Catherine de Medicis 04.jpgJune 24, 1556August 17, 1556Died young; no issue
Joan of FranceLivre d'heures de Catherine de Medicis 04.jpg
June 24, 1556
Stillborn; no issue

Descendants of Elizabeth of Valois[edit]

Progeny of Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain[edit]

Name of DescendantPortraitBirthMarriages and IssueDeathMiscellaneous
Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of SpainInfanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain.jpg12 August 1566, Elisabeth of Valois and Philip II of SpainAlbert VII, Archduke of Austria
No surviving Issue
December 1, 1633co-sovereigns of the Spanish Netherlands

Progeny of Catherine Michelle of Spain[edit]

Name of DescendantPortraitBirthMarriages and IssueDeathMiscellaneous
Catherine Michelle of SpainCatalinamicaelaspain65.jpgOctober 10, 1567, Elisabeth of Valois and Philip II of SpainCharles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
4 children
November 6, 1597
Isabella of SavoyIsabella of Savoy1.jpeg11 March 1591, Daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Catherine Michelle of SpainAlfonso III d'Este
7 children
28 August 1626
Francesco I d'EsteFrancesco I d'Este.jpgSeptember 6, 1610, Son of Alfonso III d'Este and Isabella of Savoy
October 14, 1658
Victor Amadeus I, Duke of SavoyVittorio Amedeo I of Savoy1.jpg8 May 1587, Son of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Catherine Michelle of SpainChristine Marie of France
8 children
7 October 1637
Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of SavoyCarlo Emanuele II di Savoia.jpg20 June 1634, Son of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of FranceFrançoise Madeleine d'Orléans
Marie Jeanne of Savoy
1 child
12 June 1675
Victor Amadeus II of SardiniaVictor Amadeus II of Sardinia.jpg14 May 1666, Son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of SavoyAnne Marie d'Orléans
Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumiana
5 children
31 October 1732
Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy1636 Adelheid.gif6 November 1636, Daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of FranceFerdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
4 children
18 March 1676
Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of BavariaVictoire de Bavière, dauphine de France apres Mignard.jpg28 November 1660, Daughter of Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy and Ferdinand Maria, Elector of BavariaLouis, Dauphin of France
3 children
20 April 1690
Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of BavariaGiuseppe Volpini Kurfuerst Max Emanuel um 1720-1.jpgJuly 11, 1662, Son of Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy and Ferdinand Maria, Elector of BavariaMaria Antonia of Austria
Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska
5 children
February 26, 1726
Margaret of Savoy, Vicereine of PortugalMarguerite of Savoy.jpg28 April 1589, Daughter of Catherine Michelle of Spain and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of SavoyFrancesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua
1 child
26 June 1655
Maria Gonzaga, Duchess of MontferratMaria Gonzaga.jpg29 July 1609, Daughter of Margaret of Savoy, Vicereine of Portugal and Francesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of MantuaCharles II Gonzaga
2 children
14 August 1660
Eleanor GonzagaFrans Luycx 005.jpg18 November 1630, Daughter Maria Gonzaga, Duchess of Montferrat and Charles II GonzagaFerdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
2 children
6 December 1686
Eleonora Maria of AustriaSchultz Eleonora Wiśniowiecka.jpg31 May 1653, Daughter of Eleanor Gonzagaand Ferdinand III, Holy Roman EmperorMichael Korybut
Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
2 children
17 Dec 1697
Thomas Francis, Prince of CarignanoTomasso Francisco savoycarignano.jpgDecember 21, 1596, Son of Catherine Michelle of Spain and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of SavoyMarie de Bourbon, Countess of Soissons
3 children
January 22, 1656

Descendants of Claude of Valois[edit]

Progeny of Henry II, Duke of Lorraine[edit]

