Charles Taylor (Liberian politician)

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Charles Taylor
22nd President of Liberia
In office
2 August 1997 – 11 August 2003
Vice PresidentEnoch Dogolea
Moses Blah
Preceded byRuth Perry (Chairperson of the Council of State)
Succeeded byMoses Blah
Personal details
BornCharles McArthur Taylor
(1948-01-28) 28 January 1948 (age 66)
Arthington, Liberia
Political partyNational Patriotic Party
Spouse(s)Jewel Howard (1997–2006)
ChildrenSilvia Zoe Taylor, Charles Emmanuel Taylor, Charen Zally Taylor, Camille Grace Taylor,Phillip Charles Taylor, Charlyne Adrina Taylor, Charal Gina Taylor, Charmaine Taylor, Beuford Jensen Taylor, Gritchawn Taylor, Charishma Taylor, Neilson Taylor, Charmilah Taylor, Charlize Taylor
ReligionPreviously Christianity, now Judaism[1][2][3][4]
 
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Charles Taylor
22nd President of Liberia
In office
2 August 1997 – 11 August 2003
Vice PresidentEnoch Dogolea
Moses Blah
Preceded byRuth Perry (Chairperson of the Council of State)
Succeeded byMoses Blah
Personal details
BornCharles McArthur Taylor
(1948-01-28) 28 January 1948 (age 66)
Arthington, Liberia
Political partyNational Patriotic Party
Spouse(s)Jewel Howard (1997–2006)
ChildrenSilvia Zoe Taylor, Charles Emmanuel Taylor, Charen Zally Taylor, Camille Grace Taylor,Phillip Charles Taylor, Charlyne Adrina Taylor, Charal Gina Taylor, Charmaine Taylor, Beuford Jensen Taylor, Gritchawn Taylor, Charishma Taylor, Neilson Taylor, Charmilah Taylor, Charlize Taylor
ReligionPreviously Christianity, now Judaism[1][2][3][4]

Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (born 28 January 1948) is a former Liberian politician who was the 22nd President of Liberia, serving from 2 August 1997 until his resignation on 11 August 2003.[5]

Born in Arthington, Montserrado County, Liberia, Taylor earned a degree at Bentley College in the United States before returning to Liberia to work in the government of Samuel Doe. After being removed for embezzlement, he eventually arrived in Libya, where he was trained as a guerilla fighter. He returned to Liberia in 1989 as the head of a Libyan-backed resistance group, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, to overthrow the Doe regime, initiating the First Liberian Civil War (1989–96). Following Doe's execution, Taylor gained control of a large portion of the country and became one of the most prominent warlords in Africa.[6] Following a peace deal that ended the war, Taylor coerced the population into electing him president in the 1997 general election.[7]

During his term of office, Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002). Domestically, opposition to his regime grew, culminating in the outbreak of the Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003). By 2003, he had lost control of much of the countryside and was formally indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone. That year, he resigned as a result of growing international pressure and went into exile in Nigeria. In 2006, the newly elected President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf formally requested his extradition, after which he was detained by UN authorities in Sierra Leone and then at the Penitentiary Institution Haaglanden in The Hague, awaiting trial.[8] He was found guilty in April 2012 of all eleven charges levied by the Special Court, including terror, murder and rape.[9] In May he was sentenced to 50 years in prison. Reading the sentencing statement, Presiding Judge Richard Lussick said: "The accused has been found responsible for aiding and abetting as well as planning some of the most heinous and brutal crimes recorded in human history."[10]

Early life[edit]

Taylor was born in Arthington, a town near Monrovia, Liberia, on 28 January 1948 to Nelson and Bernice Taylor. He took the name 'Ghankay' later on, possibly to please and gain favor with the indigenous people.[11] His mother was a member of the Gola ethnic group. According to most reports, his father worked as a teacher, sharecropper, lawyer and judge[12] and was an Americo-Liberian. In 1977, Taylor earned a degree at Bentley College in Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.

Government, imprisonment and escape[edit]

Taylor supported the 12 April 1980 coup led by Samuel Doe, which saw the murder of President William R. Tolbert, Jr. and seizure of power by Doe. Taylor was appointed to the position of Director General of the General Services Agency (GSA), a position that left him in charge of purchasing for the Liberian government. However, he was sacked in May 1983 for embezzling almost $1,000,000 and sending the funds to an American bank account.

