Child development stages

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Child development stages describe theoretical milestones of child development, some of which asserted as nativist theories.

This article is based on a general model based on the most widely accepted developmental stages. However, it is important to understand that there is wide variation in terms of what is considered "normal," driven by a wide variety of genetic, cognitive, physical, family, cultural, nutritional, educational, and environmental factors. Many children will reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm. It is important to keep in mind that even a tiny baby is a person. Holistic development sees the child in the round, as a whole person - physically, emotionally, intellectually, socially, morally, culturally and spiritually. Learning about child development involves studying patterns of growth and development, from which guidelines for 'normal' development are drawn up. Developmental norms are sometimes called milestones- they describe the recognised pattern of development that children are expected to follow. Each child will develop in a unique way; however, using norms helps in understanding these general patterns of development while recognising the wide variation between individuals. This page talks mostly about the development of the English language during the language sections.

stages age physical mental social emotional =

Developmental Milestones[1] [2]
AgeMotorSpeechVision and hearingSocial
1–1.5 monthsWhen held upright, holds head erect and steadyCooes and babbles at parents and people they knowfocuses on parents.
  • Loves looking at new faces
  • Starts to smile at parents
  • Startled by sudden noises
1.6–2 monthsWhen prone, lifts self by arms; rolls from side to back.Vocalizes; Cooes (makes vowel-like noises) or babbles.Focuses on objects as well as adults
  • Loves looking at new faces
  • Smiles at parent
  • Starting to smile [4]
2.1–4.5 monthsRolls from tummy to side

Rests on elbows, lifts head 90 degrees Sits propped up with hands, head steady for short time

  • Changes sounds while verbalizing, “eee-ahhh”
  • Verbalizes to engage someone in interaction
  • Blows bubbles, plays with tongue
  • Deep belly laughs
Hand regard: following the hand with the eyes.[5] Color vision adult-like.Serves to practice emerging visual skills.[6] Also observed in blind children.[5]
3 monthsProne: head held up for prolonged periods. No grasp reflexMakes vowel noisesFollows dangling toy from side to side. Turns head round to sound. Follows adults' gaze (joint attention). Sensitivity to binocular cues emerges.Squeals with delight appropriately. Discriminates smile. Smiles often. Laughs at simple things.

reaches out for objects

5 monthsHolds head steady. Goes for objects and gets them. Objects taken to mouthEnjoys vocal play;Noticing colors

Adjusts hand shape to shape of toy before picking up

6 monthsTransfers objects from one hand to the other. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine. Palmar grasp of cube hand to hand eye coordination [4]Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada'; babbles (consonant-vowel combinations)Localises sound 45 cm lateral to either ear. Visual acuity adult-like (20/20). Sensitivity to pictorial depth cues (those used by artists to indicate depth) emerges.May show Stranger anxiety
9–10 monthsWiggles and crawls. Sits unsupported. Picks up objects with pincer graspBabbles tunefullyLooks for toys droppedApprehensive about strangers
1 yearStands holding furniture. Stands alone for a second or two, then collapses with a bumpBabbles 2 or 3 words repeatedlyDrops toys, and watches where they goCooperates with dressing, waves goodbye, understands simple commands
18 monthsCan walk alone. Picks up toy without falling over. Gets up/down stairs holding onto rail. Begins to jump with both feet. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball'Jargon'. Many intelligible wordsbe able to recognise her favourite songs, and will try to join in.Demands constant mothering. Drinks from a cup with both hands. Feeds self with a spoon. Most children with autism are diagnosed at this age.
2 yearsAble to run. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Builds tower of 6 cubesJoins 2–3 words in sentencesParallel play. Dry by day
3 yearsGoes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Copies circle, imitates hand motions and draws man on request. Builds tower of 9 cubesConstantly asks questions. Speaks in sentences.Cooperative play. Undresses with assistance. Imaginary companions
4 yearsGoes down stairs one foot per step, skips on one foot. Imitates gate with cubes, copies a crossQuestioning at its height. Many infantile substitutions in speechDresses and undresses with assistance. Attends to own toilet needs
5 yearsSkips on both feet and hops. Draws a man and copies a triangle. Gives ageFluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speechDresses and undresses alone
6 yearsCopies a diamond. Knows right from left and number of fingersFluent speech

