Charlotte Amalie, United States Virgin Islands

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Charlotte Amalie,
United States Virgin Islands
Downtown Charlotte Amalie
Coordinates: 18°21′N 64°57′W / 18.350°N 64.950°W / 18.350; -64.950
Country United States
Territory U.S. Virgin Islands
Population (2010)
 • Total18,481
ZIP code00801–00804
Area code(s)340
 
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Charlotte Amalie,
United States Virgin Islands
Downtown Charlotte Amalie
Coordinates: 18°21′N 64°57′W / 18.350°N 64.950°W / 18.350; -64.950
Country United States
Territory U.S. Virgin Islands
Population (2010)
 • Total18,481
ZIP code00801–00804
Area code(s)340

Charlotte Amalie (/ˈʃɑrlət əˈmɑːljə/ or /-ˈæməl/), located on St. Thomas, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. Virgin Islands, founded in 1666 as Taphus (meaning "beer houses" or "beer halls" [1]). In 1691, the town was renamed to Amalienborg (in English Charlotte Amalie) after Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel (1650–1714), queen consort to King Christian V of Denmark. It contains a deep-water harbor that was once a haven for pirates and is now one of the busiest port of call for cruise ships in the Caribbean, with about 1.5 million cruise ship passengers landing there in 2004. Protected by Hassel Island, the harbor has docking and fueling facilities, machine shops, and shipyards and was a U.S. submarine base until 1966. The town has been inhabited for centuries. When Christopher Columbus came here in 1493, the area was inhabited by both Carib- and Arawak Indians. It is located on the southern shore at the head of Saint Thomas Harbor. In 2010 the city had a population of 18,481,[2][3] which makes it the largest city in the Virgin Islands Archipelago. Hundreds of ferries and yachts pass through town each week, and at times the population more than doubles.

The city is known for its Danish colonial architecture, building structure and history, and a dozen streets and places throughout the city have Danish names. Charlotte Amalie has buildings of historical importance including St. Thomas Synagogue, the second-oldest synagogue in the Western Hemisphere,[4] and the oldest Lutheran church in the Western Hemisphere, the Frederick Lutheran Church. The town has a long history of pirates, especially stories of Bluebeard and Blackbeard (Edward Teach). In the 17th-century, the Danes built both Blackbeard's Castle and Bluebeard's Castle attributed to the pirates. Blackbeard's Castle is a U.S. National Historic Landmark. Another tourist attraction is Fort Christian, the oldest standing structure in the Virgin Islands Archipelago. A copy of the Liberty Bell is located in Emancipation Park, which is a tourist attraction.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The city was in 1691 named Charlotte Amalie in honor of Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel.

Before the time of the Danish West Indies (1754-1917), the city was known as Taphus for its many beer halls. Taphus is Danish and directly translates to "beer houses" or "beer halls". In 1691 the town received a more respectable name by being named Amalienborg (in English Charlotte Amalie) in honor of Danish king Christian V’s wife, Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel (1650-1714).[6] In English, Charlotte Amalie is pronounced "SHAR-lut uh-MAHL-yuh" or "AH-muh-leh" (/ˈʃɑrlət əˈmɑːljə/ or /-ˈæməl/). In a period between 1921-1936, the city was named St. Thomas. In 1936 it was renamed Charlotte Amalie.[7]

History[edit]

Pre-Columbian era[edit]

On his second voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus encountered numbers of Native Americans living in the present day archipelago of the United States Virgin Islands.[8] Archaeological records indicate that the islands have been home to Indian tribes, including the taíno people, arawak people, kalinago people, and the ciboney people.[9] Several of them lived in present day Charlotte Amalie in small fishing communities. As was the case in most of the Americas, the native population died relatively quickly from disease when the Europeans settled. As the Spanish early focused their energy on Puerto Rico and other Caribbean Islands, Saint Thomas remained unprotected for a long time, leaving Charlotte Amalie’s sheltered coves to be frequented by pirates, including Bluebeard and Blackbeard, as well as mariners and European settlers.[citation needed]

