Chiang Mai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Chiang Mai
เชียงใหม่
City Municipality
Top left: view of Chiang Mai's east moat; top right: the chedi of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: view from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Thapae gate; bottom left: aSongthaew share taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Top left: view of Chiang Mai's east moat; top right: the chedi of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: view from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Thapae gate; bottom left: aSongthaew share taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Chiang Mai is located in Thailand
Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Location of the city within Thailand
Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861
Country Thailand
ProvinceChiang Mai Province
Government
 • TypeCity municipality
 • MayorTatsanai Puranupakorn
Area
 • City Municipality40.216 km2 (15.527 sq mi)
 • Metro2,905 km2 (1,122 sq mi)
Elevation310 m (1,020 ft)
Population (2008)
 • City Municipality148,477
 • Density3,687/km2 (9,550/sq mi)
 • Metro960,906
 • Metro density315.42/km2 (816.9/sq mi)
Time zoneThailand (UTC+7)
AirportIATA: CNX – ICAO: VTCC
WebsiteOfficial website
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Chiang Rai.
This article is about the city Chiang Mai. For other uses, see Chiang Mai (disambiguation).
Chiang Mai
เชียงใหม่
City Municipality
Top left: view of Chiang Mai's east moat; top right: the chedi of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: view from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Thapae gate; bottom left: aSongthaew share taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Top left: view of Chiang Mai's east moat; top right: the chedi of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep; middle left: view from Doi Suthep of downtown Chiang Mai; middle right: Thapae gate; bottom left: aSongthaew share taxi; bottom right: Wat Chiang Man
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Location of the city within Chiang Mai Province
Chiang Mai is located in Thailand
Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Location of the city within Thailand
Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861Coordinates: 18°47′43″N 98°59′55″E / 18.79528°N 98.99861°E / 18.79528; 98.99861
Country Thailand
ProvinceChiang Mai Province
Government
 • TypeCity municipality
 • MayorTatsanai Puranupakorn
Area
 • City Municipality40.216 km2 (15.527 sq mi)
 • Metro2,905 km2 (1,122 sq mi)
Elevation310 m (1,020 ft)
Population (2008)
 • City Municipality148,477
 • Density3,687/km2 (9,550/sq mi)
 • Metro960,906
 • Metro density315.42/km2 (816.9/sq mi)
Time zoneThailand (UTC+7)
AirportIATA: CNX – ICAO: VTCC
WebsiteOfficial website

Chiang Mai (Thai: เชียงใหม่  [tɕʰiəŋ màj] ( ), Northern Thai: ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ [t͡ɕīaŋ.màj] ( )) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest and most culturally significant city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province, a former capital of the Kingdom of Lanna (1296–1768) and was the tributary Kingdom of Chiang Mai from 1774 until 1939. It is located 700 km (435 mi) north of Bangkok, among the highest mountains in the country. The city is along the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means "new city" and was so-named because it was the new capital, founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai (founded 1262) in the capital of the Lanna kingdom.

In recent years, Chiang Mai has become an increasingly modern city and has been attracting over 5 million visitors each year, of which between 1.4 million and 2 million are foreign tourists (depending on the year).[citation needed]

Chiang Mai gained prominence in the political sphere in May 2006, when the Chiang Mai Initiative was concluded here between the ASEAN nations and the "+3" countries (China, Japan, and South Korea). Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020 (the others were Chon Buri and Ayutthaya).[1] However, Ayutthaya was the city chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition.[2][3]

It has also recently positioned itself to become a Creative City, and is considering applying for Creative City Status with UNESCO.[4] Chiang Mai is one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisor's list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands in place 24.[5]

Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River and major trading routes.[6][7][8]

While officially the city (thesaban nakhon) of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai district with a population of 160,000, the urban sprawl of the city now extends into several neighboring districts. This Chiang Mai Metropolitan Area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province.