Physical specifications[edit]

[3]

AgeAverage length/height
(cm)
Length growthAverage weightWeight gainRespiration rate
(per minute)
Normal body temperatureHeart rate (pulse)
(per minute)
Visual acuity
(Snellen chart)
1–4 months50–70 cm (20–28 in)2.5 cm (0.98 in) per month4–8 kg (8.8–17.6 lb)100–200 g per week30 to 4035.7–37.5 °C
4–8 months70–75 cm (28–30 in)1.3 cm (0.51 in) per month(doubling birth weight)500 g per month25 to 50body temperatureheart rate
8–12 monthsApprox. 1.5 times birth length by first birthday9.6 kg (21 lb)
Nearly triple the birth weight by first birthday
500 g per month20 to 45body temperatureheart rate20/100
12–24 months80–90 cm (31–35 in)5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) per year9–13 kg (20–29 lb)130–250 g per month22 to 40body temperature80 to 11020/60
2 years85–95 cm (33–37 in)7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) per year12–15 kg (26–33 lb)
about 4 times birth weight
1 kg per year20 to 35body temperatureheart rate

Milestones by age[edit]

1–4 months[edit]

Physical

Motor development [8]

4–8 months[edit]

[9]

Physical

Motor development

8–12 months[edit]

Physical

Motor development

Toddlers (12–24 months)[edit]

Physical

Motor development

Cognitive development

English Language

Social [11]

Two-year-old[edit]

[12] Physical

Motor development

Cognitive

English Language

Social and emotional

Three-year-old[edit]

[15][16] Physical

Motor development

Cognitive development

Four-year-old[edit]

[17] Physical development

Motor development

Cognitive

English Language

Social development

Five-year-old[edit]

Physical

Motor development

Cognitive

English Language development

Social development

Six-year-old[edit]

Physical

Motor development

English Language

Social and emotional

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Seminars in child and adolescent psychiatry (second edition). Ed. Simon G. Gowers. Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005) ISBN 1-904671-13-6
  2. ^ Berk, Laura E. (2012). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0205011098. 
  3. ^ a b Overview of motor, speech, vision and hearing development. Kids Count (blog), 2012, accessed 25 March 2014
  4. ^ a b http://www.nhs.uk/Tools/Pages/birthtofive.aspx#close
  5. ^ a b Jim McMorran, Damian Crowther, Stew McMorran, Steve Youngmin, Ian Wacogne, Jon Pleat, Clive Prince. "Hand regard – General Practice Notebook". Gpnotebook.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  6. ^ Early Development. Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, tsbvi.edu
  7. ^ http://www.foundationyears.org.uk/files/2012/03/Development-Matters-FINAL-PRINT-AMENDED.pdf
  8. ^ NHS (2013). Birth-to-five development timeline. Last accessed 24.03.2014.
  9. ^ The Early Years Foundation Stage . (2012). Child Development Overview. Available: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/eyfs_cards_0001207.pdf. Last accessed 31.03.2014.
  10. ^ Baby Milestones Slideshow: Your Child's First Year of Development at webMD. Retrieved May 2013
  11. ^ Trawick-Smith, J (2013) Early childhood development: a multicultural perspective. (6th Edition) USA: Pearson.
  12. ^ Harding, J. (2013) Child development: an illustrated handbook. Oxon: Hodder Education.
  13. ^ Parten, M. (1932). "Social participation among pre-school children". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 27 (3): 243. doi:10.1037/h0074524. 
  14. ^ Ruben, K. H., Fein, G. G., & Vandenberg, B. (1983). "Play", pp. 693–744 in E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed.). New York: Wiley, ISBN 0471090654.
  15. ^ Hobart, C. Frankel, J. and Walker, M. (2009). A practical guide to child observation and assessment. (4th Edition.) Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes Publishers
  16. ^ Child development. Early Years Matters, Bury, UK (last accessed 12th March)
  17. ^ Sharman, C. Cross, W. and Vennis, D. (2004) Observing children: a practical guide. London: Continuum.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]