The 17th century[edit]

The Danish West India Company chartered Charlotte Amalie in 1671 after King Christian V decided to secure them for plantations. As early as in 1672, the Danish government began the construction of Fort Christian on the Saint Thomas Harbor in Charlotte Amalie. In 1675, the Danes constructed four pubs near the water’s edge on the western side of the fort. The Danish government supplied convicts to work the plantations, but soon allowed colonists from neighboring islands to settle there, as well to permit the importation of slaves from Africa. In the year of 1680, there were more black African slaves than white European settlers.[10] Adjacent islands of Water- and Buck Island served as pasture lands for the city, and Taphus was renamed Charlotte Amalie in 1691 after King Christian V’s wife. It was the main port of the Virgin Islands Archipelago and was connected to about fifty plantations by one single road, which remains the main highway today.

The 18th century[edit]

Blackbeard's Castle was built on Government Hill in 1679, and is today a U.S. National Historic Landmark.

In the early 18th century, more than 3000 white settlers lived in town and sugar production and slave trading were the economic mainstay. After the Danish Government wanted direct administration of the archipelago in 1754, the capital was moved from Charlotte Amalie to Christiansted on the island of Saint Croix. That partly made the economy in town to transition from slave trading and agriculture to general commerce. The slight couldn’t hamper the city’s growth, as merchants profiteered in arms- and rum trades to belligerent countries. In 1764, Charlotte Amalie was declared a free port by king Frederick V, and the town became the busiest harbor in the Caribbean. The American Revolution in the 1770s was good news for the city, as it was thriving times for the local businessfolk and the town begun to be filled by immigrants from Europe, Africa and the Caribbean, most of them from other islands of the Lesser Antilles. By the year of 1778, the Danish government has strengthened their military position by building both the Bluebeard’s Castle and Blackbeard's Castle as lookout towers on the crests of the two hills by the city. The city prospered as a free port and American, Danish, Sephardic, German, French, British, Italian and Spanish importing houses operated here. In the end of the 18th century, American founding father and future architect of the American Constitution, Alexander Hamilton, decided the town was so wealthy that quote “gold moved through the streets in wheel-barrows”.[11]

The 19th century[edit]

A growing share of the West Indian trade passed through the port in the beginning of the 1800‘s, and the rise of steamships made Charlotte Amalie an ideal coaling station for ships sailing between North- and South America. In 1804, Charlotte Amalie was struck by a horrendous fire that destroyed more than 1200 homes and stores throughout the town. Two more fires came in 1805 and 1806, and the densely settled town lost another thousand buildings. Neighboring islands gradually began importing coal directly from producers, and Charlotte Amalie was sidestepped in trade in the early 1800s. The slavery abolition in 1848 further diminshed Charlotte Amalie’s commercial role and the town suffered from a brutal recession, like most of the Caribbean did following the abolition. During the American Civil War in the early 1860s, the town evolved into a smuggling center for ships running the federal blockade of ports in the Confederacy. As an acknowledgement of the port’s smuggling success, the Danish government decided to move the capital of the archipelago back to Charlotte Amalie in 1871. The latter half of the 1800s was also soon hit by a cholera epidemic that killed thousands.[12] Charlotte Amalie fell into an unsuccessful dormancy until the United States decided to buy the islands from Denmark in 1917.

The 20th century[edit]

Since the end of the Second World War, tourism has by far been the most important industry in Charlotte Amalie.

In 1915, the United States became interested in buying the U.S. Virgin Islands. They were concerned over German infiltration in the Lesser Antilles. The U.S. purchased the Danish West Indies in 1917 for $25 million. Charlotte Amalie was under U.S. Navy rule until 1931. The United States decided to make Charlotte Amalie the main headquarters of the renamed United States Virgin Islands. During the Second World War, the city became a naval base to protect allied shipping to and from the Panama Canal.