The city is subdivided into four wards (khwaeng): Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila. The first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, and Kawila is located on the east bank. Nakhon Ping district comprises the north side of the city. Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila consist of the west, south, and east respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is mostly within Srivijaya ward.[9]

History[edit]

View of Chiang Mai from Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep
Wat Chiang Man, the oldest Buddhist temple in the city
The north-western corner of the city wall

King Mengrai founded the city of Chiang Mai (meaning "new city") in 1296 on the location of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi.[10][11] Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of the Lanna kingdom. The ruler was known as the Chao. The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall, since nearby Burma was a constant threat as well as the armies of the Mongol Empire which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, China, and in 1292 overran the bordering Thai Lü kingdom of Chiang Hung.[6] With the decline of the Lanna Kingdom, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Burmese in 1556.[12] Chiang Mai formally became part of Siam in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thai King Taksin helped drive out the Burmese. Because of the Burmese counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791.[13] Lampang then served as the capital of what remained of Lanna. Chiang Mai then slowly grew in cultural, trading and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok.[14]

The modern municipality dates to a sanitary district (sukhaphiban) that was created in 1915. This was upgraded to a municipality (thesaban) on March 29, 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80. First covering just 17.5 km2 (7 sq mi), the city was enlarged to 40.216 km2 (16 sq mi) on April 5, 1983.[15]

Climate[edit]

Chiang Mai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw), tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and are much lower than daytime highs. The maximum temperature ever recorded is 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in May 2005.[16]

Climate data for Chiang Mai (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)29.8
(85.6)
32.6
(90.7)
35.2
(95.4)
36.5
(97.7)
34.2
(93.6)
32.7
(90.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
30.1
(86.2)
28.6
(83.5)
32.18
(89.93)
Average low °C (°F)14.9
(58.8)
16.2
(61.2)
19.5
(67.1)
22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
22.2
(72)
19.2
(66.6)
15.7
(60.3)
20.1
(68.2)
Rainfall mm (inches)4.2
(0.165)
8.9
(0.35)
17.8
(0.701)
57.3
(2.256)
162.0
(6.378)
124.5
(4.902)
140.2
(5.52)
216.9
(8.539)
211.4
(8.323)
117.6
(4.63)
53.9
(2.122)
15.9
(0.626)
1,130.6
(44.512)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm)122614141618201451113
 % humidity68585257717779818179757370.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours272.8251.4269.7258.0217.0177.0170.5161.2156.0198.4234.0263.52,629.5
Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sunshine)


A panoramic view of the city of Chiang Mai during the rainy season, September 2010

Emblem[edit]

The city emblem depicts the chedi at Wat Doi Suthep in its center. Below it are clouds, representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a naga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, and rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land.[17]

Religious sites[edit]

Fireworks over Wat Phantao during the extended Loi Krathong festivities in Chiang Mai
The chedi at Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep

Chiang Mai has over 300 Buddhist temples (called "wat" in Thai).[18] These include:

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Thousands of Khom Fai in Mae Jo during Loi Kratong
A truckload of people after getting hit by water during Songkran in Chiang Mai
A street in Chiang Mai

Chiang Mai hosts many Thai festivals, including:

Language[edit]

The inhabitants speak Kham Muang (also known as Northern Thai or Lanna) among themselves, though Central Thai is used in education and is understood by almost everyone. English is used in hotels and travel-related businesses and many educated people speak English.[28] The Kham Muang alphabet is now studied only by scholars, and Northern Thai is commonly written with the standard Thai alphabet.[29]

Museums[edit]

Dining[edit]

Khantoke dinner is an old Lanna Thai tradition in Chiang Mai. It is an elaborate dinner or lunch which is offered by a host to guests at various ceremonies or parties, e.g., at weddings, housewarmings, celebrations, novice ordinations, or funerals. It can also be held for temple celebrations such as celebrations for specific buildings in a Thai temple and at Buddhist festivals such as Khao Pansa, Og Pansa, Loi Krathong, and Thai New Year (Songkran).

Education[edit]

Chiang Mai has several universities, including Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai Rajabhat University, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Payap University, Far Eastern University, and Maejo University—as well as numerous technical and teacher colleges. Chiang Mai University was the first government university established outside of Bangkok. Payap University is the first private institution in Thailand that was granted university status.