NamePortraitBirth and ParentsMarriages and IssueDeathMiscellaneous
Henry II, Duke of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svgNovember 8, 1563, Claude of Valois and Charles III, Duke of LorraineCatherine of Navarre, Duchess of Lorraine
Margerita Gonzaga
2 children
July 31, 1621
Nicolette of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svgOctober 3, 1608, Daughter of Henry II, Duke of Lorraine and Margerita GonzagaCharles IV, Duke of Lorraine
No Issue
February 2, 1657
Claude of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svg6 October 1612, Daughter of Henry II, Duke of Lorraine and Margerita GonzagaNicholas II, Duke of Lorraine
1 child
2 August 1648

Progeny of Christine of Lorraine[edit]

Name of DescendantPortraitBirthMarriages and IssueDeathMiscellaneous
Christina of LorraineChristine of Lorraine Medici4.jpg16 August 1565, Daughter of Claude of Valois and Charles III, Duke of LorraineFerdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
5 children
19 December 1637
Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of TuscanyJustus Sustermans 031.jpg12 May 1590, Son of Ferdinando I de' Medici and Christina of LorraineMaria Maddalena of Austria
8 children
28 February 1621
Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of TuscanyFerdinando II de Medici.jpg14 July 1610, Son of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Maddalena of AustriaVittoria della Rovere
2 children
23 May 1670
Margherita de' MediciJustus Sustermans 018.jpgMay 31, 1612, Daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Maddalena of AustriaOdoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma
5 children
February 6, 1679
Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma4465 - Piacenza - Ranuccio Farnese (di Francesco Mochi) - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 14-7-2007.jpg17 September 1630, Son of Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, and Margherita de' MediciMarguerite Yolande of Savoy
Isabella d’Este
Maria d'Este
3 children
11 December 1694
Elisabeth of ParmaIsabel de Farnesio.jpg22 October 1692, Daughter of Odoardo II Farnese and Dorothea Sophie of the Palatinate-Neuburg
Granddaughter of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma
Philip V of Spain
7 children
11 July 1766
Anna de’MediciJustus Sustermans 011.jpg21 July 1616, Daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Maddalena of AustriaFerdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria
1 child
11 September 1676
Claudia Felicitas of AustriaCarlo Dolci 003.jpg30 May 1653, daughter of Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria and Anna de’MediciLeopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
2 children
8 April 1676
Claudia de' MediciLorenzo Lippi 002.jpgJune 4, 1604, Daughter of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Christina of LorraineFederico della Rovere
Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
5 children
December 25, 1648
Vittoria della RovereGiusto Suttermans, Vittoria dell Rovere come Flora.jpg7 February 1622, Daughter of Claudia de' Medici and Federico della RovereFerdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
2 children
5 March 1694
Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further AustriaFrans Luycx 009.jpgMay 17, 1628, Son of Claudia de' Medici and Leopold V, Archduke of AustriaAnna de’Medici
1 child
December 30, 1662
Archduchess Isabella Clara of AustriaAnonym Erzherzogin Isabella Klara.jpgc. 1629, Daughter of Claudia de' Medici and Leopold V, Archduke of AustriaCharles III, Duke of Mantua
1 child
c. 1685
Ferdinand Charles, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat1709 - Charles III Ferdinand de Gonzague, duc de Mantoue (Versailles, copie).jpgAugust 31, 1652, Son of Archduchess Isabella Clara of Austria and Charles III, Duke of MantuaAnna Isabella Gonzaga
Susanne de Lorraine
No Issue
July 5, 1708
Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further AustriaGiovanni Maria Morandi 002.jpg27 November 1630, Son of Claudia de' Medici and Leopold V, Archduke of AustriaNever married
No Issue
25 June 1665
Maria Leopoldine of AustriaLorenzo Lippi 005.jpg6 April 1632, Daughter of Claudia de' Medici and Leopold V, Archduke of AustriaFerdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
1 child
7 August 1649

Progeny of Francis II, Duke of Lorraine[edit]