Taylor fled to the United States but was arrested on 21 May 1984 by two US Deputy Marshals in Somerville, Massachusetts, on a warrant for extradition to face charges of embezzling $1 million of government funds while the GSA boss.[13] Citing a fear of assassination by Liberian agents,[citation needed] Taylor fought extradition from the safety of jail with the help of a legal team led by former US Attorney General Ramsey Clark. His lawyers' primary arguments before US District Magistrate Robert J. DeGiacomo stated that his alleged acts of lawbreaking in Liberia were political rather than criminal in nature and that the extradition treaty between the two republics had lapsed; in response, Assistant United States Attorney Richard G. Stearns argued that Liberia wished to charge Taylor with theft in office, rather than with political crimes, and that any international political decisions that could hold up the trial should only be made by the US State Department. Stearns' arguments were reinforced by Liberian Justice Minister Jenkins Scott, who flew to the United States to be present at the proceedings.[14] While awaiting the conclusion of the extradition hearing, Taylor was detained in the Plymouth County House of Corrections.[13]

On 15 September 1985, Taylor and four other inmates escaped from the jail. Two days later, The Boston Globe reported that they sawed through a bar covering a window in a dormitory room, after which they lowered themselves 20 feet (6.1 m) on knotted sheets and escaped into nearby woods by climbing a fence.[13] Shortly thereafter, Taylor and two other escapees were met at nearby Jordan Hospital by Taylor's wife, Enid, and Taylor's sister-in-law, Lucia Holmes Toweh. A getaway car was driven to Staten Island, where Taylor then disappeared. All four of Taylor's fellow escapees, as well as Enid and Toweh, were later apprehended.[citation needed]

In July 2009, Mr Taylor himself claimed at his trial, at the UN-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone in the Hague, that US CIA agents had helped him escape from the maximum security prison in Boston in 1985. The US Defence Intelligence Agency did confirm that Mr Taylor first started working with US intelligence in the 1980s but refused to give details on exactly what role Mr Taylor played, citing national security.[15][16]

Civil war[edit]

Taylor managed to flee the United States and shortly thereafter it is assumed that he went to Libya, where he underwent guerrilla training under Muammar Gaddafi, becoming Gaddafi's protégé.[17] Eventually, he left Libya and traveled to the Ivory Coast, where he founded the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL).

In December 1989, Taylor launched a Gaddafi-funded armed uprising from the Ivory Coast into Liberia to overthrow the Doe regime, leading to the First Liberian Civil War.[18] By 1990, his forces soon controlled most of the country. That same year, Prince Johnson, a senior commander of Taylor's NPFL, broke away and formed the Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL). In September 1990, Johnson captured Monrovia, depriving Taylor of outright victory. Doe was captured and tortured to death by Johnson and his forces, resulting in a violent political fragmentation of the country.[19] The civil war turned into an ethnic conflict, with seven factions fighting for control of Liberia's resources (especially iron ore, diamonds, timber, and rubber).

According to a 2 June 1999 article in The Virginian-Pilot,[20] Taylor had extensive business dealings with American televangelist Pat Robertson during the civil war and gave Robertson the rights to mine for diamonds in Liberia's mineral-rich countryside. According to two Operation Blessing pilots who reported this incident to the Commonwealth of Virginia for investigation in 1994, Robertson used his Operation Blessing planes to haul diamond-mining equipment to his new mines in Liberia, despite the fact that Robertson was telling his 700 Club viewers that the planes were sending relief supplies to the victims of the genocide in Rwanda. The subsequent investigation by the Commonwealth of Virginia concluded that Robertson diverted his ministry's donations to the Liberian diamond-mining operation, but Attorney General of Virginia Mark Earley blocked any potential prosecution against Robertson, as the relief supplies were also sent.[21]

Presidency[edit]

After the official end of the civil war in 1996, Taylor ran for president in the 1997 general election. He famously campaigned on the slogan "He killed my ma, he killed my pa, but I will vote for him."[22] The elections were overseen by the United Nations' peacekeeping mission, United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia, along with a contingent from the Economic Community of West African States.[23] Taylor won the election in a landslide, garnering 75 percent of the vote. Although the election was widely reckoned as free and fair by international observers, Taylor had a huge advantage going into the election. He'd already taken over the former state radio station, which referred to him as "His Excellency." Additionally, there was widespread fear that Taylor would resume the war if he lost.