Nature[edit]

Nam Tok Huai Kaeo (lit. "Crystal Creek Waterfall") lies at the foot of Doi Suthep on the western edge of the city

Recreation[edit]

Nightlife[edit]

Night Market on Wua Lai Road, south of the center

Nightlife in Chiang Mai consists of numerous bars, several discotheques and live music venues. The discotheques play a variety of music, ranging from electronic dance music to reggae, while live music venues, like the Maya Cafe, feature solo artists as part of the roster.[32][33] Also, Loi Kroh Road, in the center of the city, is well known for the hostess bars that are located along the length of most of the street—the street also features a walk-in arcade, with a Muay Thai boxing ring, near the Imperial Mae Ping Hotel.[34]

Bars and late-night restaurants are located throughout the city, but many can be found on either side of the moat's eastern flank (in the Thaphe Gate area). Live music venues are located in several areas: along the Ping River near Nawarat Bridge; along Immanent road in the western part of the city; or in the vicinity of the night bazaar.[35] The Playhouse Theatre, on Chang Puak road in the old city, offers nightly shows and entertainment, performed by Thai national performers, featuring contemporary jazz, ballet and tap dance performances; the 350-seat venue also offers a unique Lanna dining experience, surrounded by mountains and waterfalls.[36][37]

Karaoke lounges can be found throughout the city, with many found on Chiang Mai Land Road; some very large establishments exist along the length of Chang Klan Road, extending south from the night bazaar.[35] Go-go bars can be found in Chiang Mai, but they are less significant in comparison to karaoke venues—Foxy Lady Night Bazaar, off Thaphe Rd, is one such bar.[38]

Activities[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Songthaew on Wualai Road in Chiang Mai
Tuk-tuks waiting for passengers near Tapae Gate in Chiang Mai

Bus, train and air connections serve Chiang Mai well. A number of bus stations link the city to central and northern Thailand. The Central Chang Pheuak terminal (north of Chiang Puak Gate) provides local services within Chiang Mai Province and the Chiang Mai Arcade bus terminal northeast of the city (requires songthaew or tuk-tuk ride, see below) provides services to over 20 other destinations in Thailand including Bangkok, Ayutthaya, and Phitsanulok. There are several services a day from Chiang Mai Arcade terminal to Bangkok (a 10–12 hour journey).

The state railway operates 14 trains a day to Chiang Mai Station from Bangkok. Most journeys run overnight and take approximately 12–15 hours. Most trains offer first-class (private cabins) and a second-class (seats fold out to make sleeping berths) service..

To get to cities such as Mae Hong Son or Chiang Rai a plane or bus must be used. No trains are available to cities north of Chiang Mai.

International departure hall at Chiang Mai Airport

Chiang Mai International Airport receives up to 28 flights a day from Bangkok (flight time about 1 hour 10 minutes) and also serves as a local hub for services to other northern cities such as Chiang Rai, Phrae and Mae Hong Son. International services also connect Chiang Mai with other regional centers, including cities in other Asian countries.

The local preferred form of transport is personal motorbike and, increasingly, private car.

Local public transport is provided in four forms: tuktuks, songthaews, less frequently rickshaws and the recently re-launched, though infrequent, Chiang Mai bus service. Local songthaew fare is usually 20–50 Thai baht per person for trips in and around the city. If the group of people is larger, the fare per person will be less. Tuk-tuk fare is usually at least 20 baht per trip (comfortable for two, but some can squeeze in four passengers); fare increases with distance. Chiang Mai's local bus service was relaunched in 2006. It serves routes in and around the city, although the service itself lacks the frequency and network available in other major cities.