When American tourists were barred from Cuba in 1960, some began visiting Charlotte Amalie instead.[citation needed] As a possession of the United States, it’s been a haven for mainland Americans seeking luxury vacations or a second home in the Caribbean. During the mid 20th century, resorts began to be built and direct flights from the U.S. to Charlotte Amalie which increased tourism drastically. During the last half of the century, Charlotte Amalie experienced extraordinary economic growth, largely as a consequence of being a U.S. territory and growing U.S. tourism. The tourism has not only led to a growing economy, but also to preservation and conversion of historic buildings and homes. Many ancient commercial buildings were made into restaurants and shops. During the 1980s and 90s, many historic buildings were restored to how they looked 200 years ago.

The 21st century[edit]

The tourist industry has thrived on the island. Tourism in the town has now begun driving the economy of the USVI, but limited flatlands in the mountainous terrain will constrain Charlotte Amalie’s economic and population growth. The spread of hilltop homes overlooking the Caribbean crystal blue waters have been a recent trend as well.

Geography[edit]

Map of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Located mid-island on the south shore of the mountainous island of Saint Thomas, Charlotte Amalie stretches about 1.5 miles around Saint Thomas Harbor from the Havensight district where the cruise ships land in the east, to Frenchtown and the Sub Base neighborhoods on the west. The red walls of the Danish Fort Christian and the open space of Emancipation Garden and the Vendor’s Market are the center of old town. Many of the city’s historic buildings and businesses stand on the slopes of Government Hill just north of Emancipation Garden. This is “Kongens Quarter”. To the west, spanning the area between Waterfront Dr and Dronningens Gade (Main street), are a score of alleys, each lined with colonial warehouse buildings that have been turned into stores and urban malls. Protected by the peaks of Water Island and Hassel Island, Saint Thomas Harbor makes a deep indentation in the island. The bay affords vistas from lookout points as high as 1,500 feet (460 m), including for instance Drake’s Seat.

Charlotte Amalie is built on three low volcanic spurs called Frenchman Hill (Foretop Hill), Berg Hill (Maintop), and Government Hill (Mizzentop).[7] Charlotte Amalie is located at coordinates 18°21 north and 64°57 west.

Climate[edit]

Charlotte Amalie's average year round temperatures range from 75 °F (24 °C) to 90 °F (32 °C) and the climate features a tropical wet and dry climate. The city has a short dry season that covers from January through March and a wet season that covers the remaining nine months, though technically June, with a monthly average precipitation of 2.35 in (59.7 mm) could be considered a dry season month. While Charlotte Amalie does have a lengthy wet season, outside the months of September through November, the city generally does not see the heavy precipitation that is prevalent in many other cities with a tropical climate. The city is generally very warm and humid. Average temperatures in Charlotte Amalie are at a near constant, with average high temperatures at about 88 °F (31 °C) and average low temperatures at about 75 °F (24 °C).

Climate data for Charlotte Amalie
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)86
(30)
86
(30)
86
(30)
88
(31)
88
(31)
90
(32)
90
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
90
(32)
88
(31)
86
(30)
88.3
(31.2)
Average low °F (°C)72
(22)
72
(22)
72
(22)
74
(23)
76
(24)
77
(25)
78
(26)
78
(26)
77
(25)
76
(24)
75
(24)
73
(23)
75
(23.8)
Precipitation inches (mm)1.89
(48)
1.51
(38.4)
1.52
(38.6)
2.39
(60.7)
3.36
(85.3)
2.35
(59.7)
2.42
(61.5)
3.50
(88.9)
5.34
(135.6)
5.57
(141.5)
5.28
(134.1)
2.74
(69.6)
37.87
(961.9)
Source: [13]

Demographics[edit]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Charlotte Amalie had a population of 18,481. A 76.2% majority are Afro-Caribbeans, while a minority of 13.1% are white. About one percent is of Asian descent. In terms of religion, more than 95 percent of the people describe themselves as Christians. 42% are Baptist, 34% Catholic and 17% Episcopalian.[14]

More than 95 percent of the population are literate.[15]

Although English is the official language, most people speak a dialect called Virgin Islands Creole, which differs from standard English in many ways. Virgin Islands Creole is used informally and standard American English (still spoken with a uniquely Virgin Islands accent) is usually preferred in school, at work and in more formal conversations. Most older children and adults can quickly switch between Virgin Islands Creole and American English. Spanish is spoken by 16.8% and French Patois is spoken by 6.6% of the city's population.[16][17] While Spanish is spoken by immigrants of Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo, various forms of creole are spoken by immigrants from St. Barthelemy, Dominica and Haiti.