During his time in office, Taylor ran down the Armed Forces of Liberia, dismissing 2,400–2,600 former personnel, many of whom were ethnic Krahn brought in by former President Doe.[24] In its place, he installed the Anti-Terrorist Unit, the Special Operations Division of the Liberian National Police (LNP), which he used as his own private army.

Numerous allegations were leveled at Taylor during his presidency, particularly regarding his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War. He was accused of aiding the rebel Revolutionary United Front (RUF) through weapon sales in exchange for blood diamonds. Due to a UN embargo against arms sales to Liberia at the time, these weapons were largely purchased on the black market through arms smugglers such as Viktor Bout.[25] Furthermore, he was charged with aiding and abetting RUF atrocities against civilians that left many thousands dead or mutilated, with unknown numbers of people abducted and tortured. Moreover, he was accused of assisting the RUF in the recruitment of child soldiers. In addition to aiding the RUF in these acts, Taylor reportedly personally directed RUF operations in Sierra Leone.[26]

Taylor obtained spiritual and other advice from the evangelist Kilari Anand Paul.[27] As president, he was known for his flamboyant style.[28] Upon being charged by the UN of being a gunrunner and diamond smuggler during his presidency, he publicly appeared in all white robes and begged God for forgiveness, while at the same time denying the charges.[28] He was also reported to have said that “Jesus Christ was accused of being a murderer in his time.”[28]

Rebellion and indictment[edit]

In 1999, a rebellion against Taylor began in northern Liberia, led by a group calling itself Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD). This group was frequently accused of atrocities, and is thought to have been backed by the government of neighboring Guinea.[29] This uprising signaled the beginning of the Second Liberian Civil War.

By early 2003, LURD had gained control of northern Liberia. That year, a second Ivorian-backed rebel group, Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL), emerged in southern Liberia and achieved rapid successes.[30] By the summer, Taylor's government controlled only about a third of Liberia: Monrovia and the central part of the country.

On 7 March 2003, the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) issued a sealed indictment for Taylor.[31] Earlier that year, Liberian forces had killed Sam Bockarie, a leading member of the RUF in Sierra Leone, in a shootout under Taylor's orders. Some have claimed that Taylor ordered Bockarie killed in order to prevent Bockarie from testifying against him at the SCSL.[32]

In June 2003, the Prosecutor to the Special Court unsealed the indictment and announced publicly that Taylor was charged with war crimes. The indictment asserted that Taylor created and backed the RUF rebels in Sierra Leone, who were accused of a range of atrocities, including the use of child soldiers.[33] The Prosecutor also said that Taylor's administration had harbored members of Al-Qaeda sought in connection with the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.[34]

The indictment was unsealed during Taylor's official visit to Ghana, where he was participating in peace talks with MODEL and LURD officials. With the backing of the then-South African president Thabo Mbeki and against the urging of Sierra Leone president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, Ghana declined to detain Taylor, who returned to Monrovia.

Resignation[edit]

During his absence for the peace talks in Ghana, it was alleged that the U.S. government urged Vice President Moses Blah to seize power.[35] Upon his return, Taylor briefly dismissed Blah from his post, only to reinstate him a few days later.

In July 2003, LURD initiated a siege of Monrovia, and several bloody battles were fought as Taylor's forces halted rebel attempts to capture the city. The pressure on Taylor increased further as U.S. President George W. Bush stated that Taylor "must leave Liberia" twice that month. On 9 July, Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo offered Taylor exile in his country on the condition that Taylor stay out of Liberian politics.[36]

Taylor insisted that he would resign only if U.S. peacekeeping troops were deployed to Liberia. Bush publicly called upon Taylor to resign and leave the country in order for any American involvement to be considered. Meanwhile, several African states, in particular the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) under the leadership of Nigeria, sent troops under the banner of ECOMIL to Liberia.[37] Logistical support was provided by a California company called PAE Government Services Inc., which was given a $10 million contract by the U.S. State Department.[37] On 6 August, a 32-member U.S. military assessment team were deployed as a liaison with the ECOWAS troops.[38]