Tourism[edit]

Courtyard of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep

The Tourism Authority of Thailand's (TAT) website promotes the city as "a place where both backpackers and luxury tourists can enjoy the ultimate Thailand holiday", as the city is "one of the few places in Thailand where it is possible to experience both historical and modern Thai culture coexisting side by side: the city features centuries-old chedis and temples next to modern convenience stores and boutique hotels."[41]

The Tourism Authority of Thailand's Chiang Mai office expects the number of tourists from China to increase by at least 20 per cent this year from 2012, driven by the success of the Chinese film "Lost in Thailand".[42] More than 80 per cent of the film was shot in the northern province.

Chiang Mai has more than 33,000 hotel rooms and Chiang Mai International Airport is Thailand’s third largest, after Suvarnabhumi and Don Mueang in Bangkok.[43]

The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau (TCEB) is aiming to market Chiang Mai as a global MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions) city as part of a five-year MICE plan. In 2012, the total value of the Chiang Mai MICE industry reached 3.9 billion baht, of which 3.8 billion baht was contributed by 46,826 foreign MICE travellers.[43]

Air pollution[edit]

A continuing environmental problem facing Chiang Mai is the incidence of air pollution which primarily occurs for a period of several weeks up to the beginning of April. This issue has been acknowledged for some time. Back in 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference, which was held in Chiang Mai in that year, the then governor of Chiang Mai, Virachai Naewboonien invited guest speaker Dr. Jakapan Wongburanawatt, the Dean of the Social Science Faculty of Chiang Mai University at that time, to discuss the state of Chiang Mai air pollution efforts. Dr. Wongburanawatt stated that back in 1994, there were already increasing numbers of city residents coming to hospitals suffering from respiratory problems associated with city air pollution.[44] The Thailand Pollution Control Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is actively engaged in finding solutions with public awareness campaigns and other initiatives. During this period, unlike the majority of the year, air quality in Chiang Mai often remains below recommended standards with fine-particle dust levels reaching twice the standard.[45] The northern centre of the Meteorological Department has reported that low-pressure areas from China trap forest-fire smoke in the mountains along the Thai-Myanmar border. Chiang Mai’s air quality has been perceptibly deteriorating over the past ten years.[46] This is being addressed by a number of initiatives, and in part, is often seen in cities with increasing economic growth at the expense of a strong corresponding programme to counteract the negative effects of environmental impact. The city is often shrouded in smog during this period leading up to the rainy season. Fine particulate dust levels have sometimes been tested between 190 micrograms and 243 micrograms per cubic meter. (The standard acceptable level in Thailand is 120 milligrams per cubic meter, while the World Health Organization acceptable level is 50 milligrams per cubic meter.[47])

Sister cities[edit]