Name of DescendantPortraitBirth and ParentsMarriages and IssueDeathMiscellaneous
Francis II, Duke of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svgFebruary 27, 1572, Claude of Valois and Charles III, Duke of LorraineChristina of Salm
3 chilkdren
October 14, 1632
Charles IV, Duke of LorraineCharles IV of Lorraine.jpgApril 5, 1604, Son of Claude of Valois and Charles III, Duke of LorraineNicolette of Lorraine
Béatrice de Cusance
3 children
September 18, 1675
Anne of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svgc. 1639, Daughter of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine and Béatrice de CusanceFrançois Marie, Prince of Lillebonne
3 children
c. 1720
Élisabeth Thérèse de LorraineÉlisabeth Thérèse de Lorraine, princesse d'Epinoy Demahis Etienne-Achille.jpg5 April 1664, Daughter of Anne de Lorraine and François Marie, Prince of LillebonneLouis de Melun
2 children
7 March 1748
Anne Julie de MelunBlason ville fr Melun (SeineMarne).pngc. 1698, Daughter of Élisabeth Thérèse de Lorraine and Louis de MelunJules, Prince of Soubise
3 children
18 May 1724
Charles, Prince of SoubiseCRohan-Soubise.jpg16 July 1715, Son of Anne Julie de Melun and Jules, Prince of SoubiseAnne Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne
Princess Anna Teresa of Savoy
Landgravine Anna Viktoria of Hesse-Rotenburg
2 children
4 July 1787
Charlotte de RohanCharlotte de Rohan, Princess of Condé by Ribou.jpg7 October 1737, Daughter of Charles, Prince of Soubise and Anne Marie Louise de La Tour d'AuvergneLouis Joseph, Prince of Condé
2 children
4 March 1760
Louis Henri, Prince of CondéCondé, Louis VI Henri de - 2.jpg13 April 1756, Son of Charlotte de Rohan and Louis Joseph, Prince of CondéBathilde d'Orléans
1 child
30 August 1830
Victoire de RohanMarie Thérèse Charlotte of France with her governess.jpg28 December 1743, Daughter of Charles, Prince of Soubise and Princess Anna Teresa of SavoyHenri Louis, Prince of Guéméné
3children
20 September 1807
Nicholas II, Duke of LorraineCOA Cardinal de Lorraine.svgDecember 12, 1612, Son of Francis II, Duke of Lorraine and Christina SalmClaude of Lorraine
1 child
January 25, 1670
Charles V of LorraineCharles-V-Lorraine.jpgApril 3, 1643, Son of Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine and Claude of LorraineEleonora Maria of Austria
2 children
April 18, 1690
Leopold, Duke of LorraineLeopold-Lorraine.jpg11 September 1679, Son of Charles V of Lorraine and Eleonora Maria of AustriaÉlisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
5 children
27 March 1729
Francis I, Holy Roman EmperorMartin van Meytens 006.jpg8 December 1708, Son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'OrléansMaria Theresa of Austria
16 children
18 August 1765
Marguerite of LorraineAnthonis van Dyck 018.jpg22 July 1615, Francis II, Duke of Lorraine and Countess Christine of SalmGaston, Duke of Orléans
5 children
13 April 1672 (aged 56)
Marguerite Louise d'OrléansMarguerite-Louise d'Orleans.jpg28 July 1645, Daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of LorraineCosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
3 children
17 September 1721 (aged 76)
Élisabeth Marguerite d'OrléansMme de Guise.jpg26 December 1646, Daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of LorraineLouis Joseph, Duke of Guise
1 child
17 March 1696 (aged 49)
Françoise Madeleine d'OrléansFrançoise Madeleine d'Orléans (1648-1664) Duchess of Savoy by Louis Edouard Rioult.jpg13 October 1648, Daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of LorraineCharles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
No Issue
14 January 1664
NamePortraitBirth and parentsDeathMarriages and issue/notes
Elisabeth of LorraineArmoiries Comtes Lorraine-Vaudémont.svg1574
Claude of Valois
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine
1635Married Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria; had no issue
Marie Elisabeth of ValoisMariaElisabettadiValois.jpgOctober 27, 1572
Elisabeth of Austria
Charles IX of France
April 9, 1578Died young; no issue

See also[edit]