On 10 August, Taylor appeared on national television to announce that he would resign the following day and hand power to Vice President Blah. He harshly criticized the United States in his farewell address, saying that the Bush administration's insistence that he leave the country would hurt Liberia.[5]

On 11 August, Taylor resigned, with Blah serving as president until a transitional government was established on 14 October. At the handover were Ghanaian President John Kufuor, South African President Thabo Mbeki, and Mozambican President Joaquim Chissano, all representing African regional councils. The U.S. brought Joint Task Force Liberia's Amphibious Ready Group of three warships with 2,300 Marines into view of the coast. Taylor then flew to Nigeria, where the Nigerian government provided houses for him and his entourage in Calabar.

Exile[edit]

In November 2003, the United States Congress passed a bill that included a reward offer of two million dollars for Taylor's capture. While the peace agreement had guaranteed Taylor safe exile in Nigeria, it also required that he not attempt to influence Liberian politics, a requirement that his critics claimed he disregarded. On 4 December, Interpol issued a red notice regarding Taylor, suggesting that countries had a duty to arrest him. Taylor was placed on Interpol's Most Wanted list, declaring him wanted for crimes against humanity and breaches of the 1949 Geneva Convention, and noting that he should be considered dangerous. Nigeria stated it would not submit to Interpol's demands, agreeing only to deliver Taylor to Liberia in the event that the President of Liberia requested his return.

On 17 March 2006, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the newly elected President of Liberia, submitted an official request to Nigeria for Taylor's extradition. This request was granted on 25 March, whereby Nigeria agreed to release Taylor to stand trial in the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). Nigeria agreed only to release Taylor and not to extradite him, as no extradition treaty existed between the two countries.

Disappearance and arrest[edit]

Three days after Nigeria announced its intent to hand him over to Liberia, Taylor disappeared from the seaside villa where he had been living in exile.[39] One week prior to his disappearance, Nigerian authorities had taken the unusual step of allowing local press to accompany census takers into Taylor’s seaside Calabar compound.

Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo was scheduled to meet with President Bush less than 48 hours after Taylor was reported missing. Speculation ensued that Bush would refuse to meet with Obasanjo if Taylor were not apprehended. Less than 12 hours prior to the scheduled meeting between the two heads of state, Taylor was reported apprehended en route to Liberia.

On 29 March, Taylor tried to cross the border into Cameroon through the border town of Gamboru in northeastern Nigeria. His Range Rover with Nigerian diplomatic plates was stopped by border guards, and Taylor's identity was eventually established. US State Department staff later reported that significant amounts of cash and heroin were found in the vehicle.

Upon his arrival at Roberts International Airport in Harbel, Liberia, Taylor was arrested and handcuffed by LNP officers, who then immediately transferred responsibility for the custody of Taylor to the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL). Irish UNMIL soldiers then escorted Taylor aboard a UN helicopter to Freetown, Sierra Leone, where he was delivered to the SCSL.

Trial[edit]

Newsboard documenting the Charles Taylor case.

The SCSL prosecutor originally indicted Taylor on 3 March 2003 on a 17 count indictment for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the conflict in Sierra Leone. On 16 March 2006, a SCSL judge gave leave to amend the indictment against Taylor. Under the amended indictment, Taylor was charged with 11 counts. At Taylor's initial appearance before the court on 3 April 2006, he entered a plea of not guilty.[40][41]

In early June 2006, the decision on whether to hold Taylor's trial in Freetown or in The Hague had not yet been made by the new SCSL president, George Gelaga King. King's predecessor had pushed for the trial to be held abroad because of fear that a local trial would be politically destabilizing in an area where Taylor still had influence.[6] The Appeals Chamber of the Special Court dismissed a motion by Taylor's defense team, who argued that their client could not get a fair trial there and also wanted the Special Court to withdraw the request to move the trial to The Hague.[42][43]

On 15 June 2006, the British government agreed to jail Taylor in the United Kingdom in the event that he is convicted by the SCSL. This fulfilled a condition laid down by the Dutch government, who had stated they were willing to host the trial but would not jail him if convicted. British Foreign Minister Margaret Beckett stated that new legislation would be required to accommodate this arrangement.[44] While awaiting his extradition to The Netherlands, Taylor was held in a UN jail in Freetown.[45]

On 16 June 2006, the United Nations Security Council agreed unanimously to allow Taylor to be sent to The Hague for trial; on 20 June 2006, Taylor was extradited and flown to Rotterdam Airport in The Netherlands. He was taken into custody and held in the detention centre of the International Criminal Court, located in the Scheveningen section of The Hague.[46] The Association for the Legal Defense of Charles G. Taylor was established in June 2006 to assist in his legal defense.