Chiang Mai has agreements with four sister cities:[48]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S.T. Leng (October–November 2010). "TCEB keen on World Expo 2020". Exhibition Now. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Suchat Sritama (2011-04-05). "Ayutthaya Chosen Thailand's Bid City for World Expo 2020". The Nation (Thailand) Asia News Network. Retrieved 12 Dec 2012. 
  3. ^ Expo 2020
  4. ^ Chiang Mai Citylife: Chiang Mai a Creativity City by James Austin Farrell. Chiangmainews.com (2011-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-12-14.
  5. ^ "Best Destinations in the World - Travelers' Choice Awards". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  6. ^ a b John, Joel. "CHIANG RAI GUIDE By Joel John Barlow - History of Lanna - Forging a Successful Buffer State". Chiangraiprovince.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  7. ^ "Chiang Mai Night Bazaar in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand". Lonely Planet. 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  8. ^ "มหาวิทยาลัยนอร์ท-เชียงใหม่ [North - Chiang Mai University]". Northcm.ac.th. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  9. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality" (in Thai). Chiang Mai City. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  10. ^ AROONRUT WICHIENKEEO (2001–2012). "Lawa (Lua) : A Study from Palm-Leaf Manuscripts and Stone Inscriptions". COE Center of Excellence. Rajabhat Institute of Chiangmai. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  11. ^ See also the Burmese chronicle of Chiang Mai, 'The Zinme Yazawin', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  12. ^ "History of Chiang Mai - Lonely Planet Travel Information". Lonelyplanet.com. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  13. ^ "Thailand's World :General Kavila". Thailandsworld.com. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2012-07-05. 
  14. ^ Jimmy Carter; Rosalynn Carter (2009). "Thailand transformation". Habitat for Humanity. Habitat for Humanity® International. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality — History". Chiang Mai City. 2008. Archived from the original on June 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  16. ^ "Daily Climate Weather Data Statistics". Geodata.us. Retrieved 2012-04-29. 
  17. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality — Emblem". Chiang Mai City. 2008. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  18. ^ 'Lan Na rebirth: recently re-established temples', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  19. ^ 'Wat Phra Singh Woramahaviharn', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  20. ^ ^ 'Wat Chedi Luang: Temple of the Great Stupa', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  21. ^ 'Wat Ku Tao: Chang Phuak's Matermelon Temple', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 1. Chiang Mai , Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  22. ^ 'Wat Rampoeng Tapotharam' in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  23. ^ 'Wat Suan Dok, the Flower Garden temple', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  24. ^ "Churches". Chiang Mai Info. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  25. ^ 'The Muslim Community Past and Present', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW
  26. ^ "Muslim Chiangmai" (bi-lingual Thai-English) (in Thai). Muslim Chiangmai. September 21, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2011. "Samsudin Bin Abrahim is the Imam of Chang Klan Mosque in Chiang Mai and a vibrant personality within Chiang Mai's 20,000 Muslim community" 
  27. ^ a b c "Chiang Mai — A Complete Guide To Chiangmai". Chiangmai-thai.com. 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  28. ^ "Mandarin Oriental Hotel Chiang Mai — Local Info". Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  29. ^ See: Forbes, Andrew, 'The Peoples of Chiang Mai', in: Penth, Hans, and Forbes, Andrew, A Brief History of Lan Na (Chiang Mai City Arts and Cultural Centre, Chiang Mai, 2004), pp. 221-256.
  30. ^ "Thai Coins History". Royal Thai Mint. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "The northernLanna Kingdom ...used ..."pig-mouth" money... Chiangmai has an old coin museum...." 
  31. ^ 'Chiang Mai's Hill Peoples' in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  32. ^ VinnyChaseTV (8 March 2012). "CHIANG MAI NIGHTLIFE - EXCLUSIVE VIDEO" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  33. ^ gloriasb (9 February 2007). "Kevin at Maya Cafe" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  34. ^ Nikita Arbuzov (20 June 2010). "Bars on Loi Kroh rd. ChiangMai Thailand / ЧиангМай Таиланд" (Video upload). YouTube (in English and Russian). Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  35. ^ a b AsiaWebDirect (23 December 2010). "Chiang Mai NIGHT BAZAAR" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  36. ^ "Playhouse Theatre in Chiang Mai, Thailand". Chiang Mai Places. Chiang Mai Places. 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  37. ^ PlayhouseComplex (17 June 2010). "Playhouse Complex Chiang mai : Sequins & Dance" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  38. ^ BEVERLY YOUNG (1 May 2012). "Foxy Lady Go Go Bar Chiang Mai, Thailand" (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  39. ^ 'Shan Silversmiths of Wua Lai', in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  40. ^ Lonely Planet (2012). "Shopping in Chiang Mai". Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "Chiang Mai". Amazing Thailand. Tourism Authority of Thailand. 2003–2010. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  42. ^ Janjira Jarusupawat (12 January 2013). "Film sparks Chinese tourist boom in Chiang Mai". The Nation. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  43. ^ a b "Five-year MICE master plan in the making for Chiang Mai". TTGmice. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  44. ^ Chiang Mai's Environmental Challenges, Fourth International Conference of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement
  45. ^ "Air pollution in Chiang Mai: current air quality & PM-10 levels". Earthoria. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  46. ^ "Chiang Mai's air pollution still high". Nationmultimedia.com. 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  47. ^ "WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global Update 2005". WHO. 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  48. ^ "Chiang Mai Municipality Information Slideshow". Chiang Mai Municipality. Section of Foreign Affairs Chiang Mai Municipality. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  (page 21)

External links[edit]