Economy[edit]

With more than 1.5 million cruise passengers per year, Charlotte Amalie is the busiest cruise port in the Caribbean.

The economy is based on tourism, handicrafts, jewelry, and the production of rum, bay rum, and jams. As well as being the USVI’s political capital, the city is also the port capital of the U.S. Virgin Islands. With more cruise ship visits a year than any Caribbean island, Charlotte Amalie is the most popular cruise ship destination in the Caribbean Sea.[18] Up to eleven cruise ships can occupy the harbor on any given day – though usually there's about five.[citation needed] About 1.5 million cruise ship passengers visit on average per year.[citation needed] The official currency is the American dollar (USD).

Tourist attractions include Blackbeard's Castle which is one of the most visited attractions in the town,[citation needed] Bluebeard's Castle, 17th-century Fort Christian, the green and distinctive Legislature Building, the 99 steps stairway, Emancipation Garden, Market Square, Seven Arches Museum, St. Thomas Synagogue, the Frederick Lutheran Church and the Weibel Museum. Tourists usually either arrive by airplane at the Cyril E. King International Airport, located approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) west of downtown Charlotte Amalie, or by landing at the cruise ship port located in the area of Havensight. In the 21st century, Charlotte Amalie has benefited from proximity to San Juan, Puerto Rico, where passengers from larger aircraft can transfer to smaller aircraft for a 30-minute flight to Charlotte Amalie. The city has also become a jumping-off place for the other islands in both the U.S.- and British Virgin Islands. Every year, there are more high-speed ferries leaving Charlotte Amalie for St. Croix, St. John and Tortola.[citation needed] There’s a seaplane wharf near the west end of the inner harbor, which take passengers to neighboring islands. During the summer time, there is ferry service between Puerto Rico and Charlotte Amalie.

Because of its duty-free policies, the city is sometimes referred to as "the duty free capital of the world".[19] Visitors can bring home $1,200 in merchandise without paying duty - twice the limit of most of the Caribbean.[clarification needed] Charlotte Amalie has more jewelry shops and perfume venders than anywhere else in the Caribbean, and is known for the outdoor shopping bazaars. On Main Street (Dronningens Gade) is located many major shops; Havensight is another shopping area, with several malls adjacent to the cruise ship docks. Along Dronningens Gade are more than 400 shops, most of them selling jewelry and located within the Havensight Mall. The western end (near the intersection with Strand Gade) is called "Market Square." Once the site of the biggest slave market auctions in the Caribbean Basin, today it is an open-air cluster of stalls where native farmers and gardeners gather daily to sell their produce.

Culture[edit]

The main street of Charlotte Amalie, Dronningens Gade, which in English translates to "the queen's street".

The culture is a mixture of American- and Afro-Caribbean culture, with an influence from Danish colonial history. There are American fast food chains located in the city, as well as local restaurants serving only Caribbean cuisine. Grocery stores contain American items, but also include local items such as rum. Seafood and local produce can be found at open-air markets.