When Taylor's trial opened 4 June 2007, Taylor boycotted the proceeding and was not present. Through a letter which was read by his attorney to the court, he justified his absence by alleging that at that moment he was not ensured a fair and impartial trial.[47]

On 20 August 2007, Taylor's defense now led by Courtenay Griffiths obtained a postponement of the trial until 7 January 2008.[48] During the trial, the chief prosecutor alleged that a key insider witness who testified against Taylor went into hiding after being threatened for giving evidence against Taylor.[49] Furthermore, Joseph "Zigzag" Marzah, a former military commander, testified that Charles Taylor celebrated his new-found status during the civil war by ordering human sacrifice, including the killings of Taylor's opponents and allies that were perceived to have betrayed Taylor, and by having a pregnant woman buried alive in sand.[50] Marzah also accused Taylor of forcing cannibalism on his soldiers in order to terrorize their enemies.[51]

In January 2009, the prosecution finished presenting its evidence against Taylor and closed its case on 27 February 2009. On 4 May 2009, a defense motion for a judgment on acquittal was dismissed, and arguments for Taylor's defense began in July 2009.[52] Taylor testified in his own defense from July through November 2009.[53] The defense rested its case on 12 November 2010, with closing arguments set for early February 2011.[54]

On 8 February 2011, the trial court ruled in a 2–1 decision that it would not accept Taylor's trial summary, as the summary had not been submitted by the January 14 deadline. In response, Taylor and his counsel boycotted the trial and refused an order by the court to begin closing arguments. This boycott came soon after the 2010 leak of American diplomatic cables by WikiLeaks, in which the United States discussed the possibility of extraditing Taylor for prosecution in the United States in the event of his acquittal by the SCSL. Taylor's counsel cited the leaked cable and the court's decision as evidence of an international conspiracy against Taylor.[55]

On 3 March, the appeals court of the SCSL overturned the trial court's decision, ruling that as the trial court had not established that Taylor had been counseled by the court and personally indicated his intent to waive his right to a trial summary, Taylor's due process rights would be violated by preventing him from submitting a trial summary. The appeals court ordered the trial court to accept the summary and set a date for the beginning of closing arguments.[56] On 11 March, the closing arguments ended and it was announced that the court would begin the process to reach a verdict.[57]

Verdict[edit]

The verdict was announced in The Hague on 26 April 2012.[58] The SCSL unanimously ruled that he was guilty of all 11 counts of "aiding and abetting" war crimes and crimes against humanity.[59] Taylor was convicted of the following 11 charges:[60]

CountCrimeType*Ruling
Terrorising the civilian population and collective punishments
1Acts of terrorismWCGuilty
Unlawful killings
2MurderCAHGuilty
3Violence to life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular murderWCGuilty
Sexual violence
4RapeCAHGuilty
5Sexual slavery and any other form of sexual violenceCAHGuilty
6Outrages upon personal dignityWCGuilty
Physical violence
7Violence to life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular cruel treatmentWCGuilty
8Other inhumane actsCAHGuilty
Use of child soldiers
9Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of 15 years into armed forces or groups, or using them to participate actively in hostilitiesVIHLGuilty
Abductions and forced labor
10EnslavementCAHGuilty
Looting
11PillageWCGuilty
*Explanation of type of crime:
CAH = Crimes Against Humanity
WC = Violation of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II (war crimes)
VIHL = Other serious violation of international humanitarian law

At his trial, Taylor claimed that he was a victim, denied the charges and compared his actions of torture and crimes against humanity to the actions of George W. Bush in the War on Terror.[61] Sentencing hearings commenced on 3 May[62] and were announced on 30 May. Taylor was sentenced to 50 years in prison.[63] His sentence was upheld on appeal.[64]

Sierra Leone's government described the sentence as "a step forward as justice has been done, though the magnitude of the sentence is not commensurate with the atrocities committed".[59]

Taylor appealed against the verdict, but on September 26th 2013 the Court of The Hague confirmed his guilt and the penalty of 50 years in prison. He shall serve his sentence in a British maximum-security prison, but he is now seeking to be transferred to a prison in Rwanda.[65]

Family[edit]

In 1997, Taylor married Jewel Taylor, with whom he has one son. She filed for divorce in 2005, citing her husband's exile in Nigeria and the difficulty of visiting him due to a UN travel ban on her.[66] The divorce was granted in 2006. Jewel Taylor currently serves as the senior senator from Bong County.

Phillip Taylor, Taylor's son with Jewel, remained in Liberia following his father's extradition to the SCSL. He was arrested by Liberian police officials on 5 March 2011 and charged with attempted murder in connection with an assault on the son of an immigration officer who had assisted in Charles Taylor's extradition;[67] the mother of the victim claimed that Phillip Taylor had sworn vengeance against the immigration officer. He was arrested at Buchanan in Grand Bassa County,[68] allegedly while attempting to cross the border into the Ivory Coast.[67]

Taylor has another son, a U.S. citizen named Charles McArther Emmanuel, born to his college girlfriend. Emmanuel was arrested in 2006 after entering the United States and was charged with three counts, including participation in torture while serving in the Anti-Terrorist Unit in Liberia during his father's presidency. The law that prosecuted Taylor was put in place in 1994, before "extraordinary rendition" in an attempt to prevent U.S. citizens from committing acts of torture overseas. To date, this is the only prosecuted case.[69] In October 2008, Emmanuel was convicted on all three counts and sentenced to 97 years in prison.[70]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "He has decided to become a Jew. And he wants to follow the true religion according to him. He wants to know deeply about God," Mrs. Victoria Taylor told BBC radio. Mrs. Taylor said her husband found Judaism only after his trial began. "When he got to The Hague, he got to know that he really, really wanted to be a Jew. And he wanted to convert to Judaism. And that's what he has done… He wants to know deeply about God and all about creation, and he wants to serve God accordingly and immediately," she said.
  2. ^ Charles Taylor trial could land Liberian ex-president in British jail
  3. ^ Former Liberian warlord Charles Taylor 'converts to Judaism'
  4. ^ His Wife says he has become Jewish
  5. ^ a b Quist-Arcton, Ofeibea (11 August 2003). "Liberia: Charles Ghankay Taylor, Defiant And Passionate To The End". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  6. ^ a b "Justice at last?". The Economist. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007. 
  7. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu (7 December 2000). "In Ruined Liberia, Its Despoiler Sits Pretty". The New York Times. 
  8. ^ Cendrowicz, Leo (14 July 2009). "'Lies and Rumors': Liberia's Charles Taylor on the Stand". TIME. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  9. ^ "'Taylor Sierra Leone war crimes verdiact welcomed'". BBC. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "'Charles Taylor sentenced to 50 years for war crimes'". CNN. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  11. ^ Onadipe, Abiodun (November 1998). "Liberia: Taylor's first year report card getting a "G", which stood for "Gansta". (President Charles Ghankay Taylor)". Contemporary Review (The Contemporary Review Company Limited). Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  12. ^ Burlij, Terence. "A Profile of Charles Taylor". PBS. Online NewsHour. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c "How Charles Taylor Escaped from Jail". [Monrovia] Daily Star, 1985-10-05: 10.
  14. ^ "Taylor's Judgement Expected: Final Argument Advanced: Justice Minister Flies Back". [Monrovia] Sunday Express 1984-09-09: 1/8.
  15. ^ Charles Taylor 'worked' for CIA in Liberia, BBC, 2012-01-19. Accessed 4 June 2012.
  16. ^ Bryan Bender, The Boston Globe, 17 January 2012, Former Liberian dictator Charles Taylor had US spy agency ties
  17. ^ "How the mighty are falling". The Economist. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007. 
  18. ^ Grim legacy of Liberia's most isolated town BBC
  19. ^ Ellis, Stephen. The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of African Civil War 1999, 2007. London, UK: Hurst & Company. pp. 1–16. ISBN 1850654174. 
  20. ^ Sizemore, Bill. "Robertson, Liberian Leader Hope to Strike Gold in Coastal Africa." The Virginian-Pilot. 2 June 1999. (Copy found at [1].) Charles Taylor...