Danish influence[edit]

Named Amalienborg (Charlotte Amalie) in honor of the wife of Danish King Christian V, the Danish influence is strong. The Danish heritage is predominant in several ways in Charlotte Amalie today. The Danes left several castles, cemeteries, churches, forts, town homes, sugar mills and plantation houses that are still standing. Many geographical names have still been kept in Danish and many locals wear Danish names.[20] The most widely spoken language, Virgin Islands Creole, still has many words and expressions left from the Danish language. For instance, Danish words like "skaal" (toast), "berg" (mountain) and "frickadella" (meatballs) are still commonly used.[21] Much of the historic colonial architecture is still standing and words like "street" are more commonly referred to by the Danish translation "gade", pronounced "gah-dah". Charlotte Amalie has the largest collection of colonial buildings in the Caribbean.[18] Most of the buildings are classic Caribbean adaptions of English Georgian architecture built by the Danes, dating to the 1830s.

Transportation[edit]

A road in downtown Charlotte Amalie.

There are three main roads in Charlotte Amalie. Waterfront Drive, also called Veteran’s Drive, fronts the harbor and extends from Havensight Mall to Frenchtown. This four-lane road is best navigated by car or taxi. Main Street, also called Dronningen’s Gade and Norre Gade, runs parallel to the waterfront. Back Street, also called Wimmelskafts Gade, is one block farther inland, also parallel to the shoreline. Street names in the town are remnants of the island’s Danish past.

Highway 30 (Veterans Dr) passes through Charlotte Amalie. Additionally, Charlotte Amalie holds one of two airports in the US Virgin Islands. Cyril E. King Airport (IATA: STT ICAO: TIST) offers regular nonstop service to destinations along the east coast of the United States.

Education[edit]

St. Thomas-St. John School District serves the community. Addelita Cancryn Junior High School and Charlotte Amalie High School serve the area.

Notables[edit]

Alton Augustus Adams was the first African-American bandmaster in the United States Navy.

Gallery[edit]

Saint Thomas Harbor at night. 
City view. 
One of the steep streets on the hillsides. 
View of Charlotte Amalie. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://stthomasusvi.thebeach.vi/st-thomas-history.html
  2. ^ Census Bureau Releases Census 2000 Population Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Census Bureau, July 3, 2001
  3. ^ http://virginislandsdailynews.com/news/census-shows-v-i-s-population-down-2-1.1193325
  4. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program". National Park Service. Retrieved January 28, 2012. 
  5. ^ http://www.vinow.com/stthomas/attractions_stt/attractions_town.php
  6. ^ Carol M. Bareuther, Marlise Kast, Lynda Lohr: Fodor’s Caribbean (page 1075). Fodor’s, 2012. ISBN 9780307929341
  7. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/107526/Charlotte-Amalie
  8. ^ Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince: Frommer's Virgin Islands (page 21). Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009. ISBN 0470549890
  9. ^ http://www.moon.com/destinations/virgin-islands/background/history/early-peoples
  10. ^ Stanley D. Brunn, Maureen Hays-Mitchell, Donald J. Zeigler: Cities Of The World: World Regional Urban Development (page 129). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2008. ISBN 0742555976
  11. ^ James Henderson: Caribbean & The Bahamas. Cadogan Guides, 2005. ISBN 1860112129
  12. ^ Stanley D. Brunn, Maureen Hays-Mitchell, Donald J. Zeigler: Cities Of The World: World Regional Urban Development (page 93). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2008. ISBN 0742555976
  13. ^ "Monthly Averages for Saint Thomas, VI (00801)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  14. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vq.html
  15. ^ CIA Factbook
  16. ^ Detailed Tables – American FactFinder United States Census Bureau Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  17. ^ http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/amsudant/vierges-americaines.htm
  18. ^ a b Randall Peffer, Randall S. Peffer: Virgin Islands (page 92). Lonely Planet, 2001. ISBN 0864427352
  19. ^ http://www.royalcaribbean.com/findacruise/ports/group/home.do?portCode=STT
  20. ^ http://www.virgin-islands-history.dk/eng/vi_hist.asp
  21. ^ http://www.yellowpigs.net/linguistics/viwordlist.pdf
  22. ^ Willard Sterne Randall: Alexander Hamilton (page 18). HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2003. ISBN 0060195495

External links[edit]

Media related to Charlotte Amalie at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 18°21′N 64°57′W / 18.350°N 64.950°W / 18.350; -64.950