  21. ^ Blumenthal, Max (7 September 2005). "Pat Robertson's Katrina Cash". The Nation Online. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  22. ^ Left, Sarah (4 August 2003). "War in Liberia". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  23. ^ "UNOMIL". Information Technology Section/Department of Public Information. 2001. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  24. ^ Adebayo, Liberia's Civil War, International Peace Academy, 2002, p.235
  25. ^ McSmith, Andy (23 December 2008). "'Merchant of Death' who armed tyrants fights extradition to US". The Independent (London). 
  26. ^ Merchant of Death: Money, guns, planes, and the man who makes war possible. Douglas Farah, Stephen Braun. p. 167
  27. ^ Finnegan, William (1 September 2003). "The Persuader". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  28. ^ a b c "Charles Taylor – preacher, warlord, president". BBC News. 13 July 2009. 
  29. ^ "Back to the Brink". Human Rights Watch Report 14 (A). 1 May 2002. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  30. ^ "Liberia". Briefing to the 60th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights. January 2004. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  31. ^ "The Prosecutor vs. Charles Ghankay Taylor" The Special Court for Sierra Leone. Retrieved 26 March 2010
  32. ^ "The Mysterious Death of a Fugitive". The Perspective (The Perspective (Atlanta, Georgia, USA)). 7 May 2003. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  33. ^ Crane, David M. (3 March 2003). "CASE NO. SCSL – 03 – I". The Special Court for Sierra Leone. Freetown, Sierra Leone: United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  34. ^ Susannah Price (24 May 2005). "UN pressed over Liberia's Taylor". BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  35. ^ Paye-Layleh, Jonathan (10 August 2003). "Profile: Moses Blah". BBC News. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  36. ^ "Nigeria would shield Taylor from trial". CNN. 10 July 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Barringer, Felicity (24 July 2003). "Nigeria Readies Peace Force for Liberia; Battles Go On". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  38. ^ "Liberia's Taylor not ready to leave". CNN. 7 July 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  39. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (29 March 2006). "Nigeria Says Ex-President of Liberia Has Disappeared". The New York Times. 
  40. ^ de Silva, Desmond, QC, Chief Prosecutor, Special Court for Sierra Leone (29 March 2006). "Chief Prosecutor Announces the Arrival of Charles Taylor at the Special Court" (PDF). Press Release from the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  41. ^ "THE PROSECUTOR OF THE SPECIAL COURT V. CHARLES GHANKAY TAYLOR Monday, 4 June 2007". Special Court of Sierra Leone. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  42. ^ "Will Taylor Get a Fair Trial?". New African (Sierra Leone). February 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
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  45. ^ "Charles Taylor jailed in Sierra Leone". CBC News. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  46. ^ Fofana, Lansana (20 June 2006). "Mixed Feelings over Charles Taylor's Transfer to The Hague". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 19 January 2008. [dead link]
  47. ^ Hudson, Alexandra (4 June 2007). "Taylor absent as trial gets underway". IOL. Retrieved 4 June 2007. 
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  52. ^ Winter, Renate. "Foreword," Sixth Annual Report of the President of the Special Court for Sierra Leone: June 2008 to May 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
  53. ^ Associated Press. Taylor: I Didn't Know Sierra Leone Rebel Pre-1991, 2010-01-11. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
  54. ^ "Charles Taylor's team rests case in war crimes trial". CNN. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  55. ^ Corder, Mike (8 February 2011). "Charles Taylor Boycotts End of War Crimes Trial". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  56. ^ "Judges allow Charles Taylor's closing arguments". Google News. AFP. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  57. ^ "Trial of Charles Taylor ends - Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  58. ^ Cendrowicz, Leo (26 April 2012). "Warlord Convicted: Liberia's Charles Taylor Found Guilty of War Crimes". TIME. 
  59. ^ a b "Liberia ex-leader Charles Taylor get 50 years in jail". BBC News. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
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Political offices
Preceded by
Ruth Perry
as Chairperson of the Council of State of Liberia
President of Liberia
1997–2003
Succeeded by
Moses Blah